Skip to main content

Full text of "The Anabasis of Xenophon;"

See other formats

Class _ 






It ^ 











Entered, according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1843, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for tho Southern District 

of New York. 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by 


In tho Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District 

of New York. 



^^clgcand Mrs. i:r 



46, 48 & 50 Greene Street, 
New York. 







The Map which accompanies this edition of the Anabasis, is copied sub- 
stantially from that prefixed to " Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand 
Greeks," by William F. Ainsworth, Surgeon to the late Euphrates Expedition, 
London, 1844. How well grounded are his claims for accuracy and fidelity, 
will appear from the following quotation from his preface to the above-men* 
tioned work : " The present illustrator of the Anabasis has by accident en- 
joyed advantages possessed by no other person, of following at intervals the 
whole line of this celebrated Expedition, from the plain of Caystrus, and the 
Cilician Gates, through Syria down the Euphrates, to the field of Cunaxa, and 
of again travelling in the line of the still more memorable retreat across the 
plains of Babylonia and Media by Larissa and Mes-Pylse, and thence through 
the well-defended passes of the Tigris and Kurdistan, to the cold elevated up- 
lands of Armenia, which were the scene of so many disasters and so much 
suffering to the Greeks. Then again from Trebizond westward he has visited 
on various parts of the coast of Asia Minor, localities to which an interest is 
given by the notices of the Athenian historian, independent of their own im- 
portance as ancient sites and colonies ; and where he has not been personally 
on that part of the route, as well as in the localities of the first assembling of 
the troops under Cyrus, the researches of W. J. Hamilton, Pococke, Arundel, 
and others, fully fill up the slight deficiencies which might otherwise occur. 
Indeed, out of a journey e valued by the historian at three thousand four hun- 
dred and sixty-five miles altogether, there is not above six hundred miles that 
the illustrator has not personally explored.'* 


This edition of Xenophon's Anabasis is chiefly based upon 
the text of L. Dindorf's larger edition, 1825. Whenever it 
differs from that, the variation is usually found in the notes at 
the latter end of the volume. The following are the editions 
to which the editor has had access in the correction of the 
text and in the preparation of the notes. 1. Hutchinson's, 
Glasgow, 1825, a work so well known to students as to need 
no passing remark. 2. Schneider's. 3. Bornemann's, Leip- 
zig, 1825, an excellent edition, especially as throwing light 
upon obscure and doubtful readings. 4. Dindorf's, Leipzig, 
1825, in which the text has been made perhaps as perfect as 
in any edition extant. 5. Poppo's, Leipzig, valuable among 
other things for the Index of Greek words based on Zeune's, 
but enlarged and improved. 6. Krilger's, Halle, containing 
brief but very valuable notes. 7. Belfour's, London, 1830. 
8. Long's, London, 1837, a beautiful edition, following the 
text of Dindorf, with the more important variations noted at 
the foot of the page. 

References to the Grammar of E. A. Sophocles -will be 
found at the bottom of each page of the text, as far as the end 
of the first book. To have continued them through the whole 
work, would have swelled the volume to an expensive size, 
and besides, they were principally designed to assist the stu- 
dent in acquiring habits of accuracy and research, by fre- 
quently introducing him to his grammar in the opening pages 
of his author, and not falsely to impress him with the idea 
that he is to make no references, solve no grammatical or 


lexical difficulties, save such as are presented to his notice by 
the editor. 

The Notes have been prepared with special reference to 
students in the earlier stages of their education, who cannot 
be expected to have at their command rare and expensive 
helps to elucidate the meaning of the author they are study- 
ing. Hence will be found explanations of idioms, unusual 
constructions, the use of moods, &c., which to a ripe scholar 
might seem superfluous, or which apparently might have been 
dismissed by a simple reference to some grammar or commen- 
tary, where the point is fully discussed and explained. But 
it may be asserted that, even when they have the means at 
their command, students seldom turn aside from the imme- 
diate duty of preparing themselves for recitation, to search 
out references and investigate idiomatic constructions. It 
will be seen, however, that after a given explanation has once 
been made, a similar word or construction, usually, is either 
passed by without comment, or simply referred to the note 
where the explanation has been previously given. In the 
preparation of the notes, much help has been derived from 
the labors of others, which I have aimed to acknowledge, al- 
though in some instances, through inadvertence or a desire of 
brevity, I may have omitted to do this. 

The references to Buttmann's and Matthise's Grammars are 
quite copious, inasmuch as the editor believes that these 
works have now quite an extensive circulation, and are in the 
hands of almost every teacher of the language. Equally 
copious references were originally made to Thiersch's and 
Host's Grammars, but were mostly suppressed from the behef 
that very few copies of those excellent works are in the pri- 
vate libraries of teachers and students. 

The punctuation is essentially that of Dindorf, carefully 
revised, however, by a comparison of the punctuation of Bor- 
nemann, Kruger, and Poppo. It may appear to some that 
too many of the usual points have been omitted. If the edi- 
tor has erred in this, it has been done with the approbation 
of some of the best classical scholars in this country, whom he 


consulted in reference to the principles of punctuation, and 
with the example of eminent scholars abroad, whose recently 
published works have fewer points of punctuation than ap- 
peared in older editions. 

As it regards the geography of the places spoken of in the 
Anabasis, the editor has taken pains to avail himself of the 
best helps within his reach, yet he is far from claiming to 
have done more than partial justice to this most important 
task of the commentator. The geography of Western Asia, 
especially of those countries through which the Retreat was 
in part conducted, is so imperfect, that there is great difficulty 
in locating many places with accuracy. The facilities of ac- 
cess to those regions however are now so great, that they 
will doubtless soon be explored and their geographical sta- 
tistics more accurately defined, when, if it shall please the 
public to receive this my first offering to the cause of classi- 
cal literature with kindness and favor, so as to call for a 
second edition, I shall endeavor to prefix a map, to assist the 
student in tracing both the avd^aa-is and KaTd/3a<ns of the 
Greeks, and in locating the places referred to by the his- 

I should do injustice to my feelings, were I to forbear 
acknowledging my obligations to Professors Felton of Har- 
vard University, Woolsey of Yale College, and Lewis and 
Johnson of the New York University, for many valuable sug- 
gestions in the plan of the work. Especially to Prof. Wool- 
sey and Dr. Robinson am I indebted, for the freely proffered 
use of their choice and extensive libraries, which placed with- 
in my reach many books that were of great use in preparing 
this edition. 

Cornelius Institute, May 2, 1843. 



The first edition of this Anabasis was published in 1843. 
Since that time about 35,000 copies have been printed and 
sold. The stereotype plates having become somewhat worn 
by this great number of impressions, it has been deemed ad- 
visable to recast them in the Porsonian type, and in a style 
corresponding to the editor's more recent classical editions. 
The notes having been thoroughly revised and pruned of re- 
dundancies and all irrelevancies, are enriched by copious ref- 
erences to the grammars of Sophocles, Crosby, Kuhner, and 
Hadl^. In addition to the references to Sophocles's gram- 
mar at the foot of the page and extending through the first 
book, copious references to their respective grammars, for 
that same portion of the text, have been made expressly for 
this edition by S. H. Taylor, LL.D. of Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Mass., and Prof. Hadley of Yale College. The 
book is thus rendered invaluable to all who wish to become 
well grounded in the elements of the Greek language. 

In order to promote uniformity, the same system of punc- 
tuation has been followed as in the other works of the editor, 
viz., to give to every oxytone standing before a punctuation- 
mark, whether in a Greek or English sentence, the acute 

New York Free Academy, August, 1861. 




CHAP. • 

I. Cyrus the Younger is accused to his brother Artaxerxes of plotting 
against him, upon which he is apprehended, and obtains his hberty only 
at his mother's intercession. He returns to his satrapy, and secretly 
raises an army, part of which are Greeks, in order to make war against 
his brother. 
II. He sets out from Sardis, and marches through Lydia, Phrygia, and 
Lycaonia into Cappadocia, whence he enters Cilicia and finds it deserted 
by Syennesis, who is however at last induced by his wife to have an in- 
terview with Cyrus. 

in. The Greeks suspecting the real object of the enterprise, refuse 
to go any further; but by the prudence of Clearchus they consent 
to follow Cyrus, who says that the expedition is intended against Abro- 

lY, The army passes the Pylse Syrise. Two of the Greek generals, 
Xenias and Pasion, having taken offence at Cyrus, desert the expedition. 
The magnanimity of Cyrus in not pursuing them, causes the army to fol- 
low him with great enthusiasm. They reach Thapsacus on the Euphra- 
tes, where Cyrus discloses the real design of the expedition ; but the 
army, by fresh promises and the craft of Menon, are induced to cross 
the river. 
Y. They pass through a desert country, having the Euphrates on their 
right. Many of the beasts of burden perish for want of fodder. While 
provisions are brought over from Carmande, a town on the opposite 
bank of the Euphrates, a quarrel arises between Clearchus and Menon, 
which is settled by a serious appeal from Cyrus. 

Yl. Orontes, a relative of Cyrus, is apprehended when on the point of 
deserting to the king. He is tried and condemned to death. 

Vll. Cyrus, supposing that the king would join battle the next day, re- 
views his army at midnight, and makes an encouraging speech to the 


CHAP. Greeks. The next day, with his army in order of battle, he passes a 
trench dug by the king, after which, thinking that his brother had given 
up all intention of fighting, he proceeds less cautiously. 

VIII. Suddenly and unexpectedly it is announced that the king's army is 
approaching in fine order, whereupon Cyrus and the Greek commanders 
hastily marshal their forces and prepare for battle. The Greeks, whose 
position is on the right wing, charge the enemy, and easily rout that 
part of the royal forces opposed to them. Cyrus, seeing the king in the 
centre, rashly attacks him and is slain. 
IX. The eulogy of Cyrus. 

X. The king takes and plunders the camp of Cyrus, but is repulsed from 
the Grecian camp. Joined by Tissaphernes, he proceeds against the 
main body of the Greeks, who again put his army to flight. The Greeks 
return to their camp. 


I. The Greeks hear with surprise and grief of the death of Cyrus. 
They ofier the throne of Persia to Ariseus, who declines it, and ex- 
presses his intention of returning forthwith to Ionia. The king sum- 
mons the Greeks to deliver up their arms. Finding them resolute and 
undismayed, the envoy, in the name of the king, offers them peace 
if they remain where they are, but threatens them with war in case 
they advance or retreat. They dismiss the messenger with a bold 
II. The Greeks join Ariaeus, with whom they form a treaty, and take 
counsel in reference to their return. During the night following the 
first day's march, the army is seized with a panic, which Clearchus 
pleasantly allays. 

III. The next morning the king proposes a truce, and sends guides to 
conduct the Greeks where they can obtain provisions. A treaty is here 
concluded between the two parties, the terms of which are, that the Per- 
sians shall faithfully conduct the Greeks to their own country, furnishing 
them with provisions, which the Greeks are to buy, or procure from the 

, country through which they pass, without doing injury to it. 

IV. Mutual suspicion, which ripens into enmity, arises between the 
Greeks and Persians. The armies pass the Median wall and cross the 

V. Having halted at the river Zabatus, Clearchus, in order to put an end 
to the suspicions, seeks an interview with Tissaphernes, at whose invita- 
tion he repairs the next day to the Persian camp, with four other gen- 
erals and twenty captains. At a given signal, the generals are made 

SUMHABY. • xi 

CHAP, prisoners, and the captains put to death. Ariseus then comes to the 
Greek camp, and in the king's name demands the surrender of their 
arms. The Greeks return a reproachful answer. 
yi. The character of the live generals. 


I. The Greeks are in great dejection. Xenophon, awakened from his 
slumbers by a remarkable dream, arouses first the captains of Proxenus, 
and then the generals and captains of the other divisions. At his sug- 
gestion, they elect new commanders in place of those who had been 
seized by Tissaphernes. 

n. A new council is held, at which, after speeches made by Chirisophus, 
Cleaner, and Xenophon, the order of march is resolved upon, and his 
post assigned to each commander. 

III. As the Greeks are about to commence their march, Mithridates, under 
the guise of friendship, comes to them, but soon shows that he is an en- 
emy, and they resolve for the future to enter into no negotiations with 
the Persian king. After the passage of the Zabatus, they are harassed 
by Mithridates, and suffer for the want of slingers and horsemen. By 
Xenophon's advice, men are enrolled for these services. 
lY. Mithridates again pursues the Greeks, but is easily repulsed. They 
reach the Tigris, after which they are attacked by Tissaphernes with a 
large army. The Greeks repulse him and then change their order of 
march. Passing over a mountainous country, they are harassed by the 
enemy, but getting possession of an eminence, commanding the one 
occupied by the Persians, they descend into the plain. 

Y. Having arrived at a point where the Carduchian mountains press 
close upon the river, and being still harassed by the enemy, the generals 
hold a consultation, and resolve to march over the mountains. 


I. They enter the Carduchian territory, but suffer much from the wind 
and cold, and also from the assaults of the barbarians, by whom they are 
shut up in a valley. 
n. A prisoner is compelled to serve as a guide, who conducts a part of 
the army to an eminence, whence they disperse the barbarians, and thus 
enable the Greeks to leave the valley. 
ni. They arrive at the river Centrites, which, by a series of skilful ma- 


CHAP, noeuvres, they cross in safety, and disperse the Persians, who are drawn 
up on the opposite bank to oppose their passage. 
lY. The Greelis enter Armenia, pass the sources of the Tigris, and reach 
the Teleboas. Here they make a treaty with Teribazus, the satrap of 
the province, whom they soon find to be insincere. 
V. In their march through the country, they sufier intensely from the 
cold, and deep snow, as well as from the want of food. At length they 
reach some Tillages well stored with provisions, where they remain 
seven days. 
VI. They set out from these villages with a guide, who, being struck by 
Chirisophus, deserts them. After wandering about for several days, 
they reach the river Phasis. Thence having marched two days, they 
arrive at a mountain occupied by the Phasiani, whom with much address 
and gallantry the Greeks dislodge. 

YII. Entering the country of the Taochi, the Greeks storm a fort, in which 
they find a great number of cattle, upon which they subsist while pass- 
ing through the country of the Chalybes. They cross the Harpasus, and 
march through the country of the Scythini to Gymnias, from which town 
a guide conducts them to Mount Teches, where they obtain a view of the 

VIII. The Greeks having descended the mountain, and made a treaty 
with the Macrones, ascend the Colchian mountains, and rout the en- 
emy who are drawn up to oppose them. Thence they descend into 
well-furnished villages in the plain, and in two days reach Trapezus, 
a Grecian city on the Euxine Sea. 


I. Chirisophus is sent to obtain ships from Anaxibius, the Spartan ad- 
miral. Xenophon, in the mean while, takes other measures to procure 
ships, in case the mission of Chirisophus should prove unsuccessful, and 
sees that the roads are well prepared for the army, should it be obliged 
to proceed by land. Dexippus betrays the trust reposed in him and de- 
serts the army. ' 

II. The Greeks being in want of provisions, Xenophon leads a foraging 
expedition against the Drilae. Destroying all their property in the fields, 
these people shut themselves up in their principal fort, which the Greeks, 
after meeting with a fierce resistance, take and burn. The next day 
they return to Trapezus. 

III. Embarking the camp-followers, invalids, and baggage, in the ships, 
the army commences its march towards Greece by land. At Cerasus, 
they divide the money raised from the sale of captives. The tenth part 

SUMMARY. xiii 

CHAP, is given to the generals to be kept for Apollo and Artemis of Ephesus. 
A short description of Scillus, the residence of Xenophon. 
lY. The Mossynoecians prohibit the Greeks from passing through their 
territory. An alhance is formed with a part of the Mossynoecians hostile 
to those opposing the Greeks. With these allies the Greeks force their 
way into the chief city, which is destroyed. The barbarous manners of 
the Mossynoecians described. 
V. The army passes through the country of the Chalybes, and arrive at 
Cotyora. Not being hospitably received, the Greeks subsist by plunder- 
ing the Paphlagonians and the territory of Cotyora. Of this the people 
of Sinope, through their ambassadors, complain, but are satisfied by the 
reply of Xenophon. 
VI. The Greeks are advised by these ambassadors to proceed by sea. 
The design of Xenophon to build a city in Pontus, is frustrated by the 
treachery of Silanus, to whom he had communicated it. 

VII. Xenophon defends himself from the charge of intending to sail to 
the Phasis, and accuses certain of the soldiers, who some time previous 
had insulted the ambassadors from Cerasus. 

Vni. The conduct and accounts of the generals being investigated, some 
are fined for delinquencies. Xenophon being accused of using severity 
towards the soldiers, admits the fact, but shows, in an eloquent speech^ 
that he was justified in the circumstances. 


I. The ambassadors of the Paphlagonians, coming to negotiate a peace, 
are treated with a sumptuous banquet. Peace is concluded with them, 
after which the Greeks sail to Sinope. Here the army determines to 
choose a commander-in-chief, and elect Xenophon, but he declines the 
appointment, the omens he offered being unpropitious. Chirisophus is 
then chosen. 

II. The Greeks sail to Heraclea. At this place a dissension arises, which 
results in the division of the army into three parts, one composed of the 
Arcadians under their own leaders, the other two respectively under 
Chirisophus and Xenophon. 

m. At the port of Calpe, the Arcadians disembark, and making a preda- 
tory incursion against the Bithynians, are in imminent danger of destruc- 
tion, but are rescued by the timely arrival of Xenophon. They all return 
to Calpe and join Chirisophus. 

IV. The army pass a decree, that it shall be a capital ofience to propose 
another separation. Neon, contrary to the auguries, leads out two thou- 
sand men to forage, but is attacked by Pharnabazus, and retreats with 


CHAP, the loss of five hundred men. He is brought back to the camp by 
V. The next day, Xenophon under favorable auspices leads out the 
troops, buries those who had been slain the day before, and puts to 
flight the enemy, who suddenly had shown themselves on a hill. 
yi. The army now finds plenty of booty, which they take in perfect 
security. Oleander, the Spartan harmostes of Byzantium, arrives, and 
by the intrigues of Dexippus is at first prejudiced against the Greeks, but 
is reconciled through the wise endeavors of Xenophon. The command 
of the army is offered to him, which he declines, the omens being un- 
favorable. The army reach Chrysopolis. 


I. At the instance of Pharnabazus, who wishes to get the Greeks out 
of his territories, Anaxibius, the Spartan admiral, invites the army, by a 
false promise of pay, to cross over to Byzantium. Having been treach- 
erously excluded from the city by Anaxibius, the Greeks force their 
way in, but are appeased by Xenophon. Coeratades, a Theban, pro- 
poses himself to the army as their general, promising to conduct 
them into the Delta of Thrace, but soon resigns the office conferred 
upon him. 
II. Many of the soldiers now leave the army, while those who remain in 
Byzantium are sold as slaves by Aristarchus, the successor of Oleander. 
The Greeks wish to cross back into Asia, but are hindered by Aristar- 
chus. Xenophon repairs to Seuthes, a Thracian chief, who had invited 
the army to enter his service, to learn upon what terms he wishes to en- 
gage their services. 

III. The Greeks accept the offers of Seuthes, and proceed to his quarters, 
where they are hospitably entertained. 

IV, They march against his enemies, whose villages they burn, but are 
attacked in their quarters by some fugitives, who had pretended submis- 
sion, and thus spied out the situation of the camp. The barbarians are 
repulsed, and submit to Seuthes. 

V. Seuthes neglects to pay the army as he had promised, whereupon 
the Greeks cast the blame of the affair upon Xenophon. 

VI. Xenophon defends himself from certain charges and suspicions in re- 
spect to the pay withheld by Seuthes. He refuses to remain with Seu- 
thes, preferring to accompany the army into Asia, whither it is about to 
proceed to engage in the war with Tissaphernes. 

VII. The absurdity of the charge of Medosades, a Thracian, against Xeno- 
phon, is shown by him, upon which the Lacedaemonian deputies refuse to 


CHAP, conduct the Greeks into Asia until Seuthes has paid them. Xenophon 
at last prevails on Seuthes to pay the wages due to the army. 

Yni. Xenophon himself receives no pay, and is so^ straitened as to be 
obliged to sell his horse to raise funds. He proceeds with the army to 
Pergamus, where he is hospitably received by Hellas the wife of Gongy- 
lus. By her advice he attacks the castle of Asidates. At first he is im- 
successful, but on the following day he takes Asidates prisoner, with 
his wife, children, and all his riches. He receives a large share of the 
booty, and delivers the army to Thimbron, to be incorporated with the 
forces levied against Tissaphernes, 




stands foi 

Sophocles' Greek Grammar. 








Crosb/s " " 




Kiihner's " " 




Matthias's " " 




Buttmann's " " 




Viger's Greek Idioms (Seager's ed.). 








compare, consult. 

C. V. 



connecting vowel. 

K. T. 

\. " 


Kol Tct \onrd = &C. 
















scilicet, to wit, understand. 





The references to Buttmann are made to his larger grammar, revised by 
his son and translated by Dr. Kobinson, and published in 1851. The refer- 
ences to Kiihner are to his Elementary Greek Grammar, translated by S. H, 
Taylor, LL. D. 


CAP. I. 

1. AAPEIOT^ KOL TlapvcrdrcSo^ yiyvovrac TraZSe? Bvo,^ 
*7rpe(Tl3vT€pc^ fiev 'Apra^ep^r]^, vecorepo^;^ Be Kvpo<;. 'ETrel 
Be TjaMvei Aapelo^; koI vTrcoirreve reXevrrjv rov ^lov, ifiov- 
\ero^ Tot) TTolBe d/jL^oripco irapelvai. 2. ^O fiev ovv Trpea/Sv- 
repo^ ^ irapcbv ® eTvy')(aveJ Kvpov Be fjuerdTre/JLTreTao dirb r^? 
^PX^^^ '^9 avTov G-arpdiriqv eirovY](Te^ koX crrparTjybv Be avrov 
direBei^e^ Trdvrcov ocroi eh KacrrcoXov ireBiov dS^pol^ovrac, 
^Ava^aivei ovv 6 Kvpog Xa^cov Tccraa(j)epv7jv o)? <^lKov* koI 
Tcov 'EXkr}V(ov Be e^cov OTrXlra^ dvi^rj " TpiaKocriov^, dp'Xpv- 
ra^^ Be avT&v aevcav Happdaiov. 

3. ^EireX Be ireXevrrjae Aapelo<; fcal /carecTTT) el^ rrjv ySa- 
aiXelav ^Apra^ep^r]^, TLcraa(]>epv7]<; Bca^dWec tov Kvpov 
7rpo9 TOV dBe\(f>bv a)9 eiTi^ov\evob^'^ avT(p. ' O Be nrei^eraL 
T€ KoX (7vXkajjb/3dvec Kvpov a>? aTTOfcrev&V'^^ 77 Be jJ^rjTifjp 
i^aiT7]craiJbevr} ^* avrov dTroTrefiirec ttoKlv eirl rrjv dp')(fjv, 
4. 'O 8' 0)9 dirrjX^e KtvBvvevcra<; koX driiiaa^ek, ^ovXev- 
erat 07ra)9^^ fJi7]7roT6 en ecrrai eirl rS dBeX(})M, dX)C riv Buvrj- 
rat ^aackevcrec dvr ifcecvov, Tlapvcarc^ fiev Brj y fJ^VTTjp 

'§ 190.— 2§ 15Y. K 3.— ^§ 63. l. — '^Root? — s§ 63. 2. — «§ 146.— 
'§ 225. 8. —« Account for the circumflex accent (§ 34. 2).— ^§ 185.— 
'° § 133. B ; 126. 1. — " § 189. — " § 213. 2. — ^^ § 225. 5. — " What is this 
mid. voice equivalent to (§ 209. 2.)? — "§§ 214. a.; 236. N. 8. 


VTTrip')(e T& Kvp(x>y^ (JxXovaa avrov fiaXXov r) rov ^aaCKev- 
ovra 'Apra^ep^rjv. 5. '^O^ri^ B' d^i/cvelro rcov Trapa ^aai- 
Xico^ 7rpo9 avTov iravra^ ovrco Bcart^eh aTreTreixTrero a>^3-' ^ 
kavTcp^ fjLoXXov (j^iXov^s elvat rj ^aaCKel, Kal rcov irap 
eavTM Be ^apfidpcov^ eTrejiekeiTO co? TroXe/jLecp re ifcavol eci}- 
aav KoX evvoLKO)^ e^oiev^ avjcp, 6. Tr]v he 'EWtjvlktjv 
Bvvajxiv rj^poL^ev co? ® fiaXcara iSvvaro eirLKpvTrroiJLevo^, 
OTTO)? OTL^ dirapadKevoraTOV Xdfioc fiaatXea, '^flBe ovv cVot- 
elro TTjv avXkoyi]V. ^07r6aa<^ el^^^e ^vKaKa^'' iv raU iroXeai 
7rap7]yy€iX€ toI<; (^povpdp^oL<^^ €/cd(TTOi<; XajJi^dveiv^ dvhpa^ 
UekoTTOVvr^aiov^ otl^ irkeiaTOv^ fcal /SeXrlarrov^, o)<; eiri^ov- 
"kevovTO^ Ticraa^epvov^^^ ral^ iroKeai, Kal yap rjaav ai 
^Icovcfcal TToXec^ Tiaaa^^epvov^^^ to dp'^alov etc (BaaCkeco^; 
BeSofievac, Tore S' d(})e(7T'j]/c€crav Trpo? Kvpov TraaaL ttXtjp 
MCkrjTOV. 7. ^Ev ML\rjT(p Be Tco-aacj^epvTjf; TTpoaccrMfjievo^ 
ra avra^^ ravra ^ovKevofxevov^, aTroarrjvac irpo^ Kvpov, 
Tov<; fJLev aifTcov dire/cretve^^ rov^ S' e^e^aXev. ^O Be Kvpo^ 
viToXa^cbv Toi)^ (pevyovra^ avWe^a^ ^* arpdrevfia iTToXiop/cei 
MlXrjTov Kal Kara yrjv^^ Kal Kara SdXarrav Kal iTrevpStro 
Kardyeuv tov<; eKireTrrcoKoraf;, Kal avrrj av dWrj Trpo^aai^; 
rjv avTO} Tov d^pol^etv^^ arpdrev/ia. 8. IIpo<; Be jSaaCkea 
irefiTTcov rj^iov dBe\<^o<; cov avrov Bo^vaL^'' ol Tavra^ Ta<; 
7r6X649 fxdWov rj TL(Taa(^epV7]V dp')(eLv avrcov, Kal r] fi)]T7]p 
cvveTTpaTTev avrai ravra • &<;re ySacrtXeu? rr]<; fiev rrpo'^ iav- 
rov e7rL^ov\7](;^^ ovk rjo-^dvero,^^ TtG-crajyepveL Be ivofJLC^e 
TToXe/jLovvra avrov dfjL(f>l rd (rrparevfiara Bairavav • &^r€ 
ovBev rj^^ero'^^ avrcov iroXe/jLOvvrcov Kal yap 6 Kvpo<; dire- 
rrefxire rov<; yiyvo/ievov^ BacrfjLov<^ ^aaCkel ck r&v TroXecov^^ 

^Why in the Dat? — ^§§ 21; 15. 2. — ^§ 202. 1. — '*§ 192. 1. — 
^ § 214. 1. -- ' § 159. 5. — "^ § 175. 2. — ' Component parts ?_-«§§ loi, l ; 
14. 1. — ^^ What does this gen. abs. denote (§ 226) ? — " Synt. ? — " § 160. 
6.— "§§133. K; 110. 2. — i*§§ 110.1; 14. 3; 13. 3. — ^^ Account for the 
circumflex. — ^^ § 222. 2. — " Why does the ult. here take the acute accent 
(§ 37. 2) ?— ^* § 192. 1. — 1« Account for the * subs. -^ ""' Theme ? Used here 
in a lit. or trop. sense ? — ^' § 47. 5. 

LIB. I. CAP. I. 3 

S)v 6 Tc(Taa^€pv7]<; irvy^^vev^ ^^cov. 9. "AWo Be crrpd- 
revfia avro) avveXiyero iv Xeppovrjaco ttj^ /car avr Lire pa^; 
^A/3vBov TGvSs TOP rpoTTOv. KXeap')(p^ AaKeBatpLovLO^ (})vya<; 
r^v • TOVTcp avyjevo/jLevo^ 6 Kvpo<; rjydaBT) re avrov /cat BlBco- 
(Tiv avTQj [ivpiov^ Bapetfcov^.^ ^O Be Xa^cov to y^pvalov 
arpdrevpLa cvveke^ev ctiro tovtcov tcov ')(^p7jpLdTC0v fcal iirdXi' 
/let i/c XeppovTjaov 6pftcofievo<; T0t9 &pci^l toI^"^ vTrep 'EWTJa- 
irovTov OLKOvo-c fcal d)(j>eXet tov<; ^^EXk7]va<; ^ (W9Te fcal %/o^/^a- 
ra GVve^dXkovTO avrai eh ttjv rpocj^rjv t&u a-Tparccorcov 
al 'EXkTjarTrovTLa/cal ir6\ec<; eicovaau Tovro S' av ovrco 
rpe(f)6pLevov ekdv^avev ^ avrai to crTpdTevfia. 10. ^Apc- 
GTLiriTO^ Be 6 ©eTToXo^; ^evo^ cov eTvy')(avev^ avTw, koX 
7rce^6pLevo<; vtto to)V ocfcoL ® avTCCTTaaccoTcov 6p')(eTai irpb^ top 
Kvpov /cat aheV avTov eh BLa')(Ckiov<^ ^evov^ koI Tpccov 
pLijvoov^ pLLcrBov, 0)9 ovTco ireptyevopievo^^ av to)p dvTcaTaatco- 
tS)v,^^ ' *0 Be Kvpo^ BcBcoatv avTo) eh TeTpaKL(T')(L\iov^ koX 
ef pLTjvcov fjLLcrBov, KoX BecTUL avTOv ^^ fiT) irpoa^ev KaTciXvaaL 
irpo^; Tov<; avTcaTaaLcoTaf; irplv av aurcS crvpL/BovXevcrrjTat, 
OvTco Be av to iv QeTToXia eXdvBavev avT^ Tpe<^6pLevov 
o-TpdTevpLa. 11. Upo^evov Be tov Bolcotlov ^evov ovTa 
avToi^^ ifceXeva-e Xa^ovTa dvBpa<; otl TrXecaTOV^ irapayevk- 
cSac,^^ C09 eh UeLCTLBa^ ^ovX6pLevo<;^ (TTpaTevea^^ac,^^ o)^ 
TTpdy/iaTa 7rape')(^6vTCDV twz^ UeLatBcov Ty eavTov X^P^' '^^' 
^aiveTov Be tov ^TVpLcfydXtov fcal XcoKpdT7]v tov ^Axfiiov, 
^evov<; ovTa^ /cal tovtov^, i/ceXevaev dvBpa<; Xa^6vTa<;^^ 
eXSelv otl 7rXefccrT0U9, a)9 TroXepbycrcov^^ TLaaa(^epveL crvv Toh 
^vydcFL^'' TCOV MlXtjctlcov. Kal eTroLOVV^^ ovtco<; ovtol. 

^§§ 101. 1; 14. 2; 225. 8. — = § 169. 2. — ^Yalue of the daric ? See 
Note.-— ^§ 169. 2. — ^§ 225. S. — ^Why not proper ispom. {% 31. 1)? — 
■^ Accns. of thing followmg this verb? — ®What does this genitive denote 
(§ 188. K 1)? — '§ 225. 4.--^°§ 198. 2. ■— " § 200. 8. — ''^ § 201. 8. — 
"Why paroxytone (§ 35. 2) ? — "Why proparoxytone (§§ 35. 1 ; 31. 1)? - — 
''§§ 133. A; 101.1; M. 1. — ^^ §§ 107; 225. 4. — " §§ 39. 1; 13. 8. — 
" Why the imperf. ? 



1. ^Eirel S' iBofceL tjSt] iropevea^av avroi avco, rrjv fiev 
nrpo^acTLV eiroLelro ^ co? TleLaiha^ I3ov\6/jL6vo<; eK^aXetv irav- 
Tairacriv i/c t^9 %cOjoa9 • koI dS^poi^ec co? eVl tovtov<; to re 
^ap^apLKov /cat to 'EWtjvlkov to ivTav^a CTpaTev/JLa, koX 
TrapayyeWei, tm re KXedp'Xfp Xa/SovTV 7]fceLv oaov rjv avrai 
cTTpaTev/jia, /cat to5 ^ApccrTiTrTra) avvaXKayivTV Trpo? tov<; 
oXicoi diroTri/Jbylrac^ Trpo? eavTov o el')(e cTpaTevfJia* /cat aevia 
TO) 'ApKaSc, 09 avTM^ TrpoecTT'^fcec tov iv Tal^ irokeai^ ^^vi- 
Kov, 7]/cetv TrapayyiWec Xa^ovTa tov<; dvhpa<; ttXtjv qitogoi^ 
i/cavol rjcrav tcl^; uKpoiroXeL^ (f>v\dTT€tv. 2. ^E/cdXeae^ Se 
KoX Tov<; Mi\7]T0V iro\iopicovvTa^y koL tov<; ^vydha^'' e/ce- 
Xevae avv avT& aTpaTevea^ac, viroa')(ppLevo<; ^ avToU, el 
KoXS)^ KaTairpd^eiev^ e^' ^^ a icTTpaTeveTO, [irj irpoa^ev Trav- 
craa^ai Trplv avTOv^ KaTdyov oc/caBe.^^ 01 Se r}he(o^ iirel- 
^OVTO • eiricTTevov yap avT& • koX Xa^ovTe^ tcl 07r\a Trapij- 
aav eh XdpZei<;, 3. ^evca^ fiev Brj tov<; etc tcov iroXeayv 
\a^a)v irapeyeveTO^^ eh Xdphei<^ OTrkiTa^ eh TeTpafaa'}(^L\L' 
ou?. npo^evo^; Be iraprfv e')(cov oifKiTa^; " fxev eh TrevTaKoaiov^; 
Kol yjXlov^y yvfivriTa^ Be irevTaicoaiov^^* 'Zo^aiveTO^ Be 6 
^TV/ji^d\Lo<; OTrXtra? e^cov ')(^bkiov^' IlcofcpdT7]<; Be 6 ^A')(aLo^ 
oifKLTa^ excov o)'; irevTaKoaiov^ • Uaalcov Be 6 Meyapev<; eh 
TpiaKoaiov^ ixev OTrkiTa^;, Tpiafcooriov^ Be ireXTaaTa^ e')((ov 
TrapeyeveTO* rjv Be /cat ovto^ kol 6 ScL>/cpdT7]<; twv u/jl^I Ml- 
XrjTov o-TpaTevo/Jbivcov.^* 4. Ovtoc fjuev eh XdpBei^ avT& 
dj)[icovTO. Tiaaa^epvrjf; Be KaTavorjaa^ TavTU, fcal /juei^ova 
rjyrjcrd/JLevot; ^^ elvai rj co? eirl UeiaiBa^ ttjv TrapaaKevriVy tto- 
peveTUL o)? ^acrCkea y eBvvaTO Td')(i<TTay hrirea'^ ^X^^ ^^ ^^^" 

^Why the imipQYl 7 -^"^ Why paroxytone (§ 85. 2)? — ^Synt. (§ 201. 1. 
2)?— ^Dat. plur. how formed ? — ^ Pronoun adj. of what kind? — ®§ 107. 
N. 2. — '^ Norn, how formed ? — »§ 133. T.— ® § 118. 4. — ^° How does iwi 
become €>* (§§ 21; 15. 2)?— ."§ 134. 3. •—" Tense-root ? Connecting 
vowel? Termin. ? — ^^ § 139. — " Synt. ? — • ^^ § 210. 

LIB. I. CAP. II. 5 

TaKO(TLOV^. 6. Kal ^aacXev^ fiev Bfj iirel rjicovae 'rapa 
Tcaaa^epvov^ tov Kvpov aroXov, dvTiTrapecrfcevd^eTO,^ 

Kvpo^ Be €)(^cov ou9^ ecprjKa oypfiaro^ diro SdpSscov /cat 
i^eKavvei^ Bed tt}^ AvBia^ araS^/jLov^; rpels 'Trapacrdyya'^ eX- 
KOdi KoX Bvo iirl TOV MaCavBpov "jrorafiov, Tovrov to evpo^ 
Bvo irXiBpa' jecj^vpa Be eirriv i^evyfMevr]^ ifKoioi^ eiTTd. 
6. TovTov Btal3d<;^ e^eXavveo Bed ^pvyia'^ crTa^fibv eva ircv- 
paadyya'^ oktco eh KoXoaad^, ttoXcv olKOVfjuevTjv, evBaiiiova 
fcal fjieydXrjv. ^EvTav^a efMeivev rjpLepa^ kiTTd • koX rjfce Me- 
vcov 6 OeTToXo^ OTrXiTa^ ^X'^^ x^Xlov^ koX 7re\TaaTd<; irev- 
TaKoaiov^, AoKoira<^'' KoX Alvidva^ Kal'0\vv^L0v<;> 7. 'JEz/- 
Tev^ev e^eXavvei aTaS^fjLov<; Tpel^ Trapaadyya^ eltcocnv eh 
Ke\acvd<; T979 ^pvyia<^ iroktv olKOVfJbevrjv, fieydXrjv fcal evBac- 
fJ^ovcu^ /EvTav^fC Kvpp ^aoriXeta rjv^ fcal irapdBetao^ /xeya^; 
dypicov S^pccov^ 7rkr)pr}<;y d eKelvo'^ eB^rjpevev diro Xirirov, 
oiroTe yvfivaaai povXocTo eavTov re Kai tov^ lttttov^. 
Aid fjLecrov Be tov irapaBeicrov peV^ 6 MatavBpo^ TroTafJuo^^' at 
Be TTTjyal avTOv elacv^^ etc t&v fiacrcXeccov' pel Be teal Bid r?}? 
KeXatv&v 7r6Xeco<;. - 8. "Ecttc Be Kal jxeyaXov fia(7LXeco<; fia- 
criXeca ev KeXacvah epvfxvd eirl Tah Trrjyah^^ tov Mapavov 
TTOTajiov ^^ VTTo TTj dfcpOTToXec • pel Be fcal ovto<; Bed t?}? tto- 
Xeft)9 Kal efjL/3dXXet eh tov MacavBpov tov Be Mapavov to 
€vp6<; ecTTLV ecKoac Kal irevTe ttoBcov.^^ ^Evrav^a XeyeTac 
^AiroXXcov eKBelpai^'' Mapavav, VLKTjcra^ ipi^ovTa^^ ol Trepl 
ao^ia^ Kal to Bepfia KpepLaaac^^ ev ToidvTpq) oS^ev^^ at ttt}- 
yai* Bid Be tovto 6 iroTafib^ KaXelTac Mapava<;. 9. ^Ev- 
TavS^a Siep^r}<;, oTe eK tj]^ 'EXXdBo^ ^^TTrjS-eh ^^ ttj pid'XJJ 
aTrexcopec, XeyeTac olKoBo/Mrjo-ac^'^ TavTa re Ta jSaaiXeta Kal 

^ §§ 146; 231. — ^§ 1*72. 4. — ^In what tenses are pure verbs con- 
tracted?— *§ lY. 1. — ^§ 91. 2. — ^ Particip. how formed ? — ^ § 48. 1.— 
^ Why the sing. ? — ^ Synt. ? — ^° What has become of the ( of the pres. ? — 
"Why the acute accent (§ 37. 3)? — '^g 4. ^.^''^^hy unaccented? — 
'' § 34. 2. — '^ § 14. 3. — ^^ §§ 190 ; 48. e. Copula and grammatical predi- 
cate of this clause ? — " §§ 110. 2 ; 31. 1 ; 80. 4. — ^^ Why two accents ? — 
^^ § 107. K 3. — 20 §§ 134. 2 ; 76. 1. — ^^ Dif. between depon. pass, and depon. 
mid. ?--''''% 144. 1. 


Tr]v KekaivSov d/cpoTToXcv.^ ^EvravBa e/jLeive Khpo<; yfjbipa^^ 
TptdicovTa' ical rjfce EXeap')(p^ 6 AafceBaLp^ovto^; ff>vya(; eycov 
6TfkiTa<^ j(l\lov^ Kol TreXracTTd^ QpaKa^ 6icraKoalov<^ fcal 
To^6Ta<; Kpi]Ta<; Sca/cocrLOv^. ^'Afta Se koX X(0(Tia<; iraprjv 6 
SvpaKOV(TCG<; e)(cov oirXiTa^; TpcafCO(7iov<;, /cat Xo(^aLveTO<; 6 
'Ap/ca<; e')(a)v oifKira^ ;)^tA,tou9. Kal ivrav^a Kvpo<; i^era- 
(TLV KoX dpL^fJbov Tcov ^EW7]Vcov iiTOLTjaev iv TM TrapaSeiacpj 
fcal iyivovTO oi avjJLTravTe^ OTrXcrao fxev fJuipLoi /cat ')(i\LOL, 
ireXracTTal Se dfi(j)l tov<; Bco''^l\lov<;, 

X 10. ^EvTCv^ev e^eKavvev aTaS-fjLov<; Bvo 7rapaadyiya<; BeKa 
eh JJekra^j ttoXlv oiKovfjbivrjv, ^EvravS^ ejieLvev Tjfjiepa^ 
rpel^ • iv ah ^evia^ 6 ^ApKa<; rd AvKaca eS^ucre kol djo)va 
eBrj/ce '^ rdBe dSXa rjaav cTkeyyihe^ ^(^pvo-al'^ i^ecopei, Se rov 
dycova fcal Kvpo<;, ^Evrev^ev e^ekavyei araS^/jLOv^; Bvo irapa- 
adyya^ ScoSefca eh Kepafxcov djopdv, irokcv OLKOvfiivriv, io'X'^' 
T7]v 7r/309 T7J MvcTia xdypci* 11. ^Evrev^ev e^eXavvet ara- 
^/ioiV rpeh irapaadyya^ rpidKovra eh Kavarpov irehiov, 
iToXiv olfcov/JbivTjv. ^EvravSt efievvev rjijuepm Trevre • kol toc^ 
arparmraL^ ccK^eiXeTO fjuocrj^o^^ irXeov rj rpccov /jirjvcoVy^ kol 
TToXXd/cL^ lovre^ eirX rd^ Bvpa<; diryrovv.^ ^O Be eX7riBa<;^ 
Xeycov ® Bc7]ye koX BrjXo^ rjv dvidyfievo^ • ov yap ^v irpo<; toB 
Kvpov TpoiTOV e^ovra fir) dTroBcBovac.^ 

12. 'Evrav^a dc^LKvelrai ^Eirva^a t] Xvevvecrio^ yvprj^^ 
Tov KcXi/ccov /BacrcXico^ irapd Kvpov • teal eXeyero KvpG> Bov- 
vat xpVf^^'^^ TToXXd, Trj S' ovv aTparia Tore direBccKe Kvr 
po? fJLLG-Sbv rerrdpcov /jltjv&v. EZ;^e" Be r/ KiXccraa KaX 
(j)vXa/ca^ irepl avrrjv KiXcfca^ Kal ^AaTrevBiov^^ eXeyero Be 
fcal (Tvyyevia^ac^^ Kvpov rfj KiXiaarj, 13. ^EvrevS^ev S' 
i^eXavvet crTa9^fMov<; Bvo 7rapaadyya<; Bexa eh ©vfi/BpLov, tto- 
Xiv oucov/Jiev7]v. ''Evrav^a rjv irapd rrjv oBov Kprivrj r) MiBov ^i 
KaXovfievTj tov ^pvycov ^a<TLXico<;, e(jE)' fj Xeyerat MiBa<i tov^ 
Xdrvpov Brjpevaat olvq> Kepdcra^^^ avrrjV, 14-. ^EvrevSev 

^Comp. parts? — ^Synt.? — 3§ 110. K 1,^" Why perispom. F — ^ %^^. 
N. 3. a. Synt.? — ^Accountfor the t subs. — "^ Nom. how formed? — ®§225, 
8.— '§§ 121; 35. 2. — ^«§ 56. — ^'§ 93. 2. — "§ 14. 2. — ^^§133. K. 


v--^ LIB. I. CAP. II. 7 

i^eXavveo cTTa^fiov^ Zvo 7rapa(Td^^a<^ Bi/ca el^ Tvptaiov, tto- 
Xlv ol/cov/jiiprjv' ivTav3-a efietvev^ rjiJb€pa<^ rpel^, KalXeye' 
Tab SerjSrjvao^ rj KiXccrG'a Kvpov^ iircSel^ao* to crTpaTevpLa 
avTTj. BovK6fi€VO<; ovv eTrihel^av i^eTuacv iroielTai ev tw 
TreStft) TO)V 'EWtJvcov koX to)V /Sapfidpcov. 15. 'E/ciXevae Se 
Toiff; ^'EXK7]va^y o)<; v6/jlo<;^ avTol^^ eh ixd')(7]V, ovtco Ta)(3rjvai^ 
KoX aTTjvai, avvTa^ai Se eKaaTov tov<; eavTOv.^ ^ETd')(^7]aav 
ovv iirl TeTTdpcov'^ el')(e he to fiev Be^cbv Mevcov /cat oi avv 
avTcp, TO Be evd)VV[iov KXeap^o<^ koI oi eKetvov, to Be fjbiaov 
oi dXkoL cTpaTTjjoL 16. ^ES^ecopet ovv 6 Kvpo<; irpcoTOV fiev 
TO z)9 ^apfidpov^ • oi Be iraprjXavvov TeTwyp^evoi kwt IXa^ KaX 
icaTa Td^eL<^* elra Be tov^ ^^EXXrjva^y irapeXavvcov e(f dpfia" 
T09 /cal rj KlXiorcra icj) dpfiafid^r]^, Elj(pv Be irdvTe<; /cpdvr] 
"X^ciXku^^ Kol ')(iTO)va<^^^ (potvu€ov<; fcal KV7]iuBa^ /cal Ta<; dcnri- 
Ba^ ifCKeka^apfjbeva<;,^^ -^17 . ^ETrecBr) Be TrdvTa^ TrapriXacre, 
aTrjO'a<i to dpfia TTpb tt}^ <pdXayyo<;y Trefiyfra'; TIvypriTa tov 
epfirjvea irapa tov<; (rTpaTrjyov<; tcov ^EXXtjvcov i/ceXevae irpo- 
/3aXecr3-aL ^^ tcl oirXa /cal eirij((opri(Tai ^^ oXtjv ttjv (pdXayya, 
Oi Be TavTa TrpoetTTOV^^ tol^ aTpaTL(OTaL^*^^ /cal eirel ead- 
XTT^yfe," TTpo/SaXXofievoc tcl oirXa eTrrjecrav.^^ ^E/c Be tovtov 
^aTTOv Trpol6vT(ov avv Kpavyfj dirb tov avTOjJbdTOV Bpofio^ 
iyeveTO Toh aTpaTCcoTacf; eirl Ta<; cTKrjvd^. 18. Tcov Be ^ap- 
fidpcov^^ (l)6/3o^ TToXv^ /cal dXXoL^; /cal rj re KiXicraa €(f)ir/ev^^ 
i/c tt)? dpfiafid^7]<; Kal oi i/c tt}? dyopd<;^^ /caTaXo7r6vTe<; Ta 
covta e(pevyov • oi Be ^'EXXr]ve^ avv yeXcoTC eirl Td<; a/c7]va<; 
rjXSov, ^H Be KiXiaaa IBovaa Tr]v XafjLirpoTTjTa^^ /cat ttjv 
Td^LV TOV aTpaTevfJLaTO^ e^avfjuaae, Kvpo^ Be rjaBr] " tov i/c 
TCOV '^EXXtjvcov 6t9 Toif<^ fiap^dpov<; <^6^ov IBcov, 

'Account for tin the penult? — ^ § 133. A. — ^§ 200. 3. — <§§ 101. 1; 
121. — ^ § 151. 4. — ^ § 201. 3. — "^ § 101. 1. Why is not the subject of the 
infin. here expressed? — ^What does this gen. denote? — ^Dialect (§ 10)? 
— ''§58. 5.— "Nom. how formed (§ 47. 3)? — ''^ § 111. 3.— -'^^hy has 
this verb one A. here and two in the pres. ? — ^"^ Why properispome7ion F — 
'^§ 133. E.— ."^§ 201. 1. — "Account for f. — '« Account for i subs. — 
''Is this gen. siibjective or objective (§ 187. N. 1)?— -^^ § 102. (y). — ^ig 3^^ 
2. — " § 139. — " Account for c 



19. ^Evrev^ev i^eXavvec ara^iiov^ rpel^ nrapaxrar/ya^ 
eXtcoaiv eh ^Ikovcov, tt}? ^pvyia^; iroXiv eG")(aT7]v. ^EvravSa 
€fji€LV6 Tpel^ r]iiepa^. 'Evrev^ev i^ekavvet 3ca tt}? AvKaovia^ 
<TTaS^fiov<; irevre irapaadyya^ rpidKOpra. Tavrrjv rrjv ^ci- 
pav eTreTpey^e BtapTrdaaL to?9 ^'EXK/qaLV co? irdXefjiiav ovaav, 

^i. 20. ^Evrev^ev Kvpo<; rrjv KiXicraav eU rfjv KCkiKiav aTro- 
TrefiTrec rrjv Ta')(lG'T7}v^ ohov'^ /cat Gvveireix'y^ev avry arpa- 
TLcora^ 0&9 Mivcov el')(e koX avrbv Mepcova, Kvpo<; Se jjuera 
TO)v dXKcov e^ekavvev Bca KainraBofCLa^; ara^iMoi)^ rirrapa^ 
'jrapa(Tdyja<; ec/coav kol nrevre nrpo^ Advav, iroXiv OLKOv/JLivrjVf 
fjL€yd\7)v KoX evBaiiMova. 'EvravS^a €/jL€Lvav ^/iepa? rpel^ • eV 
(p Kvpo^ dnreKTeivev^ dvhpa IJipaTjv Meyacpipvrjv, ^OLVt/a- 
arrfv ^acrlXetov, koX erepov ^ riva * t(!)V v7rdp')(^cov Bvvd(7T7]v, 
alriacrdiJbevo^^ i7n/3ov\€V€tv^ avTa>. 21. ^EvrevBev eTrec- 
pMVTO ela^aXKeiv eh Tr]v KCKiKiav* t] Be elcT^oXrj rjv oBo^ 
d/jLa^LTo^ op^ta l(T')(ypw fcal dfxrj'^^avo'^ elaeX^elv'' crrparev' 
fiarty €0 Ti^ e/ccoXvev. ^EXiyero * Be /cat "^vevvecn^ elvai eirX 
tS)v dfcpcov (f)vXdTTcov rrjv ela/3oX')]V • Bt o^ e/jLecvev r/jiepav ev 
tS> TreBiq). Tfj S' varepala rj/cev dyyeXo^ Xeyov on XeXoc- 
TTO)? eoT]^^ Xvevveat<; rd dfcpa, eVel TJaBero^^ to re Mevcovo<^ 
arpdrev/Jia^^ ore tjBt] ev KiXncia rjv elaco rcov opecov,^^ koX otv 
Tpo^pet^; 7]Kove TrepCTrXeovaa^ dir ^Itovla^ eh KCXiKicxf; Tafiwv 1 
e^ovra^^ ra? AaKeBaifiovicov koI avrou Kvpov. 22. Kvpo<; S' * 
ovv dve^r) eTrl rd opr) ovBevo<; kcoXvovto^ ^^ kol elBe Ta9 c/ct)- 
vd<; ov ol KCXiKe^ ecf^vXarrov.^^ ^Evrev^ev Be fcare^atvev eh 
ireBlov ixeya kol KaXov, eirlppyrovi^'^ /cal BivBpcov^^ iravroBa- 
iTOiv^^ efiirXecov koX afxiTeXciov r ttoXv Be kol o-yaa/iov /cat 

\ fjLeXlv7]v KoX Keyyjpov koX 7rvpov<; kclL Kpt^d^ (j^epet. ''Opo<; S' 
avTO irepie')(ei o')(vpov kcjlI vyjrifXov TrdvTrj ifc ^akdrrri^ eh 

'§ 65. — ^Synt.— 3§ 133. K.--^What kind of adj.? — ^ Why no ac- 
cent?— «§ 194. N. 2. — ^ § 222. 6. — « Silly. ? — ^ What would this be un- 
accented ?— ''^ §§ 213. ^;, 89. 1. — "What kind of dep. verb (§ 210)? — 
^2§ 192. .^\ 3. — '^Sy^nO — ^^§ 225. 'L — ',^What does this gen. abs. de- 
note ? — ^'^ Why the imperf. ? — ''§§ '7. ^'*/ih. -ros, — '' If the ult. is to be 
accented, why ^empom. .? ^ 




23. KaTa^a<; Be Bca tovtov tov TreBlov rjkaae aral^fiov^ 
Terrapa^ Trapaadyya^ irevre /cal eiKoaLv eh Tapaov^y t?}? 
KiXc/cia^ TToXiv /Jiey dXrjv koX evBaifiova. 'Evrav^a r](jav^'^'^ 
ra 2vevpi(TCo<; ^ao-iXeca tov KcXlkcov ^aacXico^; • Bia /-tecr?;? '^'^^ 
Be tt)? TToXeo)? pel irora/jib^ KvBvo<; ovofjLay evpo^^ Bvo'irXi- 
S-pwv. 24. TavT7]v rrjp iroXiv e^eXiirov oi ivotfcovvre^ fiera 
SyeyvecTCo^ ek %ct)p/oz/' v^vpov eVl ra oprj rrrXrjp ol ra 
Kintrpiela e^ovre^ * e/xecvav Be idii oc nrapa rrjv S^dXarrav 
olKovvTe<; ev X6Xol<; koX ev ^laaoh. 25. ^Errva^a Be 7) 
XvevveaLo^ jvvrj Trporepa Kvpov Trevre 7]ixepa^ eh Tapaov^ 
d^Uero. y'Ev Be rfj virep^oXfj to)v opcov tcop'^ eh to ireBiop 
Bvo X6')(pL Tov^ Mepcopo<; oTpaTevfiaTO^ dTTcoXoPTO'* ol^ fiep 
e^acrap^ dpird^oPTd^ to /caTaKOTrrjpac'' virb tcop KlXl/ccop, oi 
Be vTToXei^^epTa<; koX ov Bvpafjuepov^ evpeip to ctXXo crTpd- 
TevjJia ovBe Ta9 6Bov<; ecTa 7rXapco/Jbepov<^ dTroXeaSac rjaap S' 
ovp'^ovTOL e/caTOP oirXlTac. 26. Oi S* dXXoL eTrecBr} tikop, ttjp 
W T€ iToXip Tov<; Tapaov^; BajpiraaaPy Bed top oXeBpop tcop 
(Tvo'TpaTLCOTcop opjL^ofjiepoCy KoX Ta fiaaiXeca Ta^ ep avTrj. 
Kvpo^ Be eirel elarfXaaep eh ttjp ttoXcp, fieTeirefiireTo^ top 
SveppeaLP 7rpo9 eavTOP • o Be ovTe TrpOTepop ovBepi ^ irco 
KpecTTOPO^^ eavTov^^ eh %6?/9a9 eXSecp ecpi], ovTe TOTeKvpco 
jl iepav 7]3^eXe, irplp rj ryvprj avTOP eireLcre /cal 7rLO'Tec<; eXaj3e. 
27. MeTa Be TavTa eVel (TVPejepopTO dXXi]Xoc<;^^ Sveppecn<; 
fiep eBcofce^^ Kvpco j(^p7](jLaTa TroXXd ch ttjp cTpaTidp, Kvpo^ 
8' e/cetPG) Bcopa a po/jul^eTat ^* Trapd (^aaiXel TLfiia, lttttop XP^' 
I ao'xdXcpcp fcal aTpenrTOP ^j^pucrouz^ ^^ koI '\lreXXta /cal d/ccpd- 
I K7]P ^j^pucroOz/ /cal aToXrjp JJepaLKTJp, /cal ttjp ^copaz; jJirj/ceTL 
I d(j>ap7rd^e(7S-ac'^^ Ta Be ^pTrao'/jLepa^'^ dpBpdiroBa, tjp ttov 
ipTVJX^pcoaiP, diToXapi^dpeip. 

^§ 182. —'§169. 2.— 2§ 169. 1. — *§ 113. —'^§ 166. 2. a. — « Root? 
— '' Why properispomefioh t-— ® What does this imperf. denote ? — ® § 201. 
5.-_iog§ 64. 3. Note; 65.— "§ 198. 1. — ^'^Synt. ? — ^^ § 110. N. 1.--- 
" § 151. 1. •— '^ § 58. 6. — '^§ 179. — '^ Account for <r in the antepe. 




1. ^EvTav^a efxeive Kvpo<; koX t) arparta '^/xipa^^ ecKocrcv 
ol yap (TTpaTLcoTaL ov/c ecpaaav Uvai rov irpoaco' vTrcoirrevov, 
yap 7]hr} iirl ^aaCkea livac • fiCaS^co^vaL Be ovfc iirl tovtg> 
e^aaav, IIpS)ro<; Be KXiap^o^ tov<; avrov crrparLcoTa^ e^td- \ 
^ero^ livac o I Be avrov re efiaWov^ fcal ra viro^vyca ra 
eiceivov, eireX rjp^aro irpolevat. 2. K\iap')(p<; Be Tore fiev 
fjLCfcpov* i^icj^vye^ rod fjit] KaraTrerpco^rjvac, varepov S' iirel 
eyvco OTL ov Bwrjaerav ficdaaaS^aCy avvr\yayev^ eKKK7\(Tiav 
Tcov avTov aTparccoTcov • Kal Trpcorov fiev iBdfcpve,^ irdXvv 
')(^p6vov eo'Tcof;''' ol Be 6p5)VTe<^ iSavfJba^ov,^ fcal iaccoircov * elra 
Be eXe^e rocdBe,^ 

3. "AvBpe<; o-TparLtaraL,^ firj S^avfid^ere ore 'x^aXeirS)'^ ^epco 
T069 7rapov(7i irpdyjiaaLV, ^EfxoV^ yap Kvpo<; ^evo<; iyevero 
Kai fce (j^evyovra etc tT]^ TrarpiBof; rd re dXka irt/JLTjae koI 
fjLvpiov; eBco/ce BapeiKov^' 0&9 eyco Xa^cov ovfc eh to lBlov^^ 
KareBejJirjv ifiol a\V ovBe fca^TjBvTrdSrja-a, dX?C eh v[ia^ eBor 
rrrdvcov, 4. Kal nrpcorov fzev 7rpo9 tov<; &pa/€a^ e7To\e/jL7](Tay 
Kal VTrep rrj^ 'EX\dBo<; eri/JLcopovfirjv /JueS-^ v/jl&v, ifc Tr}<; Xep- 
povTjcrov avTOv^ e^eXavvcov ^ovXofjLivov; dcjyatpecaBaL tov^; 
evoiicovvTa<; '^EWrjva^; ^* rfjv yrjv?'^ ^ETreiBr) ^^ Be Kvpo^ efcd' 
Xei, \a/3a)v v/Jid^ eTropevo/jbrjv, iva ec tl Beocro a)(f)e\oL7]v avrov 
aVf3- cov ev eira^^ov vrr eiceivov. 5. jc^Tret be v/xeL^ ov 
jSovXeaS-e (TViiiropevea^ai, avdyKi) Br] fioL rj vjia^ nrpoBovra 
rfi Kvpov (ptXia^^ ')(^pr}<T^ab rj 7rpb<; ifcecvov 'y^revadiMevov fieS-^ 
v/jiojv livac. El fiev Brj Blfcata rroLTjcrco ovtc olBa, acp7]aofiac 
ovv v/JLa<; Kai aw v/jllv o tl av oerj Treiao/JiaL, KaL ov- 

^§ 186. 2. — 2§ 211. K 12. — ^ What does this imperf. denote?— *§ 
135. 2. — ^§ 230, 3.— ^'g 94. 1. — '§ 133.— «§ 76. 1. — '§ 156. K 5. — 
" Synt. ? — " Ellipsis of what word with tdiov ? — '^ § 184. 1. — " Moods which 
follow 67r6i5); (§ 217)? — "Does avrl have here its prim, or second, signif. ? 
— ^^ Antecedent of ,5;/? Why the gen. (see N.)? — ^°§ 206. K 2. — ^^ Root 
(§1^53. n.)? / - 

LIB. I. CAP. III. 11 

TTOre ip€L ovBeU 0)9 iyoo ^^EWrjva^ dyajcov et'9 tou9 ^ap/Sd- 
pov<;, TrpoSov^ tou9 ''EWrjva<; rfjv rcov fiap^dpcov (^Ckiav 
ei\6fJL7]v* 6. ^AXkd iirel vfiel^ ifiol ovic e^ikere irei^ea^at, 
ovSe eirecr^ai, iyco crvv vjilv ey^roiiau koI o tl dv Serj Tretao- 
[Mac, NofJLL^co jdp vfjbd^ i/xol elvai koI nrarpiha /cat ^l\ov<^ 
/cat cvfifid')(pv'^, fcal <jvv vjjlIp fiev dv oljiat elvac TifjLCo<; oirov 
av &), vfioyv €pr]/jto<; o)v ovk av i/cavo<; ecvac OLfiac ovr av 
<^i\ov ct)(j)6\rj<7ac^ ovr dv i)(S^pbv dXi^acrSac. ^fl^ i/xov ovv 
l6vT0<; OTTTj dv fcal vfieh ovrco rrjv jvco/jltjv e^ere. t "7. Tavra 
eXirev • ol he G-rparccoTat oi re avrov ifcecvov Kol oi dXKou 
Tavra dKovcravre^; on ov (j^alrj^ irapd ^aarCkea iropevecr^aL 
iTryveaav* irapd he p,eviov fcal IIaaicovo<; 7rXecou9 rj Bco-xi- 
XiOi Xafiovre^ rd oifXa fcal rd cKevocj^opa iarparoTreBeV' 
aavTO Trapd K\edp')((p, 8. Kvpo<; Be rovroc^^ diropcov re 
Kal XvTrov/JLevo^; fjuereTre/jiTrero^ rov K\eap')(ov* 6 Be levac [lev 
ovtc 7]9^e\e, XdS^pa Be rcov arparicoTcbv^ irefMircov avT& dyye- 
Xov eXeye Bappelv 0)9 KaTaa-TTjcrofiivcov rovrcov^ ek to Beov 
/jLerairefjiTreaS^aL S' ifceXevev avTov avrb^ 8' ovfc ecjyq livat. 
9. Merd Be Tavra avvayayoov tov<; 3-^ eavrov aTparidyra<^ 
Kal Tov<; rrpoaeX^ovra^ avrS Kal rcov dXXcov^ tov fiovXofie- 
vov, eXe^e rocdBe. 

^'AvBpe<; arpartcorat, rd /lev Brj Kvpov BrjXov ore ovrco^ 
e^et TTpb^ r}/jLd<; ocxirrep rd yfierepa 7rpo<; eKelvov ovre ydp 
rjfieL^ eKeivov en arpancorac, iirei ye ov crxrveirofjie^a avr^, 
ovre eKelvov en rj/nlv fjLcaBoB6r7]<^, 10. ^^On fievroc dBcKet- 
aS^ac vofiil^eL vtj)* rj/jicov olBa • &are Kal /leraTrefMTrofjLevov av- 
rov^- OVK iS^iXco eXS^ecv, rb fJbev fieyiarov al(T')(yv6fievo<; on 
crvvoLBai/jLavTO} irdvra e-y^evafievof;^^ avrov* eiretra Be Kal 
868^0)9" p^y] Xa/Scov fie Blktjv iirc^ &v vo/Mi^ec vrr ifiov r)Bt- 
K'ijcr^ac,^: 11. ^Ejxol ovv BoKeZ ov^ &pa elvac rjfuv^^ KoJ^ev- 
Betv ovS* dp^eXelv rjp^wv^^ avrcoVy dXXd ^ovXevea^ai 6 ri ;)^p^; 
woielv eK rovrcov, Kal eco9 re fievofiev avrov (TKeTrreov jjloi 

^§ 203. S. — '^g 222. 6. — ^§ 213. 2.—* Account for the i subs.-^ 
* Synt. ? — « Why the imperf. ? — "^ § IST. 2. — - « § 226. a. — ^ Does this gen. 
abs. denote time or cause / — " § 91. 2. — " § 133. A. — " Synt. ? — " § 193. 


So/ceV elvav ottco^ aa-^dkecrraTa fievovfiev • elVe ^8^ hoKel 
dinevac, otto)? a)9 dcr(f)a\6a-TaTa^ d7n/jb€V, koI ott(d<; ra eV^TTj- Jj 
Beca e^ofiev dvev yap rovrcov ovre^ aTpaTr)yov ovre IBtcorov^ 
o(f>€Xo(; ovBev. 12. 'O Be dvrjp ttoWov* fiev d^to^ ^tXo9 S 
av <^tXo9 y, ')(a\€iT(OTaTo^^ S' i'^S^pb^ oS dv irokefiio^ fj, "En 
Be BvvafiLV e')(et koI Tre^rjv Kol CTrTrttcrjv * koI vavTiKrjv rjv irdv- \ 
re? 6/jLOLco^ opcofjiev re koX eTnardfJie^a • koX yap ovBe iroppco 
Bofcovfiev fJLOL avTOu Ka^a^ai* cocrre &pa \eyeiv'' 6 tb^ tl^ 
jLjvcoaKet dptarov^ elvat, Tavra eliroav eiravaaro. 

13. 'JB/c Be TOVTOV dvLcrravTO oi [xev etc rod avTojudrov, 
Xe^ovre^; d eyiyvcoaKoVy ol Be /cal vtt eKeivov iyKeXevaroc, 
einBeLKVvvTe^^^ oia eirj rj diropia dvev ttj^ Kvpovyvdt^r}^^^ 
/cal jievecv Kal dinevai. 14. Eh Be Br] elire, Trpoairoiovixevo^ 
CTTrevBecv a)9 Td')(L(TTa iropevea^au eU ttjv ^EXkdBa, (rrparr]- 
70U9 fJiev eXea^^ac ^^ aWou9 ft)9 Td')(LG'Ta, el firj ^ovXerai KXe- 
ap^o^ dirdyeLV • rd 8' eirLTrjBeia dyopd^ea^av • ^^ (^ 8' dyopd 
r}V ev T<p ^ap^apifccp crTparevfJiaTV •) Kal avaKevdi^ea^ai' ^* 
eX^ovra^ Be Kvpov alreiv irXola,^^ d)<; dTroTrXeotev^^ idv Be 
fXT) BcB^ ravra, r^yepLOva alrelv Kvpov oan^ Bid (^tXia^ t^9 
"Xpiypa^ dird^eu ^Edv Be fjL7]Be rjye/jLova BlBm, avvrdrrea^ac 
rrjv Ta')(^iG'T7]V, rfrepb'yjrac Be Kal irpOKaTaXr)y\roiievov^ " ra dKpa, 
OTTCO^; fjir) ^Bdacoat ^^ pn^re Kvpo^ pbrjre ol KlXiKe<; KaraXa- 
y86z/Te9/^ &v ttoXXov^ Kal TroXXd ')(^prjijiara c'xp/iev dvTjpira- 
Kore^. OvTO^^^ fiev Brj rocavra elire* fxerd Be tovtov KXe- 
ap'xp<; elrn-e rocrovrov • 15. 'f2<; fxev G-TparrjyijcrovTa i/jLe 
ravTTjv rrjv arpaTrjyLav pLrjBeh vpicov Xeyerco • iroXXd yap 
evopo) be a ejnoL tovto ov irocrjreov 0)9 oe tw avopi ov av 
eXrjaS^e TreLaofiaL^'" rj Bvvarov fidXto-ra, iva elBrjre ore Kal 
dp')(ea^ai eTTLorra/jLat 0)9 Tt9 Kal aXXo9 /JidXiara dvBpcoTrcov. 
16. Merd tovtov dXXo^ dveaTTj, einBeLKVV^ fiev ttjv evrj^eiav 

^ § 153. a. — 2 Compare this adj. (§ 63. 4). — ^ § 229. 1. — * § 200. N. 2. 
— nVhy (araros and not oraTos?— '§ U2. — '§ 222. 2.--«§ 75. 2.— 
^Compare. — ^°§ 123. — "§ 197. 2. — '^ Root ? — ^^ § 143. — ^^ Theme? — 
>^§ 184. 1. — ''§ 214. 1.— "Composition? Synt. (§ 225. 6)?— '''Why 
BubjUDCt. (§§ 212. 1; 214. 1)? — *«§ 225. 8.— '''§ 163. 1.— "§ 206. 4.— 
«2§56. Synt.? — ^'§133. n. 


LIB. I. CAP. III. 13 

Tov ra TfKola anelv^ KeKevovro^y &a'7r€p^ nraktv rov aroKov 
Kvpov fJiTj TTOLOvfJuevov, iTTcBecfcvv^; Be 009 €vrj3^6<; eirj^ rj^ei^ova 
alrelv irapa tovtov S Xv/JLacvofjueBa rrjv Trpd^tv. El Be n 
fcal tS '^yefJLOPt^ ircarevaofiev c5^ av Kvpo^ BlBm, tl^ /ccciXvei 
fcal ra dxpa tj/jlcv fceXevecv Kvpov irpoKaraXapb^dveiv ; JL7. 
'jEycb yap oKVoirjv^ fjuev av et9 ra irXoca ifi^aiveiv a ^jullv 
Bolt], fjurj rjfjid^; avral^ raU Tpirjpecn, KaraBvarj,^ (f)ofioLfjL7]v^ S* 
av TO) rjyefiovi cS Bolt] eirea^ai, firj yfia<; dydyrj oBev ov^ 
ol6v^° re ecrrao i^eXS^elv j3ov\oi[Jbr}v 8' av d/covTO<; aTrccoJ 
Kvpov XaSelv avrov aTreXS^cov • o ov Bvvarov icmv, 18. 
'-4XV eycoye ^^ ^rj/il ravra fiev <p\vapta<; elvat • Bofcel Be fioo 
dvBpa^ e\B6vTa<^ 7rpo9 Kvpov 0iTCve<; " eTnrTjBecoo avv KXe- 
dp')(cp ipcorav ^^ eKelvov, tl ^* ^ovKerat rjfuv ^(^prjaS^ac • Kal idv 
fjiev rj 7rpd^c<; y TrapaTrXTjala oXairep^^ Kal irpocrB-ev e')(^priT0 
TOL<; ^evoc^y^^ eTrecrBao Kal rj/jid<^ Kal fir] KaKiov<;^^ elvat rcov 
'TTpoaS-ev TOVTM avvava^dvTcov* 19. iav Be fiel^cov^^ rj irpd- 
f^9 T779 TTpocrBev (f)aLV7]Tac Kal eirnTovwrepa Kal eTrcKivBvvore' 
pa, d^Lovv fj ireiaavra ^^ r/jJifiS dyetv rj TtecaBevra 7r/)09 (pcktav 
dcpcevat • ovt(o yap Kal eTTOfievoL ^ - av (j)i\oc avrS Kal irpoB^v- 
fjiot eTTOifieS^a Kal d7ri6vTe<; _da(})a\S><; av diriotfJiev* 6 n 8' av 
irpo^ ravra Xeyr] ^° dTrdyyetkai ^^ Bevpo • '^fjLd<; S* aKOvaavra^ 
7r/909 ravra /3ov\evearSac» 20. ^'EBo^e ravra, Kal dvBpa^ 
ekofievoc avv KKedp')((p Trifjurovcnv, ot r/pcorcov Kvpov rd Bo- 
^avra rfj arpana, ^O S' direKplvaro ore aKovoi ^ A^poKo^ 
(lav i')(Spov dvBpa^^ eirl tc3 Ev^pdry Trora/Jio) elvat, dire^ 
')(pvra BcoBeKa ara^fiov^ • 7rpo9 rovrov ovv e(^rf fiovXeaBaL 
iXBelv Kav^^ jiev ff eKel, rrjv Blk7]v ecjyr] XPV^^^^ eiriB^elvau 
avrwy fjv Be (pevyr], 7][iel<; eKel rrpo^ ravra ^ovXevaofJueB^a, 

'§ 179. a. — ^g 226. a. —^ Subject? — ^Synt. ? — ^ Why the dat.? — 
®What does the accent show this to be? — ''§§ llY. c. ; 215. 1.— nVhy 
subjunct.? — «Why optat.? — ^'^§ 157. d. — "§ 68. N. 3. - ^^ pg^U^^ _ 
^' Accus. of thing (§ 184. 1) ? — " § 182. — ^^ § 171. 1. -- '' § 206. N. 2.— • 
^' How formed (§ 64. 3)? — ^«Root? Tense how formed? — " § 225. 6. — 
^°Upon what verb does this subjunct. depend? — 2*§ 110. 1.—-'^'^% 156. N. 
5.— "§20. K 1. 


21. ^AKOvaavre^ he ravra ol alperoV avayyeXKovac tol^ 
o-TpartcoTaL^ • rol^ Be v7ro'y\rLd* fiev rjv on dy^c Trpo^ ^aaiXia,. 
o/jL(o<; Be eBoKet ^ eirea^ai. Upoaairovo'L Be fiva^ov • 6 Kvpo^ 
vTnayyelrab tj/jlcoXcov Trdcn Bcoaetv ov irporepov e(pepov, avrX 
Bapet/cov Tpia "^/jbcBapetKa rod fJiTjvb^^ tm arparccory on Be 
eirl ^aaCkea d^oL oyp' ivravS-' rjicovo-ev ovBeU ev ye rw (fxxr ij 

^^ ^ CAP. IV, 

1. ^EvrevSev e^eXavveu crTa^[Mov<; Bvo irapaadyya^ Befca 
eirl TOP Xdpov nrorafioVy ov rjv to evpo<; Tpia TrXeS^pd, ^Ev- 
TevS^ev e^eXavveu aTa^fwv eva irapao-drfya^ irevTe iirl top 
Uvpafiop TTOTafJbop, ov to evpo<; crTdBcop. ^EpTev^ep e^eXav- 
vet o-TaS'/JLOv^ Bvo irapaadyya^ irepTeKalBeKa €69 ^laaov^, Ti]<; 
KikiKLa^ eo")(^dT7]P ttoKlp eirl ttj S^aXdTTy ol/covfJLeprjp,^ fJLeyd- 
Xrjp^ fcal evBat/jLOpa, I 2. ^EvTav^a e/juecvap ^juLepa^ Tpel<;' fcal 
Kvp(p TrapTjcrap'^ ai i/c TIe\oiroppri<TOV vrje<; TpudfcoPTa koX 
TrevTe kol iir avToi^ vavap')(o<^^ TIv^ay6pa<; AafceBaifJLOPio^. 
^Hyelro B' avTcop^ Tajico^ AlyviTTio^ e^ ^Ecpeaov, €')(cop pav^^^ 
eTepa^ Kvpov irepTe /cal eXKOcnp, ah eTToXiopKei MIXtjtop, oTe 
Tccraa^epprj ^tX?;" 7]p, /cal avpeiroXefieL^ Kvp<p Trpo^ avTOP, \ 
3. UapTjp ^^ Be Kol Xetpla-o(f>o<; 6 AatceBaifioPio^; eirl tcop pecop, 
fieTdTre/jLTTTO^ viro Kvpov, eTrTatcoaiov^ ^X^^ OTrXtra?, &p 
icTpaTTjyeL, irapd Kvprp. A I Be prjes^^ copjMovp irapd ttjp 
Kvpov G-fcrjPTJp, \EpTav^a /cal oi Trap ^A^poKo/ia fMLaBo^o- 
poL ^^EXX7)pe<; dTrocTdpTe^^ rjXl^op irapd Kvpop TeTpaicoaioL mi 
OTrXlrat Kal avpea'tpaTevoPTO iirl /Sao-tXea. 

4. ^EpTevBep e^eXavvei gto^plop epa TrapaG-drfya<; irepTe 
eirl TTvXa<; Tri<; KiXcKia^ Kal ttj^ ^vpca^. '^Haap Be TavTa Mi 
__ ^ ^ - ■ -e., :■-'■■ 

^§ 142.— ^§ 139. Tneme? — ^Subj. (§ 153.a)? — ^Synt.?— «* Theme? 
— ^ § 62. — ' Significations of irapa when followed by the gen., dat. and ac- 
cus. ? — ^ § 144. 2. — '-^ § 1 89. — *° Decline. — " Why feto. gelid. ? — " Fol- 
lowed by what case ? — "Dialect? -i ' ' "^ '-' 

LIB. I. CAP. IV. 15 

Bvo TeiyT]^ KOI TO fJLev eaoD^ev Trpo rr]<; KCkiKia^ XvivveaL<; 
eZ^e KOb KcXiKcov (^vkaKrj, to K e^co to^ irpo Ti]<; ^vpia^ fia- 
crckico^ iXiycTO ^vXaKrj <^v\dTTeLv* Aia fieaov he pel tov- 
T(ov 7roTafib<; Kepcro^ ovop^a,^ evpo<; irXe^pov, '^Airav he to 
^fjbiaov Tcov TeL'x&v rjaav aTciBcoc Tpel^ • koI 7rape\!^elv ov/c 
Tjv^ ^ia' rjv yap rj 7rdpoSo<; aTevr} kov tcl Tei')(7] eh ttjv ^d- 
\aTTap /ca^7]fcpvTa, vTrep'iiev^ 8* rjaav ireTpac rjXl^aToc eirl 
he Toh Tel'X^ecTLv dpii^oTepoi^ e(f)ec(7T')]Ke(Tav^ TrvXai. 5. Tav- 
Trj<; eveKa ttjs nrapohov Kvpo^ Ta9 vav<; pLeTeirepL'y^aTOy'' ottco^ 
oirXiTa^ aTTojBijSdcreiev ® eXaoy /cal e^co tcov ttvXcov, teal ^laad- /^ 
fLcevoc TOL'9 TToXefiLGV^ TrapeX^ocev, el <j)v\dTT0Lep iirl Tah 
XvpiaL<; 7rv\at<;y oirep oieTO nTOLrjaeLv 6 Kvpo<; tov ^A^poKo- 
fxavy €')(0VTa iroXif cTpdTevfJia, ^A/3poK6p,a<; he ov tovto 
eiroLTjaev, dX)C eTrel rjKovare Kvpov ev KCkiKta ovTa^ dva-h- 
(TTpe'yJra^ e/c ^0Lviicrj<; irapa ^aaCKea dirrfKavvev, e^cov, co? 
eXeyeTo, TpcdfcovTa p.vpcdha^ " cTTpaTcd^;. 

6. ^EvTev^ev e^eXavvet hta SvpLa<; oTa^piov eva irapa- 
crdyya^ irevTe eh Mvpiavhpov, iroXiv olKOVfJbivr]v viro ^oivi" 
Kcov eirl TTj ^dXdTTTj' efiiropLov S' rjv to 'X^coplov /cal wpfiovv 
avTo^L^^ oXfcdhe^ rrroXXaL 7. ^EvTav^^ efieivav rjfjiepa<^ 
eiTTd • Kal Uevla^ 6 ^ApKa<; o'TpaTr)yb<; Kal Uaalcov 6 Meya- 
pev<^ ipL^dvTe<;^'^ eh ttXoIov Kal Ta TrXeiaTov d^ia ev^epievob 
cnreirXevaaVy^^ a)<; fiev Toh nrXeiaTOL^; ehoKovv, ^CKoTifirftievTe^ ^ 
OTjL Tov(; cTTpaTCcoTa^ avTcbv T0U9 Trapa KXeap')(ov direX^ov- ^S 
Ta<?, C09 aTTLovTa^ eh ttjv ^EXXdha irdXtv Kal ov Trpo<; ^acL- 
Xia, eca^* Kvpo<; tov EXeap'Xpv e^eiv. ^Errel S' ovv rjaav 
\d(^avehy^^ hLrjX^eX6y6<foT0 dtcoKgi avTov<; Kvpo<; Tpojpeac^^ 
Kal ol fjbev ev')(ovTO 0)9 hoXcov^ ovTa^ avTov^ Xr}(f>^7]vat,^'^ ol S' 
cpKTetpov ^^ el dXcoaotVTO,^^ 

8. Kvpo^ Ze avyKaXeaa^^'^^ tov<; aTpaTrjyov<^ elTrev ^Airo- 

^When are nouns of the third declens. contracted? — ^§ 169. 2. — ' 
§ 182.— ^Subj.? — ^§ 134. 2. — *§ 91. b. N". 3. — ^ Why mid. voice? — 
' Why optat. ? — « § 225. 7. — ^° § Y9. 5. — " § 134. 1. — ^^ Root ? — " Why 
7rA.6i; here and irA.6 in the pres. ? — ^* Augment? — ^^ Why perispom. ? — 
" Synt. ? — " § 133. A. — '^ Account for i subs. — ^' Root? — ^^ Account for 7. 


XekoiiracTLV^ fijia^ 'Bevim teal JJaalcov ahX ev ye fievroi 
eiriCTTdo'S-coaav otc ovt€ airoh^hpaKacnv*^ olBa jap oirrj ol- 
yovrau* ovre airoire^evyacnv e^co fyap Tpirfpei^ cocrre kXelv^ J 
TO eKelvcov ttKoIov. ^AKKa fia^ rov^ 3-6ov<; ovfc eycoye avrov^ 
Slco^o) • qjuBe ipel ovBeh ct)9 ijoo eco^ fiev av irapfj ^ tc<; %/3co- * 
/laCy iTrechav. Be airievai fiovXrjrac, avXKa^cov koL avTov<; 
Kafco)^ TTOtco fcal ra ')(^prjiMaTa airoorvKC). ^AXKa lovrcovy^ elBo^ 
T69 OTi fccucLov^ elaV irepl rjfjid<; rj '^fiel^ irepl eKeivov^. Kat- 
TOi e^ ye avrcov koL rifcva fcal yxjvoLKa^^ iv TpaXKeat 
^povpovjJLeva' aXX ovBe tovtoov^ GT'eprjaovTai, dXX! diroXrj- 
'\jrcvTat T7]<; irpoa^ev^^ eveKa irepl i/xe dperrj^S' 9,. Kal 6 fiev 
ravra elirev • oi Be '^EW7]ve<;y eo rt? koI d^vixorepb^ rjv irpo^^ 
rrjv dvd/3a(nv,^^ dxavovre^ rrjv Kvpov dperriv rjBiov koX Trpo- 
^vjiorepov avveiropevovro. 

Merd ravra Kvpo^ i'^e\avveL ara^fiov^ rerrapa<; irapa- 
adyya'^ eUo&LV eirl rhv XdXov TrorajioVy ovra rb evpo^ TrXi- 
3^pov, 7r\7]prj S' I'x^vcov fxeydXcov /cal irpaecov,^'^ 0&9 ol Xvpov 
S^eoif^ ivo/JLi^ov /cal dBc/cecv ^^ ovfc eccoVy ovBe rd<; rrepicrrepd^. 
At Be /ccofJLat iv ah €or/C7]VGVv^^ UapvadrcBof;^^ rjcrav eh ^(ovrjv 
BeB&jjievac. 10. 'EvrevB^ev e^eXavvec (Tra!^fJLov<; irevre irdpa- 
adyya^ rpidKOvra eirl rd^ TTTjyd^ rov AapdBaKo^ Trora/iovy^^ 
ov rb evpo^ TrXeBpov. ^Eprav9-a rjcrav ra Be\e<Tvo<^ ^aai- 
\eia rov XvpCa^; ^"^ dp^avjo^y Kal irapdBetao^ irdvv [xeya^ Kal 
Koko^y e')(0)v irdvra ocra^^ oypat <pvovcrc. Kvpo<; S' avrbif 
i^KO-yjre Kal ra fSaaCXeia Ka reKavq ev. 

11. ^Evrev^ev e^ekavvei araBjJLov<; rpeh nrapacrdyya^i 
TrevrexalBeKa eirl rov Evt^pdrrjv irorajiovy ovra rb edpo<; rer- 
rdpcov araBicov • Kal rrr6Xc<; avroS^c (pKelro [xer/dXT] Kal evBacr 
fjLcov ©d'\lraKo<; ovofiarc^y : ^EvravS-a efieivav '^fiepa^ rrevre • 
Kal Kvpo<; fierairefju^^diMevo^ rov^ arparr]yov<; rcjv ^EXkrjvcov 

^§ 99. — 2 g 133^ ^ gQ^ ^j^jgg g^^^ become StSpao-zcw ? — ' § 223. 1. 
Root? — *§ 183.— ^§ 217. 2. — ^§ in. 4. — ^Dif. between etVi and dcn^ 

— «§56. — '§§200. 3; 177. 3. — *«§ 161. 1. — " § 139. — -' § 62. Decline. 

— "§ 222. 3. — "Theme?— '^§ 190. — ^' Why /?empow..^— "Sjnt.?— < 
^^ A pronom. adj. of what kind? — '^§ 206. 2. ^ ^ ^ - '^ ^ 

^,, ,.«/ /?^-/. 

V, \^ LIB.f I. C^P. IJ. 17 

; eXeyev otl t) 6ho<; eaocro Trpb^; ^aacXia fieyav eh Ba^vXcova • 
Kol KeXevec avrov'^ Xiyecv ravra tgI^ aTpaTLcorac^; koI dva- 
irei^eiv eVecr^at. > 12. 01 Se '7roc7]aavT€^ iKKXrjalap airriyyeX' 
Xov ravra' ol Be (TTparccoTaL e')(CiXe7raLVov toc<; aTparrjyol^, 

^'^^ KoX ecbaaav avrov^^ wdXacTavra eiS6Ta<;^ KovirTeiv,^ kol ov/c 
e^aaav levai^ edv yi/ri tl^ avTol<; ')(^pi]/jLaTa otSw/ cocrirep koX 
Tol^ irporepoi^ [xera Kvpov dva/Sdcrc irapd rov Trarepa rov 

. Kvpov, Kot ravra ovic eirl pbd')(r]v iovrcov, dXXd koXovvto'^ 
Tov Trarpb^^ Kvppv, ,13. Tavra ol aTpaT7]yol Kvpco dirriy' 
yeXXov 6 S' uTredr^ero^ dvSpl eKaar^^ Bcocretv irevre dpyv- 
pLOV [ivds,^ errdv^^ eh Ba^vXcova ritcwat, fcal rov /jlcctSov ivre- 
Xt] fJLe')(pL<; dv fcaraarTJcrrj tou9 ^^EXXtjvu^ eh ^Icoviav ^dXiv. 
To [lev Brj TToXv rod ^EXXrjvLfCov ovtco<; eireia^rj, Mevcov Be 
irplv BrjXov elvac ri 7roci](Tovacv ol dXXot arparcciTai, TTorepoi^ 
e-y^ovrau Kupo) rj ov, crvveXe^e to avrov arpdrevfjia %o>pt9 tcoj^ 
aXXcov^^ Kol eXe^e TaBe,^"^ 

14. ^'AvBpe^, edv ifjLol Treta^re, ovre KLvBvvevG-avre^ 

ovre TTOvrjaavTe^ rcov dXXcov 'irXeov TrportfiTjaeaS^e arpartco- 

' tS)V vtto Kvpov. Tl ovv KeXevco iroirjaac ; Nvv Belrav Kvpo<^ 

^ eTrea^aL rov^ ^^EXX7jva<; eirl j^aatXea' eyco ovv ^tj/jlI v[id<i 
')(^p7]vac Bca/3r]vat rov EvcppdrTjv Trora/JibvjTrplv BrjXov elvat^* 
6 TV ol dXXoL ^^EXXrjve<; diroicgLVovvTai Kvpco, 15. 'Rv /juev 
yap 'yJrTjcpLacovTaL ^* eirea^ac, v/ieh Bo^eTe aiTCoc elvac dp^av- 
re? Tov Bia^aivetv^^ ^^ a)<; TrpoB^VfioraToh ovatv vfilv %a/36z^ 
etaeTat Kvpo^ koX dTroBcoarei • {eiriaTaTao o et t^9 koX dX- 
Xo9*) riv^^diTO'^rj^iacovTav ol dXXoc,'^a7niiev puev drravTe^ 
eh TOv/jbiraXcVy vfilv §' 009 fJiovoif; ired^ofievoL^ irtOTOTdTOLf; 
j(^prjcreTav koI eh ^povpca kol eh Xo')(jxy[a<i • koX dXXov ovtl- 
z/09 dv BerjaS-e olBa otl 0)9 (j^tXov Tev^eaS^e Kvpov. ^^ 16. 
^AKovaavTe^ TavTa eirei^ovTO fcal BLefirjaav irplv tov<^ dXXov<; 

'§ 160. 4.— 2§ 133. E. — ^§ 101. 1. Accusative of person (§ 184. 1)? 
— ''g 222. b.— ^Why subjunct.? — ® What does this gen. abs. denote?—^ 
§ 133. T. — «§ 16. 2. — ®Why circumflexed(§43. 5)?— '° Composition?-. 
^' Sy nt. ? — ^ § 74. — " § 223. 1. — " § 143. Theme ? — '' § 189. — " 
§ 197. 2. 




aTTOKpivaaSac. Kvpo<; S' iirel yaBero^ Btafiefirjfcoraf;,^ ija^* 
T€ /cat Tcp o-TpaTev/JLart irejJL'y^a^; TXovv elirev • 'JE^o) fxev, o> 
cipSpe^, 7]Srj vfia^ eiratvo} • 07ra>9 Se ical vfiec^ ,e/te iTracviaere^ 
ijxol /jL€\7](T€c,^ rj fiTjiceTL lie Kvpov vofjbi^€T€*yl7. 01 fxev Brj 
arparccoTat ev okirlcn^ fieyaXaL^; ovre^ €v')^6pto avrov evrv- 
'Xrjaac Mevcovv Se koX Bcopa iXiyero Trefjuyjrac fiejaXoTrpe- 
TTw?. Tavra he Trocrjaa^; Bte/3acve • crvveiireTO he kol to ciWo ! 
crrpdrevfia avT(p airav koI tcov hcafiacvovrcov^ top ttotu- 
[jLov ovheU il3pe')(S^7] dvcorepco ^ twz/ fjLaa^wv ® iirb rod irora- 
/lov. 18. 01 he 0a'\}rafC7]vol eXeyov ore ov ttcottoS-^^ o5to9^° 
6 7roTafib<; hia^aTo<;^^ ^yevoiro ire^y el fjirj Tore, dXXd Trkoioi^ 
a Tore ^A/3po/c6iJLa<; Trpolcov ^^ fcareKauaev, Xva fir] Kvpo<; hca- 
fifj, ^Eho/ceo^ hr] S-elov elvac /cal aa(pw VTroj^coprjaai top 
irorafjiov Kvpcp ct>9 /SacrtXevcrovrc, 

19. ^Evrev^ev e^ekavvet, hid r?}? ^vpia^; crraS^fiov^ epvea\ 
7rapacrdyya<; TrevTrjKovra, koI d^tfcpovvrac 7rpo9 rbv ^Apd^rjv 
TTOTafJLov. ^Evrav^a rjcrav Kwpiai iro'Kkal /jLearal airov koX 
OLVov, ^Evrav^a efxecvav yfJLepa<; rpels /cal iireaiTLaavTo,^^ 

CAP. V. 

1. ^EvrevSev e^eKavveo hcd Tr]<; ^Apafiia<; top Ev(f)pdT7jp 
"irorafjiop ep he^ca e^cop aTa^fMov^ ep7]fjLov<; irePTe Trapaadyja^ 
TpidKopra /cat wePTe. ^Ep tovtco he tS toito:) tjp jiep rj yrj 
irehcop dirap OfiaXop &cnrep S^dXajTa, d'y^ip^iov he TrXype^; ^* 
e^ he Ti Kol aXXo iprjp v\7)<; rj KaXd/xov, dirapra rjaap evcohrj 
oxTTTep dpcofjLara • hephpop 8' ovhep iprjp. 2. Qrjpia he irap- 
Tola,^^ TrXelcTTOC fiep opol dypLOt, ovtc oXlyav^^ he arpovBol al- 
fjbejdXai ' ipTJaap he /cat a)TtSe9 fcal hopKdhe^; • TavTa he tcl 

^ Account for i subs. — ^ § 225. T. — ^ Root ? — * Subj. ? — ^ How formed ? 
— ^§§ 225. 1; 188. 1.— ''§ 65. —^§ 198. 1. — ®§§ 21; 15. 2. Composi- 
tion?— ^°§ 163. 1. — "§ 14-2. — "§ 95. 1. — '^ Theme? -—"Decline. — 
'^ Why properispomenon (§§ 142 ; 30. 4) ? — ^^ § 64. K 

\ LIB. I. CAP. V. 19 


S^pia oi lirv^h ^viore iBtcofcov.^ Kal oi fiev ovot, iirei rc<; 
Slcokoc, TrpodpajJLovre^^ av eorTacray*^ ttoXv <yap tcov Ilttttcov 
3-aTTOV GTpe^ov fcal ttoKlv iirel irXr/acd^oL^ 6 Xitito<^ ravrov 
eiroiovv,^ kov ovk rjv Xa^elv, el [mtj Bcaardvre^ ol InTTrel^ ^7]- 
pcpev^ hiahexoiJi^^voL tol^ lttttocW Ta Be Kpea tcov aKtcrKOfjii- ,i^ 
vcov " '^v TrapaifKrjCTLa Tot^ iXa(f)eLOt<;, aTraXxorepa Be. 3. ^ '^^^ 
Xrpov^ov Be ovBeU eXa/3ev* oi Be Bm^avre^ tcov linrecov^ 
Tayv eiravovTO • ttoXv fyap direairaTO (pevjovaa, tol^; fiev 
TTOcTi opofjio), Tac^ 06 iTTepv^LV upaaa, coairep ccTTKp %pci)- 
/xevT], Ta^ Be cDTLBa<; dv tc<; Ta'xp dvccTTrj, ea-TC Xa/Jifidvecv, 
TreTovTav ^' ^ap ^pdyy^ coo-irep irepBc/ce^, /cal Taj^y dTrayopeV" 
overt, Td Be Kpea avT&v 7]Bc(TTa rjv. 

• 4. Uopevofxevov Be Bid TavTT}^ tt]^ %c6pa9 dcpifcvovvTac eirl f,^^^ 
Tov MacTKuv iroTa/ioVy to evpo^ i fke^pL cuov.^^ ^EvTav^a rjy.jj 
* 7roA;^9 epTjfJbT], fieydXr], ovojia^^ Be avTjj KopacoTrj' Trepceppel- 
L TO^^ Se avTTj viro tov Maarjcd KVfcXip: ^EvTavB^a efietvav 97/1,6- 
pa9 Tpel^ KoX eTreaLTicravTo,^^ 5. ^EvTev^ev i^eXavvec aTa- 
i&/iou9 eprjfjbov^ Tpel<; fcal Bifca nrapaadyya^; evevrjicovTa tov 
Ev^pdTTjv iroTapbov iv BePua e')(Q)v, /cal d^LKvetTat eirl Uvka^. 
^Ev TOVTOL^ Toc<; cTTaS-fJiOL^ iToXXd TCOV vTro^vjlcov diroiKeTo ^^ 
viro XcfJLOv • ov ydp rjv ')(ppk'0^ ovBe dWo ovBev BevBpov, dWd 
ylnXr} rjv diraaa^^ 97 X^tpcC' oi Be ivot/covvTe^ ovov<; dXeTa^ 
Trapd TOV TTOTafiov 6pvTT0VTe<; real woLovvTe^ eh Ba^vXcova 
^yov Kal eTTcoXovv Kal dvTayopd^ovTe^ alTov e^cov. 6. To Be 
crTpdT€v/xa OjOttcm? eTreXiire, Kal 'irpiacr^ai ovk rjv el (irj ev Ty 
AvBia dyopa ^^ iv tg> Kvpov fiap^aptKO}, ttjv KajriS^v '' dXev- 
pcov Tj dX(j)iTCOV TeTTdpcov criyXcov^^ 6 Be aiyXo^; BivaTat"^^ 
eiTTd 6/3oXov^ Kal tjixlo^oXlov ^Attckov<;' rj Be KaTTL^rj Bvo 
'XpivLKa^^^ ^ATTLKd^ ep^cojoet." Kpea ovv e(j^lovTe<; oi cTTpaz .. 

' What does this imperf. denote ? — ^ § 133. T. — ^§§ 211. K 6 ; 215. 1. 
— -^ Theme?— .^§211. N. 10.-— ®§ 117. c. — "^SyntfT- 'Signif. of perf. 
act. (§ 20Y. N. 2)? — ^§ 188. 1. — ^°Nom. how formed? — "§ 110. N. 5. 
■— '2 Dep. pass, or dep. mid. ? — " § 142. — ^'^ §§ 150. 4 ; 149. 2. — ^^ §§ 95. 
1; T. 2. — ^^ Why mid. voice? — " Root? Logical subject (§ 149. 2)? — 
'' §§ 59. N. 5 ; 13. 8 ; 14. 4. — " Why perispom. .^ — 20 g 200. 4. — ^i g 2IO. 
N. 1. — 2^ Theme? 

20 1^ \ \ EXPEDITIO CYRI. 

Tccorac BLeycyvovro, 7. ^Hy Be tovtcov tcov ara^jjbSyv^ o&9^ 
irdw fxafcpov^ rjkavveVy OTrore r) 7rpo9 vScop ^ ^ovKolto Bcafe^"" 
Xiaav t) Trpb^ ')(i\6v. Kal Bt] Trvre^arevo^^copia^^ kol irrjkov 
(^avevTO^ rals d/JLu^ac^ Bvairopevrov^ eirearr) o^^^po^ crvv 
rol^ rrrepl avrov dpicrTOi^ kol evBaLfJboveaTdroL^ koX era^e^ 
TXovv Kal UtypTjra Xa^ovra^; tov- j3ap^apLK0v arpaTov^ 
cruv€/c^c^d^€Lv'' rds d/Jid^a^, 8. ^Eirel Se eBoicovv avTO) (t^o-^ 
Xaico^ TToielvy ioairep opjfj i/ciXevae rov^ irepl avroi* IIepaa<; 
TOV<; fcparicrTOV^ avveTTcairevp'ac rds d/jid^a<;. fO'Ev^a Br) jie- • 
po^ Ti^ Tr]^ evra^ia^ r\v ^edaaaSat. 'Pl-yjravre^;^ yap rov^ 
7rop(f>vpov^ fcdvBv<i^^ oirov €rv)(^€v eKacrros ea-rr] /€(!)<;, ^^ levro 
coairep dv Bpdfioi tl<^ jrepX vifcr)<;y Kal fJbdXa Kara irpavov^ 
ryr]\6<})0Vy e'XpvTe^ tovtov^ t6 tou? TroKvrekel^ ')(^LTcova<; Kal 
ra? TTOCKiXa^ dva^vpcBa^;, evioC Be Kal aTpeiTTOv^ irepl toI<^ 
Tpa')(rj\oL^ Kal ^freWva irepl Tac<; %^pcr/i; • ev$^v<; Be avv rov- 
TOi^ ela'ir7]Br}aavTe^ eh top irrfKov ^drrov ^^ t) w9 tl^ dv (oero 
fxeredopov^ i^eKO/JLcqav Td<; dfid^a^. 9. To Be avjMiTav BrfKo^ 
rjv K.vpo<; airevBcov irdaav rrjv oBov ^^ Kal ov oiarpi^cov ottov 
[IT] eTnaLTiaiiov eveKa rj rivh^ dXkov dva^Kalov eKa^e^erOy 
vofJbi^coVy oa-q) puev dv Bdrrov eXS^ot^y rocrovra) dirapaaKevaaTO' 
repcp^^ fiacTiXel ixd')(ecr^aiy "octg) Be a^oXac^epov^ rocrovTG) 
^;^/*f€"X€oi/ orvvayeipecrBac ^fiaacXec^rpdrevfia. f Kal avvcBecv S* 
Pj yv T(p irpoG-e')(ovTL rov vow i) paacXeco^ dpyrj TrXrj^et jxev 
§ ^ ^copa^ Kal avS-ncoTTcov lG-j(ypd ovaray tol^ B^ firjKeat, tcov oScov 
Kal tS Biecrirda^aL ^^ t^? Buvd/xeL^; dq^evrj<:;y^i Tt<; Bca ra^^^e- 
cov Tov TToXefjiov TrqcotTO, '"^• 

^^ 10. Hepav Be rov Ev^pdrov irorafiov^^ Kara tov<^ eprj- 
^ fiQV^ aTa9-fiov<^ rjv ttoXls evBaifJicov Kal /jieydXrjy ovofia Be 
Xap/MdvBr], ^Ek TavT7]<; pi G-rparcSyraL rjjopa^ov^^ rd eirirri' 1 
Beiay cr^eS/afc9 Bca^aiVOVTe<; (S>Be, Ac(f)3^epa<;.d^ ^^X^^ (TKeTrd- 

K I 

^ Synt. ? — 2 g 5g __ 3 Composition ? — ^ § 142. — ^ Tense-root ? — ^ § 191. 
— '§ 101. 1. Force of o-i;y and e'/c in this word ?--« § ST. b. — ^§ 4. 2.— 
^° Why not perispom. in accus. plur. like Ix^hs (§ 47. ^^'r- ^i:§ 225. 8. — 
12 §§ 10; 135. 1. Compare. — "§ 182. — ^^ Theme? -f^^§ 225. 1. — " 
§ 206. 2. — " § 222a 2. — " § 187. 4. — '^ Theme ? § 143. 

LIB. I CAf-^J^ 21 

(Tiiara^, eirtii'Trkacrav^ 'Xpprov^'^Kov^ov, elra a-vvrjyov koX 
f^ avviaTTCov, jo^; jjbf) 'aTrreaS^ao] T7]^ fcdpcj)r](;^ to vScop,^ ^EttI 
TOVTcov Sce/Sacvov koX iXdfipavov TaTeTnTT^Seca, olvov re e'/c 
T^9 ^cCKavov TreiTOLrjfjLevop^ tt}? dirb tov (^olvlko^'' koX alrov 
fJi,e\Lvr}<; • ® tovto yap rjv iv rfj %c6pa TrKeiarov, 

11. ^Afi^tXe^dvTcov Be n ivrav^a t&v re tov Mivcovo^ 
CTpaTLcoTcbv KoX Tcov TOV KXedp')(pVy 6 K\eap')(o<^ Kpiva^ dhi- 
Kelv Tov^ TOV Mev(ovo^ 7r\7]<ya<; ive^aXev 6^^ S' iXBcov 7rpb<; 
TO iavTov <7TpdT6VfjLa e Xeyep ' dKov<javTe<^ S' ol cTpaTccoTao 
i'XaXeTraLVOV /cal oypyi^QVTO^^ ior')(vpc!)<; rw KXeap^p. 12. Tfj 
S' avTjj rj/jiipa KX€ap')(p<^ iX^cov eTrl ttjv Btd^aatv^^ tov iroTa- 
fjLOV KoX i/cel KaTacTKe^djievo^ ttjv dyopav d^LirireveL^^ iirl 
Trjv avTOV afCTjvrjv, Sea tov Mivo)vo<; crTpaTevfiaTO^ crvv oKl- 
70 19 Tol<^ irepl avTov (Kvpo<; S' ovirco rj/cev, dX)C €tl Trpoarj- 
Xavve •) TCOV Be Mevcovo<; aTpaTCcoTcov ^vXa ayiC^cov tl<; co? elBe 
yC TOV KKeap')(pv BtekavvovTa, trjao ttj d^ri. Kal o5to9 fiev 
avTOv ^^ 7]/jiapTev/^ dWo<; Be Xl^g) kuI dXXo^;, elra ttoXXoI, 
sj Kpavyr](; yevo/Jbev7]<;,^^ ^^^ ^" 

/^ 13. 'O Be KaTa^evyei eh to eavTov aTpdTevfia, fcal ev^v^; 
W irapayyeXXev eh tcl oirXa* fcal Tovg [lev OTrXtra? avrov e/ce- 
\. Xevae fielvai^^ Ta? dcr7riBa<; nrpo^ tcl yovaTa^^ ^evra^' avTo<; 
£e Xa^cbv T0U9 QpaKa^ Kal tov^ tTTTrea? ot rjaav avTO) iv tcS 
J^/ c-rparevfMaTC TrXetoi;?" rj TerTapd/covra, tovtcov S* ol irXela-rot 
/ QpaKe^, rjXavvev eirl tou? Mevcovo';,^'^ cocTTe eiceivov^ eH^ire- 
TrXrij^ai'^^ Kal avrov Mevcova, Kal Tpe'^eiv iirl tcl orrXa. Gl 
Be Kal ea-Taaav^^ diropovvre^ t& irpdyjxaTi. 14. ^O Be Tlpo- 
^ei/09, eTV')(e yap vaTepo<^ TTpoaccbv^^ Kal Taf49 avroj eTTOfievT] 
TCOV ottXctcov, et'^u9 ovv eh to fiecrov d/ji^OTepcav dycov e^ero 

i§ 139.— 2 §133^ n. — '§ 200. 3. — * §192. 1. — ^Why does u take the 
rough breathing ? — ^ Account for tj in the antepen. — "^ Nom. how formed ? 

— 'What relation does this gen. denote? — '§ 168. 1. — '° § 166. 2. — ^^ 
Theme? — ^^What do verbal nouns ending in as denote? — ^^§ 211. K 1. 

— "§ 197. 2. — ^^ Root ? — ''' What does this gen. abs. denote? — "Why 
properispmn, ? — " § 56. — ^^ Compare and decline. — ^° Relation denoted? 

— ^^How is 'ir\T]<T(T formed from irXay (§ 133. 11)? Account for x i^ the pe- 
nult.— ^^ Why the imperf. ? — '^ § 225. 8. ' 



jy^^ ra oTrXay kol iBelro rod Kkedp^ov /Jt^rj iroielv ravra. 'jO^k^ 
i '^ . iyaXeiratvev oro Uvtov okiyov Be^aavros KaraXevo'^rivav^ \ 
irpdo)^ \iyoL to avrou 7rd^o<;' eKekeve re avrov ck tov fiiaov 
i^laraa'^aL^ 16. ^Ev tovtcd Se iirrjeL koX Kvpo<; ical eirif^e-y 
To^ TO TTpdy/jLa, €v^v<; S' eXafie tcl TraXTa ek Ta<; %eZpa? koX 
avv Toc<; irapovai^ to)V irtaTOdV^ r]K€V iXavvcov eh to fiecroVy 
Koi Xeyeo TciSe, 16. KXeap')(e koX Tlpo^eve koX ol dXXot ol 
irapovTe^; '^EXXrjve^;, ovic laTe^ 6 tl rrrocelTe, ' El yap Tiva"^ 
oXXtjXol^ jjbd')^rjv avvdylreTe vofil^€T€ iv rfjSe ttj rjfMepa ifie t6^ 
KaTU/ce/coylrea^at^ koX i/xa? ov ttoXv i/xov vaTepov /caKco^ ^' 
yap Tcov rjfjLeTdpcov e')(pvTO}V 'jidvTe<; ovtol ipu? opaTe^fidp/Sapot, 
nroXejiLwrepoL 7]iuv eaovTai hcov^ nrapd /SaaiXec ovtcdv. 17.^ ^ 
^AK0vaa<; ravra^ 6 KX€ap')^4^ iv iavToi eyeveTO* Kal Travad-^ . 
fjLevoc^^ dfi^oTepoL Kara x^P^^ e^evTo^rd oirXa, 



1. ^Evrev^ev ^polovrcov^^ icf^alyeTo^^ i^yLa lttttcov fcal KOt 
Trpo<; €LKd^6T0 Be elvat 6 o'tI/3o<; o)? Bcaxt-XLcov ^^ Linrcov,^ Ovtol 
TTpoloPTe^ e/catov fcal ^^Xov Kal el' tc dXXo ^PW^I^^^ V^* 
^Op6vT7]<; Be Uepar]^ dv^p, jd^^^ * '^^ irpoarjKoiV fiaacXel Kal 
rd TroXe/jLLKa^^ Xeyo/jLevo^; ev toI<; dpiaToc^; Ilepaojv^^ i7rc/3ov- 
Xeveo Kvp(p Kal irpoa^ev iroXe/JbTjcra';. 2. KaTaXXaj€l<; Be 
ovTo^ Kvpqy elirev, el avT& Boltj ^^ l7nrea<i x^Xlov<;, ore Tov<i 
TrpoKaraKalovTa^ iTriT,ea<^ rj KaTaKaivot, dv iveBpevaa^; fj ^cop- 
Ta9 7roXXov<^ avrcov ^ eXocj Kav KcoXvaece'^ tov Kaieiv^^ eTn- 
oPTa^, Kal TTOLrjaeLev coaTe ixrjTroTe BvVaa^ai avTov^ IBovTa^^^ 
TO Kvpov cTpdTevfia fiaacXel BiayyelXau. ToJ Be Kvpcp aKov- 

^ Synt. ? — 2 Relation denoted ? — ^ Root ? — * What is this participle pre- 
ceded by the article, equivalent to? — *§ 188. 1.— ®§§133; 129. 2.—-'^ 
Why not accented? — «§ 211. N. 3. —^ Synt. ?—^° Why mid. voice?—" 
§§39; 226. — "Why sing.? —13 §'79. 1. — ^' §206. 2. — ^'* Deri v.> Synt.? 
— 1«§ 188. 1.— ''§ 215. 1. — '^§ 118. 4. — ^'§§222. 2; 197. 2,—^ 
§ 133. E. 

; en. 

aavTi ravra iSofceu a>(l)6\cfia ^ elvac • /cal ifceXevaev avrov 
\afifidv€LV fjL6po<; irap e/cdarov tcov rjyefJLovcoy. J 

3. 'O Se 'Op6vT7]<^ vofjblaaf; eTOi/JLov\^ avro) elvai rov^ Itt- 
ir€a<; fypd^ec kn-LaroXrjv irapd fiaatkea on ij^oc e^cov iinrea^ 
o)? av Svvrjrac TrXecarov^ ' dXka (j)pdaat,^ roh eavrov lirirev' 
mv^ i/ceXevev o)? (piXiov avrbv v7roh6')(^6cr^ac, ^Ev7]p S' eV 77} 
eTnaroXri kcu t^9 Trpoa^ep* <piXia^ vTrofivij/JLara /cal Trtcrreco?. 
TavT7]P Tr]v i'Trca'ToXrjv SiScoat inar^ duSpt w aiero' 6 Se Xa- 
/3cbz/ Kvpo) BeiKwacv. 4. ^Avayvov^^ Se avrrjv 6 Kv£o<; avX- 
Xafi^dvei^ ^Op6vT7]V, /cal avyKoXei'^ eh rrjv eavrov aK7]vr)v 
Uepa&v Tov^ apiarrov^ t(ov^ irepl avrov eirrd • Kal rov<; rcou 
'EXX^vcov Grpar7]ypv^ A/ceXevev oirXCra^ dyayeiPj rovrov^ Se 
^ea^ac ra oirXa irepl rrjv avrov aKTjvrjv. Oi Be ravra eirol' 
Tjaav, dyayopre^; co? rpL(T')(^bXlov<^ oirX^a^^^^^. KXeap'^ov Se 
/cal eiaco irape/cdXecre avpb^o'bW^^ 09 ye Kal avroi /cal roi^ 
aXXoL^^ iBo/cec rrporiix7fisr}vai fjidXcara rcov ^EXX')]vcov. ^Eirel 
S' i^rjX^ev, e^rjyyeiXe rol<; (j^iXot^ ryv Kpiatv rov ^Opovrov o)? 
iyevero* ov yap drropprirov^ r]v, -'Ecpr] Be Kvpov ap')(eLV rov 
XJi^ov* a)Be' r ^ " V^^ : 

^ 6. Uape/cdXeda u^d<;^ avSpe^ ^/Xo^, ottco? avp v/jllp /3ou- 
Xevojievo^^ 6 n BcKatop iarc /cat TVpoT^ecop Kal m'po^ dp'^po)- 
ITCOP, rovro 7rpa ^^° irepl ^Opoprov rovrovV^ Tovrov yap 
irpoyrop jmep 6 efio^ Trarrjp eBco/cep vittj/coop epLol elpac.^^ ^Eirel 
Be Ta;^^e/9j 0)9 ecj^T] avr6<;, viro rov ifiov dBeX(pov ovro^ eiroXe- 
fjL7]crep ifiol e'^cov rrjp ep ^dpBecnp d/cpoiroXiP, /cal iyco avrop 
TrpoaTToXefioiP eirolrjcra coare Bo^ac^rovro) roju irpo<; e/xe iroXe- 
fiov ^* iravaaa^dc, /cal Be^idp eXajBop Kal eBcoKa, 7. Merd 
ravra, ej>r)^ Sy^Opopra,^^ ecrrtp o rc^^ cre rjBiKrjaa '^^'^ 'O Be 
direKpiparo, on ^^ ov. UdXtp Be 6 Kvpo<; ypcora • Ovkovp '^. 
varepop, 0)9 avro<; av J^fioXoyec^;, g^Bep vir i/uLov dBiKOVfj^epo^ 

'§ 142.-~'Root? — ^i^^jjy properispomJ -^'^ % 169. l.--^§§ 133. T; 
48. 1; 13. 8; 14. 4. — «§§ 14. 3; 211. N. — ''§ 14. 2.~«§§ 142; 4. 2.-^ 
» § 197. 2. -— 1« § 214. 1. — " § 77. 1. — " § 222. 6. — " Synt. ? — " § 43. a. 
— "Why S Tt and not 6Vt? Synt. (§ 182)?— ^^^ Theme? — "§213. 1.— 

. / V '^ ' / 


atroara^; eh Mvaov<; Kaicw e7roLet<;^ rrjv ifJLrjv x^P^^ ^ '^^ 

iSvVO) ;^ "E(j)7} 6 ^OpOVTT)^. OvKOVV^ €(f)7] 6 KvpO^^ OTTOT UV 

eyvco^^ Tfjp <^€avTov hvvafxtv^ iX^cov eirl top t^9 ^Apre/jicSo^ 
^cofjiov [JLeTCLp^eKeLV re aot e07;cr^a^ koI ireiaas ifie^ Trcara Trd- 
Xcv eScofcd^ /not fcal eXaySe? Trap' e/zoO ; Kal ravif' ^ o)/jLo\6y€C 
I / 6 ' OpovTr]^. j \^. TJ ovv, €(j)7) 6 Kvpo<;^ d Btfcrj ^eh vtt i/jLov vvu 
^^^J3?^To rpiTov iinpovkevcov^ jjlol <})av€p6<; yiyova<; ; Elttovto^ Be 
Tov ^OpovTOV ore ovSev"^ dScfcrf^ek, ypcoTTjaev^ 6 Kvpo'; avrov* 
^OfidXoyeh ovvrrrepl i/ie dBLKo<i^ yeyevija^at ; '^H yap dvdy- 

K7], €(j)7J 6 ^OpOVTT]^. ^EfC TOVTOV TTuXiV ypCOTTjaeV 6 KvpO^ • 

*'Etl ovv av yevoio tS ijmo) dSeX^ai irdXefiio^^ i/xol Se koX ^t- 
X09 KoX iTLcrTos ; ^O he direKpivaro ore ovS* ei yevoifjirjv, & 
Kvpe, aoL y av ere it ore ho^aifiu ^.< "^ ' ' -^-w*-^ 

9. ilpo? ravra 6 Kvpo<; elire rots nrapovcLV 'O [lev dvrjp 
TOiavra jxev ireTToirjfce, Totavra he Xeyet, • v/jlcov Be av irpS>TO^, 
o) KXeap^e, dirocj^rjvaL yvco/jLTjv 6 tl gqi Sofcec. KXeap^o^ Be^ 
elrce rdBe ^v/n^ovXeTJCo iyco top avBpa tovtov^^ i/ciroBcov^^ 
iTOLelcF^ai CO? Ta;)^tcrTaj co? f^rj/circ Berj tovtov ^vkdrrecr^au 
dWd <ij(oXr] fj tj/jliv to /card tovtov elvat ^^ tol9 e^KeXovthi^ 
^lXov<; tovtov^ ev irotelv. 10. TavTrj Be ttj yvclofir) ecfyrj Kal 
T0U9 dXXov<i irpocr^ea^ai, Metd TavTa KeXevovTo<; Kvpov 
eXd^ovTO T?79 ^covr)<;^^ tov ^Op6vT7]v eirl ^avdT(pj d7ravTe<; 
dvaaTdvTe<; Kal ol crvyyev/U • ^* elra Be e^rjyov avTov 0I9 
7rpoa-eTd')^7}. ^Eirel Be ABov avTOV ocTrep Trpoa^ev irpoae- 
KvvovVj Kal TOTe nrpoaeuvvr^aaVy^^ Kalirep elBoTe^; otc eirl Sra- 
vdro) dyocTO.^^J^ll, Eirel Be eU ttjv ^ApTairdTOV <TK7]vfjv 
el(Trjve')^7] tov TriaTOTdTov tcov Kvpov aKrj'TTTOvxcoVj^^ fxeTa 
TavTa ovre ^cjvTa ^Opovrrfv) ovTe Te^vrjKOTa ^® ovBeU elBe ttco' 
irore^ ouS' 07rci)9 dire^avev ovBel^; elBoi)<; eXeyev eiKa^ov S' 

dXXoc aXXct)9' Ta^09 8' qvBel<^ TrooiroTe avTOv €(pdv7j. 

\ -- "" ^ ^ 

^ § 184. N. 2. — 2 § 123. — 3 § 126. 1. What connect, vowel is dropped 
(§ 116)? — ^§ 115. 3. — ^Account for 3'. — '§ 225. '?.—''§ 182. — *Ac- 
cus. of thing (§ 184. 1) following this verb ? — '•'§ 224. — ^' § 110. 2. — " 
§ 135. 3. — ^2 § 223. 2. 9. — ^» § 192. 2. — " Account for 7 in the antepen. 
— . » Theme ? — ^' § 213. 2. — " Why paroxytonei — '« § 133. a 



^ ^r -^ ' IZ?^^U^ ^''^^^^O^^^ 

LIB. I. CAP. VII. ^13-^^-^"^- 25 

CAP. Til, . // 

1. 'Evfev^ev e^eXavvet S/.a riji Ba^vKcovia^ crra^^ov^ 

rpeU irapaadyyas SdSeKa, 'Ev be tS) rplra) ara^/iw Kvpo^ 

J^eraacv iroielraL tcov 'EWtjvcov koI tcou /3ap/3dpo)V ev rS 

■'n-eSicp irepl jieaa^ vvicTa<^*^ iSofcec jag €6? ttjv eTTLovcrav eco 

ij^€LV ^aatXea avv rS arparev/jLarc fjLd)^ovfi€vov '^ koI i/ce- 

Xev6 KXeap'Xpv fxev rod Se^iov Kepco^^ r^yelar^ai, Mevcova Se 

TOP ©erraXbv rod evcovvfiov • avrb^ Se tou9 iaurov Siera^e, 

2. Merd Se ttjv i^eracni^^afia rrj emovcrrj '^p^^^a^ 7]fcovTe<; av- 

TQfJLoXot Trapd jJuejdXov ^acrcXeco^^ dirrjjyeXXov Kvpco Trepl rr}^ 

^aaiXeco^ arpaTid^. Kvpo^ Be c-vyKaXeaa<^^ jov^ G-Tparrjyov^ 

/cat Xo^ayoijs tcov 'EXXrjvcov avve/SovXevero^ re ttw av rrjv 

fid')(7]v TrotdcrOj Kal avro^ TraprjveiJ ^appvvcov rotdSe, 3. ^/2-^ 

/fivhpe^ '^E^Xrjve^, ovk dv^pcorrcovi diropcov /3ap^dpcov apppd- 

J(pv9 vpbd<^ dycD^ a\Xa vopc^cjv dp€CVOva<; Kal Kpeirrov^ ttoX- 

Xcov fiap^dpcov vpd<; etvau. hid tovto TrpoaeXa^ov. ' Oirco^^ 

ovv ecfecr^e^ dvSpe<; d^Lou ti)<; iXev^epla^^ rj^^^ Kejcrrjcr^e Kal 

,fV7r€p ^? vpd<; iyo) evSatpovi^co.^^ Ev yap ^ '^'^t€. on ttjv iXev- 

* ^ 6p lav ^' eXo I prjv civ dvrl o)v e-y^co j^dvrcov Kat^dXXcov jroXXa- 

7rXaaLcov.\k4:. [07rco<; Be Kal elBrfre eh olov^^ ep')(^ea^e dycjvfc^ 

X^yoo vpd^ elBoo^ BtSd^oy, To pev yap ttX^S-o? ttoXu Kal Kpav- 

' yfj^^ TToXXfj 'e7rL(icnv' dv Be ravra dvda')(7]a^e^ rd aXXa^^iKoX 

^"'ala^vvear^ai p.6i Bokco olov^ rj^lv yvcoaea^e rou? iv rfj %copa 

6vTa<? dv^pd)iTov^, 'Tpwv Be ^vBpcov^^ ovrcov Kal evroXpcov 

^ yevopbevcdVy i^M vpcov^^ top pLev olKoBe jiovXopLevov dinevaL 

] Toh OLKOL ^^ ^rjXcoTov ttoctJcto) aTTeX^elv • ttoXXou? S' olp^ao 

' 7roi7]crecv rd^^ irap ip^ot eXea^av dvrl toov oXkol, 

5. 'Evrav^a TavXirr]'^ Trapcov c^i/ya? XdpLio^^ 7ri(7T6<; Be 

I ^ Xom. how formed ? — - § 225. 5. — ^ § 47. 3-as. — ^ Synt. ? — * Why € 

j in the penult, contrary to gen. rule (§ 107)? — ® Why two accents? — "^ Ac- 
' count for the i subs. — « § 214. K 3. —^§200. N. 2. — ^« Synt. ? — " Theme? 

— '^§ le39-m. — ^^ Pronom. adj. of what kind?— '*§ 182.— .^^§§ 56; 34. 

q.— '^ § 188. 1. — " § 134^0?— '^ § 168. 2. 


Kvp(p^ elire • KoX /jLrjvy a> Kvpe, Xiyoval rcve; ori TroXXa vttl- 
o^X^V ^^^ Sia^o ev TOLOVTcp elvai tov Ktvhvvov Trpoatovro^* av 
S' €v yevTJTal tl^ ov (Jbefivrja'^ai^ ae^ (f)acnvj eviot he ovK ei 
/jL€/jLVw6^ re teal /3ov\olo hvvaa^at av airohovvaL ocra* vTrc- 
s^ G-'xyfj, 6. ^AKovaa^ ravTa eXe^ev 6 Kvpo^;' 'AX)C eaTL jjuev 
^-^rj/jilvy 0) av8p€^, 7] apx^ rj 7raTp(pa irpo^ fxev fiecrrj/xfipiap fie- 
■^ ^? %p£? 01)^ Sea fcavjMa ov hvvavrai oUelv av^pcoirot' 7rpo<; Se 
dpicrov fiixP'^^ o^ S^^ %6r/ta)z^a • ra S' ip /neacp tovtcov airavra 
crarpaTrevovcnv oi rod €/jlov aSeXcjyov (j)iXot. .^ 7. 'Hv S* rj/meU 
VLKrjacofjLev, rj/md^ Bel rov^ rjfxeTepov<^ ^iXov<; Tovtcov ijKparel<; 
iTOLrj(TaL ''Sla-Te ov tovto SeSotfca^ jxr]^ ovk, e^oi o tc Sco eKa^ \ 
cTTcp Tcov (J)lXo)Vj uv €v jevTjTat,^ dXXa (jlt) ovk e^o) lfcavov<; oh 
Sco. 'TfjLMV 8e Tcov ^EXXtJvcov Kol aT€(j)avov i/cdcTTM ^puo"o{}i^ 
ScocTO), 8. 01 Be ravra dKovaavre^ avroC re rjaav ttoXv irpo- 
{^u- ^VjJborepoi KoX rol^ dXKot<; i^rjjjeXXov, Elcrrjea'av Be irap 
avTov oX re ajparrjyol kol tcov dXXcov ^EXX7]vcov nve^,^ d^c- 
ovvres elBevai rt at^icnv ecrrac, idv /cparT^a-cocrlv. 'O Be ifxin- I 
TrXa? dirdvTCDV rrjv jvco/jLtjv direTrefjiTre. 9. UapeKeXevovro^ 
avTM Trajrre? oaoiirep BieXeyovro fir] fidx^o-^aij dXX^ oirca^ev 
eavTOiv^^ Tdrrea^ac. ^Ev Be^ro) Katpro rovrco KXeap^os o)Be 
iro}^ rjpeTO Kvpov Oiec j^^^ag^ cot jxaxelcr^ai, Sy Kvpe, tov 
dBeX(p6v ; , Nrj ^^ Ai\ €(f>7) 6 Kvpo<;, etirep ye Aapeiov koI Ua- 
pvcrdriBof; ^ ecm irats^ ijjbo^ Be dBeX^o^, ovk dyiayel ravra eyco 
X7]yfro/jLac. i 

10. ^ Evrav^a Brj ev rfj e^07rXt(Tia dpt^/xo^^^ eyevero rS>v 
fxev ^EXXrjvcdV d(77n<; fjuvpia kuI rerpaKoaca • TreXracrral Be 
Biax^Xioc Kal irevraKocTLOL • ridv Be fierd Kvpov /Bap^dpcov 
BeKa fivpidBes Kal dpfxara Bpeiravrjipopa d/ncf)! rd eLKoac. 11. 
Tcov Be TToXe/iLcov eXeyovro elvat eKarov Kal ecKocrc ixvpidBe^ \ 
Kal dpfiara Bpeiravrjcpopa BcaKoata, ^AXXol Be rjcrav e^a- 

^ Would this word have received two accents had it been paroxytone ? — 
'*§ 37. a. — ^Account for the i subs. — ^ §§ 172.4; 76. Demons. 1. — ^ 
§§ 199 ; 175. K -- « § 112. 1 ; 133. A. — ^ § 214. a. ; 230. N. 4. — « § 152. 
a. _ 9 Why does this enclitic retain its accent? — ^** Synt. ? — " § 183. — ^ 
Subj. or pred. ? 

LIB. I. CAP. VII. 27 

KicT'^iKioi cTTTreU, &v ^Aprayipar^i; VPX^^' ovroc Be irpo avrov 

jSaackico^; reray/JLevot rjaav, 12. Tov he ^aaCkeco^ arpaTev- 

jjLaro^ rjaav ap')(ovre<^ koI crrpaTTjyol koI r]ye^6ve<^ Terrape^, 

TpLci/covra fivpidScjv e/caaro^, ^A^pofco/xa^^ Tiaaacf^epVT]^, Tco- 

^pva<^^ ^Ap^d/CT]^. TovTo)P Se nrapeyevovro ev rfj fid'^^^r] ivve- 

vrjicovTa fivptdhe^ Kol dpfiara SpeTravrjcj^opa eKarou /cat irevTrj- 

Kovra' ^A/SpoKOfJLa^ yap vareprjae tt}? pid')(r)^^ riibi€pa<; mrevre, 

^ ifc ^ocpl/cr}<; ekavvcov. 13. Tavra he ijyyeWov 7rpo<; Kvpov oi 

r avTOfio\r}aavTe^ etc rcov TroXefiioov irapa fieydXov fiaaiXeo)^ 

. irpo tt}? P'd')(7]^' Kcti fiera rrjv /xd'^Tjv, oc varepov iXt]^^ rjaav 

Tcov TroXejbLLcoPj ravrd rjyyeXXov, 14. ^Evrev^ev Se Kvpo^ 

j e^eXavvei ara^fiov eva 'Trapaadyya<; rpec^ avvTerayfjievG) tm 

I CTparevfJiaTt^ Travrl Kal rco 'EXXtjvl/co) Kal tq) ^ap^apiKM* 

I wero^ yap ravrj) rrj rj/J.epa fjia^eta^av ^aatXia* Kara yap 

fieaov TOV ara^p.ov rovrov Tdcf>po<; rjv opVKTT)* /Sa^ela, to jmev 

€vpo<; opyvcal Trevre, to Be ^d^o<; opyvcal Tpel<^. 15. Uape- 

TeTttTo ^ Be rj Td(f>po^ dvco Bca tov rreBiov iiri BcoBe/ca rrapa- 

cdyya^ fJie'^pt' tov TVLrjBla^ Tei')(ov<;, ^'Ev^a Brj eialv at Btco- 

y pv^e^, dirb tov TiyprjTO^ TTOTa/xov peovaac • ^ elal ^ Be rerra- 

• : p€?, TO /lev evpo<; irXe^pcataL,^ ^a^elat Be layvpw, Kal irXoca 

,' ttX^l ev avTol^ atTayoyydP ela^aXXovac Be 6/9 tov Ev^pdTTjv^ 

BiizX^LTrova-L^^ Be eKaaTr) nrapaadyyrjv, ye(f)vpatf Be eTreiaiv. 

16. "^Hv Be Trap avTov tov Ev(ppdT7]v TtdpoBo^ cTevy fieTa^v 

TOV TTOTapLOV^^ Kal TTj'^ Td(f)p0V CO? elfCOCTC TToBcov TO eS^o?. 

J TavT7]v Brj TTjV Ta^pov ^acrtXev^ fjieya<; irocel dvTL ipvfxaTO^, 
^ iTreLBrj ifikJ^dveTat Kvpov nrpo&eXavvovTa.^'^ 17. TavTrjv Brj 
J TTJV irdpoBov Kvp6<; Te zeal rj aTpaTtd TraprjX^e Kal eyevovTO 
etaco TTjg Td(f,pov. TavTjj jiev ovv Trf Tjjxepa^^ ovk epba'^k.cjaTO 
^acTiXevSi dXh! viTO')(copovvTa)v t^avepa rjaav Kal ltt'ttcov Kal 
dv^pcoTTcov t'Xyrj rrroXXd. / 18. , ^EvTav^a Kvpo^ XtXavov ttaXe- 
aa<; TOV ^A/i^paKLcoTTjv (idvTiv eBcoKev avT<p BapetKov<^ TpLG")(^L' 


1 Synt..? — 2 § 206. 5. — ^ Why the imperf. ? — '^ § 142. Theme ? — ^ 
Root? — ^ When does p take the rough breathing? — "^ What does the ac- 
cent show this to be ? — ^ What kind of adj. ? — ^ Composition? — ^^ § 151. 
2. ■— " Synt. ? — '"§§ 225. 1 H. ; '799. 3. — " § 204. 


/. -! 


Xiov^y on ry evhefcdrrj air ifcelvrj^; tt]^ rjfiepa^ irporepov ^uo- 
jievo^ elirev avr^ ore /SaaiXev^ ov /JLaxelrat BeKa rjfjiepcbv'^ 
Kvpos S' elirev^ Ou/c dpa ero /uLa^elraL, el ey TiavjaLS ^ov iia)(el- 
Tai Tai<; r]fjLepat^^' iav S' akrf^evarj^^^ v7rLaj(yoviJbalaQitiKd 
Tokavra, Tovro to '^pvatop Tore direScoKev, eTrel irapfjX^ov 
at heKa rj fie pat, 19. ^Eirel S* eirl ry rd^pw ovfcie/ccoXve /3a- 
aiXeij^ TO Kvpov aTpaTjev/Jta Scd^alvecv,^ eSo^e KalKy^pwKal 
Tols dXKoL<^ dTrejvoyKevai tov fxd')(ea^ai^ co^ts Tfj vcrTepdla 
Kvpo^ iiTop€V6TO rjfJLekrjiJbevo^ fiaXKov, 20. Tfj he TpiTT} eiri 
re ^pv dp/xaTO^ itti^rjfxevo^ ^ ttjv iropeiav eTTOceLTO Kal oXiyov^ 
^ ' iv rd^et e')(^cov Trpo avTov to Be iroXv iJLVTM dvcLTeTapay [xevov 
eiTopeveTO Kal twv ottXcov toT? CTpaTrnTai^ iroXXd eirl dfia- 



1. Kal r/S?; t€ rjp a/jicj)} djopdv YXTfbovjorav Kal irXrjcriov^ 
rjv GTa^pLO<^ ev^a ejneXXe'^ fcaraXvaecj^y yyUa IIaTajva<; fUyrjp 
Hepar)^^ tcop dfji^cfl Kvpov iriaTMV 7rpo(j)aLv€Tat eXavifwv dva 
KpaTo^; IhpovvTi tc3 'lttttci) • Kal ev^v<; rrdaiv oh eveTvyyavev 
ij36a Kal j3apj3apifK0ds^ kolI 'EXXrjvcKcb^, otl fiaacXev^ crw 
aTpaTevfiaTL ttoXXS TTpoaep')(eTaL &)? eh P'd^rjv itapeaKeva- 
ajjievo<^,^^ 2. ^'Ev^a Stj 7roXv<; Tdpa'^o<; eyeveTo • avTCKa yap 
eioKovv cl '^EXX7]ve<; Kal 7rdvTe<; he aTdKTOc^ a^caiv eTriiTe' 
aelcr^ai' 3. Kal Kvpo^ re Kaja7r7]S^aa<; diro tov dpfjLCiTO^ 
TOV ^copaKa iveSvj Kal dva$d^ iirl tov lttttov TalirdXTa eh 
Ta9 ^etpa? eXa/3ej Toh re aXXot^ irdai iraprjyyeXXev^^ e^oirXl- 
Keaiaai^'^ Kal Ko^iaTaa^ai eh Tnv eavTov TdPiv eKaaTOv. 4. 
"Ev'^a Sr] crvv ttoXXtj aTTOvhfj tca^icTTavTO^ 'StXeap^o? fxev tcl 
Se^td TOV KepaTO<^ ^^ ^X^^ Trpo? rw Evcj^pdTjj iroTapicp, Tlpo^e- 

'§ 196.— ^ Theme? How formed (§ 143)? — 2§§ 222. 2; 191. 2. - 
* Synt. ? — ^ How is icd^rjfiai formed from Kara and rifiai^ — ® § 135. 3. — ' j 
§ 89. 2. — •'§ 156. N. 5.— ^§ 134. 6. — ''' Account for <r in the antepef 
(§ 13. 7). — "Why the imperf.? — "Theme?— "§§ 47. 8; 188. 1. 


LIB. I. CAP. VIII. 29 

vo<; Be i')(pfJL£Vo^ • ol S' dXKoc /lera tovtov. Mevccv Se koX to 
CTpdrev/jia to evcovv/JLov /cepa^ ^'^%^ '^oO 'EWtjvlkov^ 5. Tov 
Be ^ap^apLKoy iTrTrel'^ fiev Ilacj^Xayove^ ek xCkiov^ irapa 
KXeap')(ov 6(TT7]aav iv tq) Se^co), koI to 'EXkrjViKov TreXra- 
(TTLfCOV ev be tm evcoi/v/jLcp Aptaco^; t6 o J\vpov v7rap')(os: fcau 
to dXko ^ap^apcKov. -6. Kvpo<^ Be koX lirireh ytter avTov 
oaov e^a/coatoo a)7r\c(Tfievoc ^copa^L^ puev avTol /cat Trapafjurj- 
pihioi^ Koi Kpdveai^ TrdvTe^ 7r\f]v Kvpov.-^ Kvpo^ Be '\ln\rjv 
e'X^oov TTjv fce(j>a\rjv eh ttjv fid')(7]V fcaS^ccTTaTO. [AeyeTat Be 
/cat T0U9 a\Xou9 Uepcra^ ^frLXah rah /cecfyoKah^ ev tc3 iroXe- 
fjLM BcafcivBvveveiv,'] 7. 01 S* 'iTTTroi diravTe^; ol fxeTa Kvpov 
el')(ov /cat TrpojjbeTcoiTiBLa^ /cat 7rpocrTepvlBLa'el')(pv Be koi fia- 
')(aipa^ ol LTTTTeh 'EW7]vc/cd<^, 

8. Kal rjBr] re tjv pbecrov rjfjLlpa^^ /cal ovttco KaTa(^aveW 
rjaav ol TroXe/jLCoc rjvlfca Be BeiXrj eylyveTO, ec^dvr] KoviopTO'^^ 
&cnrep ve^ekr] Xeu/c?/, xpovtp"^ Be [oii] avxvM vaTepov &cnrep 
fjbeXavla jtsi ev tq) TreBicp eVl ttoXv, J/OTe Be eyjvTepov iyc- 
yvovTO, 'fd)(Cb Br) fcqX x^Xfco^ Tt<; rjaTpaTTTe,^ fcal al Xoy^^L koX 
at Td^ec<; xcuT^i^apeh eylyvovTO. 9. Kal rja-av liTireh ^" fiev 
AevfcoS-fopaKe^;^^ iirl tov evcovvfiov t6)V TroXe/XLayv. Ticrcra- 
<})epv7]^ eXejeTo tovtcov dp^^iv* eyopievoi Be tovtcov jeppo(p6- 
poi ' exofJievoi Be OTrXtTac avv TroBjjpecro ^v\ivaL<; ^^ ddiriaiv • " 
AlyvTTTioi Be ovToc eXeyovto elvac • aXkou S' l7rjrei<^ aXKob 
To^oTac. TIdvTe<; Be ovTOb KaTa eS^VT] iv ifKaioricp *7f\ripei 
dvS-pcoTTCov eKacTTOv TO e^vo^ iiropeveTO, 10. Upo S' avTcov 
dpfxaTa BtaXetTTOVTa crvx^ov dir dXKrjKo^v tcl Bpe7ravrj(p6pa^* 
KcCkoifieua • ^^ e^%o^ Be tcl SpeTrava eic tmv d^ovcov eh TrXa- 
I jtov dTTOTeTajJieva kol vtto Toh Bl^pGi<^ eh^yrjv jSXeirovTay a)<^ 
^i^i^cCKOTTTetv^^ OT(p ivTvy^^vocev, 'H Be yvoofjurj rjv a)^; eh Td<? 
fra^ec^; tcov 'EWtjvcov iXoovTcov^^ /cal BiafCo-^^ovTcov. 11. *^0 

'§ 142. (-iKos). — ^ Nom. how formed ? — ^ § 51. 1. — ^Synt. ? — ^§ 141. 

I {-idiop). — '^ %1S8. 1. —■^ Root? — ^ Theme ? — ^ What does this imperf. dc- 

i note? — ^<*§ 47. 4. b.—" Composition? — ^2 § 142, — ^^ How formed? — '* 

Theme? — '^ What is the gram, and log. subj. of this proposition ? — '* 

§ 223. 1. — " § 226. a. Whj paroxt/tone and not propenspomen on/ 



fieifTOi, Kvpo^ eiTTeVy ore Ka\ecra<i TrapeKeXevero toI<; '^EWtjctc 
Tr]v /cpavyrjv tS)V ^ap^dpcov avk^^ea&ai,^ ey^eva^ tovto'^ oif 
jap ^ffpavyf] aWa o-cyfj eo9 c^vvarov /cat '^crv^fj^ iv iao) /cal 
/SpaS^Cf)^ irpoayeorav, 12. Kal iv tovto) Kvpo<; irapeXavvcov 
avTo^ avv IliyprjTL tm * ipjjLrjvec /cal dX\oc<; rpialv rj Terrapo-c 
Tc3 Kkedp')((p i^oa dyetv to (TTpdrevfia Kara fii&ov to tcov 

TToXe/JLLCOV,^ OTL GKel fiaCTth^V^ €17)' ^ K^V^' TOVTO, €(j)rj, VCKCO' 

fjbev, irdvS^^ rjiuv ireiroirjTai,^ 13, ^Opcov Be 6 Kkeap')(o<^ rb 
fjiecrov <7T?^09 fcal ukovcov I^ypov^^ e^co ovtci^^ tgv ^EXXtjvlkov 
evcovv/jiov ^aaiXia* roaovrov^ jap ifkrj^ei irepLrjv ySao-tXeu? 
Mcrre jieaov to iavTov e'x^cov^^' Tpv Kvpov evcovvfjLov e^co rjv 
dTOC 6fi(o<; 6 KXeap'Xp^ oyic rj3:eKev diroGirdaai diro tov tto^, 
Tafiov TO he^Lov Kepa<^, d>q^oyfi€VO^ fxrj ^^ /cvk\coS^€L7] ifcaTipco-^ 
^ev ' ^^ TO) Be Kvpcp d^efcpivaTO^OTi, avTa> /leXoL 07ro)9 Ka\cb<; 

, 14. Kal iv TOVTO) Tcp fcatpo) to fiev fiap^api/cov cTTpdTeV' 
jia 6f4,a\cb^ irpoyeh '^^ to S' ^E^O\^7)vikov ert iv tm avTio puevov 
' (^vverdTTeTo i/c tcov eTC irpocnoVTcovl Kal 6 Kupo^ TrapeXavrj 
vcov ov Trdvv 7rpb<i avrco tm CTpaTevfiaTV KaTe^eaTO e/caTe- ' 
pcoG-^, dfTTQ^XeTrcoy eh Te tov<; iroXepilov^; Kal tov<; (})i\ov<^. 
15. IBa)V Be avTov dirb tov ^EXkTjvcfcov "Sevocpcov [ASrjvatof;, 
vire\daa<^ o)<; avvavTricrai ijpefo eo tl 7rapayyeXXoj^;!6 8* 
i'7nG-T'^cra<; elire /cal Xeyeiv i/ceXeve iraaLVy otl /cal Ta lepa Kal 
Ta acpdyta KaXd,^^ 16. TavTa Be XeycoVj ^opvfiov^ riKovae 
Bed Tcjv Td^ecov l6vT0<;, Kal ijpeTO tl^ ^® 6 S6pv/3o<; eXrj* ^O Be 
'Bievo(f)(ov elirev otl Tb crvvBrjfjLa irapep')(eTaL BevTepov tjBti, 
Kal 09^^ H^avpLacre tI<^ irapayyeKXei Kal rjpeTo o tv e'crj Tb 
(TvvS^rjfia, 'O Be direKpLvaTo otl ZETX SiflTHP KAI 
NIKH. 17. 'O Be Kvpo<; aKovaa^y ^AXXd Be')(oixal Te, ecf)!], 

iSubj.? — 2§ 182. — 3§ 135. 1.— '§ 169. 2. — ^ Synt. ? — ** Upon what 
verb does this optat. depend (§§ 212. 3; 213. 2)?— 'What is this kind of 
contraction , called ?—« Account for ;^. — '§ 211. N. 3. — ''^ § 192. K 3.— 
"§ 225. 1. — '^% 225. 6. — "§§ 214. a.; 230. N. 2.— "§ 134. 2. — '* 
§§152. a.; 214. 1.— ^«§§ 133; 124 (flfjii). -- '' % 150. 4. — ^^ § 164.-^" 
§§ 171. b. ; 172. 2. b. 

LIB. I. CAP. VIII. 31 

Kol TOVTO earco, Tavra Be elircbv eh Tr]v iavrov xd^pav anrr)- 
\avve* KoX ovfc en rpia rj rerrapa ardSca^ Bcecx^errjv rco ^a- 
Xayye dir aXkrfKcov, 7]ViK(i eTTaidvi^ov re oi ^'EXkrjve^ koX 
r]p')(ovTO dvTiOL levat' toI<^ TroXe/juioc^, 18. ^12^; Be iropevo/jLe- 
vcop^ e^eKVfiaLve tl ti]<; (j>d\ayyo<;, to iTrcXecTrofievov Tjp^aro 
Bpo/JLG)^ Selv Kol dfjia e(l)Bey^avTO^ Traz/re? olov irep t& ^Evv- 
aXicp eXeXi^ovac, koX iravre^ Be eS-eov, Aeyovcrc Be nve^ co? 
fcal Tol^ dairiai irpo^ ra Bo para iBovTrrjaav (j)6^ov TTOLovvre^ 
To?9 Xttitol^. 19. Uplv Be ro^evfia e^iKvelcr^aL^ efCKkivovaiv 
oi ^dp^apov fcal (j)evyovcru Kal evrav^a Brj eBlcotcov fjuev 
Kara KpdT0<; oi '^EXKrjve^;, i/36cov Be dW7]\oL^ /jlt) J^elp Bpofjio), 
dXk' ev rd^ei eTrea^at. 20. Ta Be dpfxara e(^epeTo ra fiev'' 
BC avTOJV Tcbv TToXefjLLCOV, ra Be kol Bca tcov ^ EWtjvcov, fceva 
r]vi6')((DV.^ Oi Be, iirel TrpotBotev, BLLCTTavTO' ecrrL S' 6(JTL<;^ 
Kal KaTe\rj(f)3-7] &(nrep ev iTTTroBpofjiq) ifCTrXayel'^,^^ kol ovBev 
fievTOi ovBe tovtov ira^elv e^acrav,^^ ovBe dWo^; Be tcov ^EX" 
X7]vcov ev TavTrj ttj f^d')(r} eiraSev ovBeh ovBev,^"^ ttXtjv eirl t& 
evcovv/xG) To^ev^Tjvai tl^ eXeyeTO, 

21. Kvpo^ Be opo)VTOv<; ^^EXXrjva^ vLKcovTa<;^^ to /caS-^ ah- 
Toi)^ KoX BccoKOVTa^, riB6fievo<^ 4 Kol irpo(TKVvovfievo^ 7]Bi] co? 
/Sao-^Xeu? VTTO TCOV dfi^" avTov^ov^ a)9 ^^VX'^ BLcofcecv dXXa 
^orvveo'TfecpafievTjv e^f^v ttjv tcov avv eavTM e^ctkocricov iinrecov 
Td^iv eirefxekelTo, 6 tl Trotijaec ^a(rcXev<^. Kal yap yBet av- 
Tov OTL fjiiaov e^oo tov UepcriKOv <7TpaTevfjLaTo<;. 22. Kal 
Traz/re? Be oi tcov ^apjBdpcov dp^ovTe^ fieaov expvTe^ to av- 
TCOV ^ rjyovvTOy vofjLL^ovTe<; ovtco fcal ev dcrcfyaXeaTdTco ^^ elvat, 
rjv y rj iaxv^ clvtcov e/caTepcoS^ev, Kal el tl irapayyelXaL XPV' 
^OLev, T^fJuiaeL^" dv %poz/ct) alarScwecrSaL to aTpdTev/jba. 23. 
; \Kal /SafJiXev^ Bfj TOTe, /juecrov ex^ov Trj<; eavTOv aTpaTtd^ 
o[ico<^ e^co eyeveTO tov Kvpov evcovv/jLOV KepaTO^. ^ETrel Be 

iSynt.?— -§§ 197. 2; 222. 2. — ^What does this gen. abs. denote? — 
I *§ 206. 2. — ^ Root? Tense how formed?— .^§ 223. 3. — "^ § 166. 2. — ^ 
I § 200. 3. — ^§ 172. N. 2.-—^° Why irXay in this tense, and ttAt^o-o- in the 

pres.? — "Why subject not expressed? — " § 230. 1. — ^* § 225. 7. — " 

g63. 4.--^^DecUne. 


ouSet9 avToj ifid')(€TO ifc rod ivavriov qvSe to2<; avrov Teray- 
fievoL^ efjLTTpojcr^ev, iTreKafiTrrev 6)^ eh KVK\watfi/l' 24. ^'Ev^a 
Bf) Kvpo^ heiaa<^ ^ fjirj oiTLcr^ev r/evofievo^ KaraKO'^^rrj to 'EWt)- 
vt/cbv iXavpeo clvtlo^' koX i/ji/3aX(ov crvv to69 e^aKocriOi^ vlkcl 
Tov<; Trpo ^acrCkeco^ TeTajjJievov^ koX eU ^vyrjv erpe-y^e rgv^: 
e^dKta')(^LKiov^ • koX airoKrelvai Xeyerai avrbs ry eavrov j(^^tp\ 
'Aprajiparjv tov ap')(pVTa avrcov, , ^ , \ }> ^ /, 

, 25. 'ifi? he 7} TpoTTTj iyevero hiacnreipovrdi fcal ol.Kypov 
e^aKocTiOi eh TO Bicofceiv opfirjaavTes' TrXrjv irdvv o^u^oi d[i^\ 
avTov /cdT€\€Lcf)S^7](Tav,^ c")(ehov oi ofiorpdire^ob icdXovfJLevot.^ 
26. ^vv TOVTOi<^ he cov Ka^opa ffaatXea /cat to dfJLcj)' i/cetvov 
aTL(po^ • /cal evBv^ ovfc 7]veG')(eT6y^ a)OC eliroiVi Tov dvhpa 
6p(b, leTO ^ eir avjov koX Traiet ^ fcaTa to aTepvov koX TiTpco-^ 
(T/cec hia tov S^copafco^, a)9 (f>r]al ^ KT7]cria<; 6 laTpo<; Ka\ iaa^av 
avTo^ TO Tpavp.d (j^rjai. 27. JJatovTa S' avTov ditovTi^ei tl^ 
ttoXtoj vtto tov 6(f)3^aX/Jibv ^caico<; • koI ivTavS^a fJLa)(^6/JL€voo 
KOL ISaG-CKev^ /cat Kvpo^ /cal ol dfji^^ avTov<^ vTrep eKaTepov, 
oirocTot fjbev tcov d/ji^l /SacriXea dTreS^vrjaKov KTrjata^^ Xeyeo* 
Trap* i/ceivq) yap rjv Kvpo.<^ he avTo^ re dire^ave koI ok^co 
ol dpicTTOi TMV Trepl avTov e/cetVTo iir uvtS* 28. ^ApjaTrd' 
T?;? he 6 TTLG-TOTaTOf; avT^TMV crK.7]TrTovj(OiV ^epaTTfov 
Tat, eTTeihr] ireTTTCoKOTa^ elM Kvpov, /caTaiTTjh'^aa^diro Tovii 
LTTTTov Treptireo-etv^ avTM, 29. KaX ol fjuev ^aac ^aaCkea^ 
/ceXevaai Ttva^^ eiTLa^d^at avTov Kvpco' ol he, eavTov eiri- 
(Tcffd'^at, (TTraadfJievov toj) dKtvd/crjv • el;j^6 yap ')(pvaovv, KaX 
(TTpeiTTov he i^opei fcal ^^eXXia Kcfi tcl dXKa cocnrep ol 
dpcaTOL TMV Uepa-cov eTeTi/jiTjTO 'yfdp vtto Kvpov St' evvocdv 
re Kal iTLCTTOTrjTa,^^ 

^ Tense how formed? — ^Root? Account for (^ in the antepen. — ®§§ 158. 
1; 225. 1.— ^§ 95. N. 2.—^ Why mid. voice?— -^§ 211. N. 1. — 'Why is 
(pfial here accented ? — ^ Account for irrca in the root of the perf., and iriir in 
that of the present. — ^ § 105. 1. — '° § 165. — " §§ 139 ; 47. 3. 




1. Kvpo^ [lev ovv GVTco^; ireXevrrjaev, dvrjp cov Uepacov 
tS)V fiera Kvpov top ap'^alov <yevop,evcov fiaacXi/ccoraTos re 
KOI ap'xeLV a^ccoraro^;, 0)9 Trapa irdvrcov o/jLoXoyelrat 7 cov 
Kvpov BofcovvTcov iv ireipa ryeveaBaL. 2. Upcorov [xev jdp 
€TC TTol^ COV ore eTracSeveTO ^ koX avv to) dSe\(j)S fcal crvv rol^ 
d\\oc<; iratai, ^ Trdvrcov irdvra /cpdrcaro^ ^ ivofil^ero. 3. 
JJdvre^ jdp oi tcov dptcrTCJV Uepacov iralSe^; eVl raU ^aai- 
Xea)9 SvpaL^ TracBevovrai * ev^a TroWrjv fxev (7co(f)po(rvvr]v 
fcara/jidB^oc dv Tt<;, al(T')(pov S' ovhev^ ovre dKovaai ovr IBecv 
earc. 4. Gecovrac S* ol iraiBe^ koX tou9 rcfMcofievovf; viro ySa- 
aCke(o^ Kol dKovovai, koX dXkov^ driixa^ofievov^ • ^ coare ev^v^ 
7ral8e<^ 6vTe<; ixav^dvovcTiv dp^^^ecv re teal dp'^^eaBai. 5. "Ev- 
Sa Kvpo^ alSij/jLovea-raroi^^ fiev TrpSorov rcov rjXcKicoTcov eSo- 
/cec elvai, tol<; re Trpecr/SvTepot^;'^ kol tcov eavrov vTroSeeare- 
pcov ® fidWov Trei^ecr^ai • eTreira he ^iKunroraTo^; ^ koX tol<; 
LTTTTot^ dpicrra ')(^pr]<7BaL. "EKpLVov S' avrov fcal tcov eh tov 
TToKe/jLov epycoVy TO^CKrj^; re /cal d/covTi(Teco<;,^^ (j)L\ofxa3^ecrTa- 
Tov elvao koX fieXeTrjporaTOV,^^ 6. ^Eirel he tj) rfkiKia^ 
eTrpeire, /cal (ptXoS^rjpoTaTO^^ ^v /cal 7rpo9 ra S^jpta^^ fievTOL 
<pL\oKLvSvv6TaTO<;. Kal dpKTOv iroTe eTTK^epoixevriv ov/c erpe- 
aev, dWd G-vfJuirecTcbv /caTeaTrdaS^ diro tov lttttov • /cal Ta 
fxev errctSev,^^ cov Kal Ta^ aoreCkd^ (f)avepd<; el^e, TeXo9^* Be 
/caTe/cave ^^ kol tov nrpSorov fiivroc ^07j9^7]cravTa iroWoh fJta- 
KapLdTov iTToiTjaev, 

7. ^Eirel Be KaTeirepb^^ri viro tov iraTpo<; caTpdirrj^^^ 
AvBia^ re Kal ^pvyia<; T979 fieydXr]^ Kal KaTTiraBoKia^, cTTpa- 
T7]yb<;^^ Be Kal irdvTcov d7reBeL')(^rj oh KaS^Kev eh KaaTcoXov 
ireBiov dS^poL^eaBat, irpoorov jjuev eTreBec^ev avTOV, otl irepl 

' Theme ? -- ^ How formed ? — ^ Compare. -— * § 192. N. 3. — ^ §§ 147 ; 
143. — « §§ 142 ; 63. 4. — "^ § 63. 2. — 8 gynt. ? ^ ^ Composition ? — i« § 139 
(.(Tis). — 11 § 142, — . 12 g 141 (-toy).— ^^ Root? -" ^* § 135. 1. — '' § 133 (/ca/- 
vw). — i«§ 185. N. 1. 



ifKeicTTOv iroiolroy el tm (TirelaatTo ^ fcal ei T<p a-vv^olro KciX 
el T(o vTToo")(ptT6 Ti, jJLTjSev ylrevSeaBat, 8. Kal yap ovv 
eirlcTTevov /juev avT(o ^ at iro\eL<; iTTLTpeTrofievac, eiriGTevov S' 
ol avhpe^ • koX el tl^ irdXejjbio^ iyiveto, o-Tretaa/Jbevov Kvpov 
eirlareve fMrjSev av irapa ra^ aTTOvBa^ ira^elv. 9. Tocyapovv 
eirel TLcrcra(f>epvec eVoXe/iT^cre, iracrai ai iroKei^ exovaat ^ Kv- 
pov eiXovTO^ avrl Tio-aacpepvov^ ttXtjv Ml\i](Tlcov' ovtol he 
ore ovK i]3^e\e tov<^ ^evyovra^ irpoea^aL, e(pofiovvTO* avrov. 
10. Kal jap epy(p eTreBeUvvro Kal eXeyev ore ovKavirore., 
Trpoolroy eTrel aira^ (^l\o<; ayrgc^ eyevero, ovS* el en fiev yLt^f i, 
ou?^ yevoLVTOy en he Kal kcikcov irpd^eiav.^ 11. ^avepo^ h ^ 
r}v Kal el rk n ayaBov tj KaKov iroirjaeiey'' aurov^ vcKav 
7retpco/jLevo<;* Kal ev')^v he nve<; avrov €^e(f)epov 009 ev')(piTO 
TocrovTov j^povov ^fjv ecrre vckmt)^ Kal tov<; ev Kal tov<; KaKW 
iTOLOvvra^ aXe^opbevo^. 12. Kal yap ovv ifKeloTov ht) avrS) 
evi ye avhpl tmv e(j) '^fMcov eireBv/jLTjo-av Kal j(^prjfiaTa Kal iro- 
Xet9 Kal ra eavrcov o-co/iara TrpoiaJ^ac. 

lo. Uu fJLev or] ovoe tovt av rt? ecrrroc ce>9 tou9 KaKovp- 
70U9 ^° Kal ahiKov^ ela KarayeXav, aXX a<l)echearTaT(^ ttovtcov 
ercficopelro. TIoWaKi^ ^\ S* rjv Ihelv irapa Ta<; (rn^0fjbeya<; 
6S0U9 Kal TTohcbv^ Kol y^eipcov Kal 6(f>3^aXfjL(ov crrepovpLevov^ 
dvBpco7rov<; • cocrre ev rfj Kvpov a/>%^ iyevero ^^ Kal ^^EWtjvl '^ 
Kal ^apjSdpq) fjbrjhev dhiKovvn, aSe&>9 Tropevecr^av ottol t^9 
7]^e\ev, e')(pvn 6 n 7rpo')(^copoL7j, 14. Tov^ ye fjiivrot dya- 
^ov^ eh TToXe/jLQv^^ (hjJLoXoyrjro hta(^ep6vT(o<; nfiav. Kal 
TrpcoTov fjiev rjv avr^ rrroXefio^ 7rpo9 TIeLalha<^ Kal Mvaov<;, 
STpaTev6/JLevo<; ovv Kal avrg^ ek ravra^ rd^ X^P^^ ^^^ 
ecopa^^ eMXovra^ Ktvhvvevetv, tovtov<; Kal dp')(pvTa^ eiroieL 
^9 Karearpe^ero ')((jopa<^y^^ eireira he Kal dXXoi<^ hcopot<; erl- 
p^a' 15. Mare ^alvecrS^ac tou9 fiev dya!^ov<^ evhaL/jLovecrrd- 

' Root ? — "" Synt. ? — ^ g 59 g j^ 5 _ 4 ■yyjjj^i. ^^^g ^-^^jg i^perf. denote ? 
— '* Compare and decline (§§ 65; 64. 3). — ^ § 118. 4. — "^ Dialect ? — ^ 
§§ 184. K 2 (end); H. 544. a. — «§ llY. c. — '° Composition ?—" § 79. 
6. — " Subj. ? — " § 201. 3. — " §§ 182 ; 231. N. 1. — '^ § 93. 1. — ^* 
§ 175. 1. b. 

LIB. I. CAP. IX. 35 


T0i;9, T0U9 Be KaKov<; Bov\ov<; tovtcov cl^lovv elvac. Tocyap- 
ovv TToWrj rjv d(j)Bovia avro) twv iS^eXovrcov KLvhwevetv, 
OTTOV Tt9 OLOtro Kvpov ala^]cr€(rBac. 

16. Eh ye firjv Bifcatoavvrjv ei tl<; avrco (j)avepb<; yevoiro 
eTribeUvva^ai fiov\6/jievo<;, wepl iTavTo<; iiroielTO tovtov^ 
TrXovaLcorepov^ irotelv tS)v ^ i/c rod dBifcov <f>t\ofcepBovPTQ)vJ^ 
17. Kal yap ovv aXKa re iroWa ^LKaiay^ uvtm Bte'^^^eLpt^eTo 
fcal (TTparevfjLaTL ^ aX7]!^cv(p e^prja-aTO, Kal yap crrparTjyol 
Kal 'Ko')(ayol ov ')(pr]fjbdTG)V evefca 7rp6<; eKelvov eifkevaav, dX)C 
iirel eyvcoaav KepBaXecorepov^ elvac Kvpo) koKo)^ TrecBap'^^elv 
Tj TO Kara fjurji/a K€pBo<;,^ 18. ^AWd fjLtjv €l tl<; ye tv avro) 
Trpoard^avTC Kdko)<^ virT^perrjaeiev,^ ovBevV TrcoTrore d^d- 
pi<TTov elacre ® rrjv irpo^vpbiav, Tocyapovv Kpdrto-roc Brj 
vTTTjperaL Travro^ epyov KvpG) iXe^^rjcrav yevecr^at. 19. Ei 
Be Tiva opcprj Betvov ovra oltcovofjbov ifc rod BcKaiov^ Kal Kara- 
CKevd^ovrd re rj^ dp')(Oi ')(a)pa<^^^ Kal 7rpocr6Bov<; Troiovvra, 
ovBeva av ircoiroTe d(j)ei\ero, dWd del irXeLco^^ Trpoo-eBiBov' 
axrre Kal 77866)9 eirovovv Kal Sappa\e(o<; €ktcovto, Kal a " €7re- 
Traro^* av Tt9, r/Kcara Kvpov ^^ eKpvirrev* ov yap <})^ovcov 
Tot9 (^avepw TrXovTovcrcv ^^ ec^alvero, dXka 'jreipw/jbevo^ XPV' 
cr^au Tol<^ Tcov dTroKpvTrrofjievcov y^prjfjiaau 20. $t\ou9 ye 
fir]v oaov^ iroirjaaLTO Kal evvov<^ yvocrj ovra^;^^ Kal iKavov^ 
Kplvete avvepyov<; elvat o tl^^ Tvyydvoi ^ovXofievo^ Karepyd- 
^eorS^aty ofjLoXoyelrav 7rpo9 irdvTcov KpdriCTTO^ Brj yevecrSac 
S^epaTreveLV.^'^ 21. Kal yap avro tovto, ovirep avro^ eveKa 
^lXcov ^ Sero BeloSac, 0)9 <TVvepyov<^ ^'X^^, Kal avro^ eiretpdro 
avvepyo^ Tol<^ (jE)/Xo^9 Kpdrco'TO^ elvac tovtov otov ^^ eKacrrov 
alaSdvoLTO iTrtSvfjLovvra. 

22. Acopa Be ifKelcrra fjiiv, olfiac, eh ye dvrjp cov eXdfi^ave 

'Synt. ? — 2rj.jjgjjjg9_3g 206. 5.—* With what does this adj. agree? 
Theme ? — * § 236. — ^ Dialect ? — ^ § 201 . 5. — ' What verbs form their aug- 
ment by lengthening cinto et?--^§ 185. 3.— "Why the gen. (§ 1^5. 1. b)? 
— " Compare and dechne. — '^ §§ 184. 1 ; 172. 4. — " § 133. n. — ^^ §§ 158. 
1 ; 225. 1. — IS 225. 7. — '' Antecedent ? — ?' Object of this verb ? -^ " 
§ 200. 3. 


Slu irdXXd' ravra Be ttclvtcov Brj fjioXtara roU (I)1\ol(; SceBi- 
Bov, 7rpo9 T0U9 TpoTTov^ i/cdcTTOV aKOTTcov KoX OTOV /jLaXcara 
opcpT] eKaarov Beofievov. ;-23. Kal oacu tm acofiaTt avrov 
fcoafiov TrefjbTTOL Tt<; rj co? eh rrroXefjuov r}'o)<; et9 KaWcoirtafjiov, 
Kal Trepl tovtcov Xeyetv avrov ec^aaav^ ore to fiev eavrov 
(Tcbfia ov/c av BvvaiTO tovtol<; rrrdaL^ KoafjLrjSTJvat, ^lKov^ Be 
Ka\o}<; fceKocrfjLrjfjLevov^ fieycarov Koafiov dvBpl vo/jll^ou 24. 
Kal TO fjbev tcl fie'yaka vcfcav tov<; (jyiXov^ ev TroiovvTa ovBev 
^avixacTTov,^ eireiBrj 76 Kal BvvaTcoTepo^ rjv • to Be tt} eirtiie- 
Xeca irepielvaL t&v ^lXcov Kal tm irpo^vfiela^aL^ ')(^apL^ea^ac, 
TavTa efiotje iiaXkov^ BoKel dyacTTa elvai. 25. Kvpo<; jdp 
€7refjL7re ^lkov<; ocvov '^fjuBeels 7roWdKi<;, oiroTe irdvv rjBijv 
\d/3oc,^ Xejcov OTL ovttco Brj ttoXXoO ')(^p6vov'' tovtov tjBlovl 
oXv(p e7nTV')(pi' TOVTOV ovv (Tol eirefji'ylre Kal BecTat aov TTjfie" 
pov TOVTOV eKirtelv avv oh fidXtaTa (j)L\eL<^. 26. Uo'KkdKi^ 
Be xriva<^ rjjiL^pwTov^ eVe/xTre Kal dpTcov rj/jLio-ea Kal aXka 
TOLavTa, eTnXeyetv KeXevcov tov ^epovTa* Tovtol^ rjaB^ 
Kvpo^* ^ovXeTao ovv Kalce tovtcov^ jevaaaBaL, 27. "Ottov 
Be 'x^iXb^ a7rdvL0<; irdvv etrj, avTo^ 8' eBvvaTo TrapacrKevdaa- 
cT^ai Bid TO 7roXXov<; e^etv^ v7r7]peTa<; Kal Bid ttjv eV^/ie- 
Xecav, BiairejjiTrcov iKeXeve tov<; (J>lXov^ Toh Ta eavTcov aco- 
fiaTa djovaiv lttttoc^ ifji/SdXXecv tovtov tov xiXov, 0)9 /^^ 
ireLvSiVTe^ tov^; eavTov (^lXov<; d^ayatv. 28. El Be Btj iroTe 
TTOpevoLTO Kal irXelcTot, pbiXXotev^^ oyjrecr^at, irpo<JKaXo)v 
Tov^ ^tXou9 eairovBaLoXoyeLTO^^^ w<; BtjXolt]^^ 0^9 TLfia' &aTe 
eycoye, ef o)v aKovco, ovBeva Kptvco viro TrXeiovoyv Tre^LXrj' 
cr^aL^^ ovre ^EXXtjvcov ovTe ^ap/3dpcov. 29. TeKjiripLov Be 
TOVTOV Kal ToBe* irapd fiev Kvpov BovXov ovto^ ovBeh diryei 
Trpb^ fiaaoXea' ttXtjv OpovTa^ e7re')(eiprj(Te * ^^ Kal ovto^ ^^7 
ov weTo TTicTTov ol elvai, Ta')(y avTov ^^ evpe Kvpay (pcXaiTepov 
rj eavTM • nrapd Be fiaacXeco^ ttoXXoI irpo^ Kvpov dirrjX^oVs 

^Why is the subj. not expressed ? — ^ Dat. plur. how formed (§ 51. 1)?| 

— ^§ 15Y. d.-— *§§ 222. 2; 206. 2.-~^§ 66.N.2. — ^§ 21Y. 2. — "^ § 196. 

— 8 g 192. 1. — ^ Synt. ? — ^^ § 89. — " Theme ? — ^^ Subj. ?-- ^^ Account for ] 
7} in the pen. — '* § 160. N. 6. 

LIB. I. CAP. X. 37 

i7r€cSf) irdkefjLCoo aXk^^Xoc^; iyevovroy Kal ovroi fiivrov oi fid- 
\L(TTa VTT avTov ayaTTco/jievoL, vofui^ovTe^ irapa Kvpco ovTe<; 
aya^ol d^ccoripa^ av rtfirj^;'^ Tvyx^^veLV fj irapd ^aatXel. 
30. Meya Se reKfjbrjpLov Kal to eV ry reXevTrj rod fiiov avrcp 
y€v6fi6VOV, ore koX avro^ rjv dyaS^o^, Kal Kpiveiv opS^co^ i^v- 
varo T0U9 incrTOv^ Kal evvov^ Kal ^e^aiov^. 31. 'AttoS^v^- 
(TKOVTO^ yap avTov iravre^ oi 'Trap' avrov ^iXoc Kai avvrpd- 
irei^ov diri^avov fjia')(6fjL€vot virep Kvpov TrXrjv ^Apcaiov ovro^ 
Be T6TayfJi6vo<; irvyxavev ^ eirl rco evcovv/uicp rov liririKOv dp- 
%(iiV' 0)9 S' Tjd^eTo Kvpov ireTTTcoKoray^ e^vyev, e^cov Kal to 
(TTpdTevfia irdv ov rjyelTO. 

CAP. X. , 

1. ^EvTav^a Bf} Kvpov dTroTefiveTai r] Ke^aky^KoX yelp y 
Se^cd. Baac\ev<; Be Kal oi avv avTM Blcokcov eiairiTTTel eh to 
Kvpelov (TTpaToireBov • Kal oi [xev fieTa ^Aptalov ovKeTL 
XcnavTaiy dXkd (b^vypyp-L Bed tov avToov (TTpaToireBov eU tov 
(jTa^lxov ev^ev &piirjVTO*'^ TeTTape^ Be ekeyovTO irapacrdyyai 
elvai T?79 oBov, 2, MacrCkev^ Be Kal oi avv avTS) Td re dXKa 
TToWd Btaprrrd^ovcny Kal Tfjif ^cpKatBa^ t7]v Kvpov iraXKafci- 
Ba Trjv ao^r]v Kal Ka\7]v Xiyofxevriv elvai \afji/3dvec. 3. ^H 
Be ,]\ft\7]o-La y vecoTepa Xrj^S^ecg'a^* ^vtto t^v d^^l j^acrCKea, 
eK^evyei yvfivrj 7rpo9 tcov 'EXXnvcoy oo eTV^ov ev foh CKevo- 
(j^6poL<; oifXa e')((yvTe^y ical dvTtTa')(B^evf^<^,^jKQXkgy^ /juev tS>v 
apTra^ovTcov aTreicrecvaVy oi be kcli avTxov airef^avov • ov fjurjv 
e(})vy6v ye, dXkd Kal TavTrjv eaco'crav Kal dWa oiroaa evTo<; 
avTcov Kal 'x^prjixaTa KalJivS^pcoTroi eyevovTo irdvTa eacoaav. 
4. ^EvTav^a Btib")(ov aXkrfKcdv} ^aa-i\ev<; re Kal oi ^^EW7]ve<; 
CO? TptdKovTa fTTaBcay oi fiev BccaKovjei' tou9 koS avTOv^y co9 
iravTa^ VLK(x)VTe<; \ oi Be dpirdl^ovTe^ £09 ^St; 7rdvTe<; vLKcovTe<;, 

^§ 191. 2; H. § 574. c. — ^How is rvyx^vca used with the participle? — 
»§ 225. T.— *§ 140.— ^§ 133. A. — «Synt.?— •'g 19Y. 2. 


aTparev/jbaTC ev T0t9 o'fC€vocpopoL<; ecr], pacn\6v<; o av rj/covae 
Tiaaacj^ipvovi ore ol ^'^Xkrjve^ VLKa>ev to KaS^ ayrov^; koX 
eh T^b irpocr^ev ot')(pvTaL OLc^icovT'ejf evrw Br) fiaacXev^ fiev 
TiSfpVL^ec re tov<; eavrov, koX avvrdTT^al* 6 he KKeap')(G^ 
e^ovKevero Upo^evov KoXeaas, TrXTjacalrato^^ yap rjv^^^eii 
TrejjuiroLev Tcva<; rj 7rdvTe<; toiev iirl to orTpaToirehov 'apt]- 

6. ^Ev T0VT(p Kol /3a(Tt\ev<; Bf]\o<; rjv irpoamv ttoKlv co? 
iSofcet oTTiaB^ev. KaX ol /lev ^'EXKrjve<; avaTpacj^evTef; irape- 
(Tfcevd^ovTO ct)9 TavTrj irpoaiovTO^^ koX he^ofievov • o he ^aac- 
A,6U9 TavTjj fxev ovk rjyevy fj he iraprjX^ev e^co tov evcovvfiov 
/cepaTO^, Tavrrj koI diTTf^ayeVy dvaXa^(dV koX tou? ev Trj 
/Jbd^y tcaTCL Toij^ ''EKKrjva^ avTOfioXrjaavTa^ koI Tccrcraipip' 
V7]v KoX Toi)^ avv avTM, 7. ^O yap Ttaaa(f>epvrjf; ev Trj irpdo- 
Ty crvv6h(o ovk e(j>vyeVy dXka hLrfKaae irapd tov TroTafiov 
Kara tov^; ^'EXkriva<; ireXTaaTd^ • hieXavvcov he KaTe/cave jxev 
ovheva, hca(TTdvTe<; he ol ^^EWrjve^ eiraiov Ka\ rjKovTC^ov^ av- 
T0U9' ^EiriaB^evrff; he ^AiJL(f)t7ro\cT7}^^ VPX^ ^^^ TreXTaoT&v 
Ka\ ekeyeTo (f)p6vLfJL0<; yevea^ac. 8. ^O S' ovv Tca<Ta(j)epv7j^ 
ft)9 fjLelov e')((ov diTrjXkdyT], irdXtv fiev ovk dvacTpecpei, eh h^ 
TO aTpaToirehov d^iKOfJoevo^; to tcov 'EXkrjvcav eKel avvTvy- 
j(^dvec ^aaCkely Kal ojjlov hr) irdXtv avvTa^dfjievoi eiropevovTO. 
9. ^Eirel S* rjcrav KaTa to evcovvfiov tcov ^EXkrjvcov Kepa<;, 
ehetcrav^ ol ^'EXk7]ve<^ firj irpocrdyotev irpo^ to Kepa^ koI 
TrepcTTTv^avTe^ d/JL^OTepco^ev avTov^ KaTaKoyfrecav ' koI eho- 
Kec^ avToh dvaiTTvacreLV to Kepa<^, Kal iroirjaacr^aL oirtoS^ev 
TOV iroTafiov* 10. ^Ev w he TavTa efiovXevovTO koI hrj fia- 
aiXeij^ 7rapa/jLet'\lrdfievo<i eh to avTo ayrjfia KaTeaTtjaev evav- 
Tiav Tr]v (pdXayya cocrirep to irpSiTov fiaxov/Jievof; avvrjet, 
'fl<; he elhov ol ^^EXXrjve^; €77^9 Te ovTa^ Kal TrapaTeTayfie- 
vov<;, av9^c<^ iraiavlo-avTe^ eirrjeaav ttoXv eTi irpo^vfioTepov ff 

^§ 225. 8; H. §798. 2.— .^§ 65.— ^g 225. 5; H. § 789. d. —* Theme? 
— *§ 139.-— ''Tense h.ow formed? — ''^ § 153. a. 

LIB. I. CAP. X. 39 

TO TTpoaSev^ 11. 01 S' av ^dp^apoc ovfc iB6')(pvT0, d\X i/c 
irXkovo^ rj to Trpoa^ev ecpevyov • ol S' eTreStcoKov p^ixP^ '^^' 
fi7]<;^ Tcv6^> 12. ^EvTav^a Be eaTrjaav ol ^^EWrjve^' virep 
jdp T^9 Kcofirjf; 77^X0^09 rjv, i(j> ov dveaTpd^rfaav ol dficj)! 
^aaiXia, Tre^ol iiev ovk ctc, tcop Be lirireoyv 6 \6(})o<; eVevrX?^- 
cr^y MCTe TO TTOLOVfjLevov fJLT] yiyvooaKetv, Kal to ^acriXeiov 
(TTjfjLelov opav e^aaav, deTov TLva ')(pvaovv eirl irekTT]^ dva- 

13. 'JEttcI Be Kol ivTav^a i')(^copovv^ ol ^^EWrjve^, Xet- 
TTOVCTL Br) /cat Tov \6(f)0v ol liTTrel^ • ov jmevTOL €tc d^pooc, 
aXV dXXoL dXXoSev • iy^nXovTO 8' X6(f>o<; tcov linrecov • re- 
X09 Be Kal 7rdvTe<; dTTe')(cop7]0'av. 14. 'O ovv KXeap')(o<; ovfC 
dve^c^a^ev iirl tov Xo^ov, aXV vtto avTov aTtjaa^^ to crTpd- 
T€v/jLa Trefiiret Avklov tov SvpaKovcnov kol dXXov iirl tov 
X6(f>0Vy Kal KeXevet KaTiBovTa^ Ta virep tov X6(pov tC ecTTiv 
dirayyetXaL. 15. Kal 6 Avklo<; rjXacre re Kal IBcov diray- 
yeXXet, OTL <j)evyov(riV dvd KpdTo<;, 5'%eSoi/ 8' oTe TavTa rjv 
Kal 7]Xto<^ iBveTo. 16. ^EvTav^a S' eaTTjaav ol ^^EXX7]ve<; 
Kal S^ifievoc Ta oirXa dveiravovTO • Kal dpLa fiev iJ^av/ia^ov 
OTL ovBafjiov Kvpo^ ^alvoLTO, ovS* aXXo9 dir avTov ovBeU 
irapetT] • ov yap fjBeaav avTov TeBvrjKOTa,'^ dXX ecKa^ov rj 
BcdoKovTa oc'^eaS^ac rj KaTaXrjyfro/Jievov ^ tl TrpoeXrjXaKevaL' 
17. Kal avTol e^ovXevovTo el avTov fxeivavTe^ tcl G-Kevo(^6pa 
ivTavBa dyoiVTO rj dirioiev iirl to aTpaTOireBov. "EBp^ei/ 
ovv avToU diTLevat * Kal dcpCKVOvvTat d/jL(f>l BopTrrjoTov eirl 
Td<; aK7]vd<;. 18. TavTrj<; jxev ovv Trj<; rjpbepa^; tovto to re- 
X09 iyeveTO. KaTaXafi/3dvovac Be tcov re dXXcov ')(pr]iJLdTcov 
Ta TrXelcTTa BtTjpTraa-jjieva^ Kal et tl acTiov rj ttotov rjv* Kal 
Ta9 a/iafa9 fJLeaTd<; dXevpcov^ Kal oIlvov, a9 irdpeaK^evdacLTO 
Kvpo^, Lva ell iroTe acj^oBpd Xd^OL evBeLa to aTpdTevfia, Bia- 
BlBo 17) T0fc9 ^'EXXr^cTLV • rjaav S' avTaL, C09 eXeyovTO, TeTpaKO- 
(TcaL dfjLa^aL, kol TavTa^ TOTe ol avv ^aaiXel BLTjpiraaav. 

'§ 228. 2. — 2§ 199. — ^ Theme? — -* §225. V; H. §'799. 8.— ^Synt.? 
— 'What has become of C hi the root? 


19. '^ flare aheiTrvoL rjaav oi TrKelaTOC rcov ^EW'^vcov • ^aav 
Be fcal avdpiG'TOL • irplv yap Brj KaraXvaai ^ to arpdrevfia 
TTpo^ dpccrrov, ^aaCKev^ ecpdvi]. TavTTjv fiev ovv rrjv vvKra 
ovTco Bieyivovro. 

* § 223. 3. 

LIB. II. CAP. I. 41 



*f2S fjbkv ovv 7}^poi(7^ K.vpG) TO 'EXKtjvckov, oTTore iirl 
rbv dBeX^bv ^Apra^ep^rjv iarparevero, koX oaa iv ry dvoSo) 
eTrpd')(^7] /cat co? rj fjid^V ijivero kol co? Kvpo<; ireKevrTja-e 
Koi o)? SttI to (TTpaToireiov ek^ovTe^ oi ^'E}^rivjc^> ifcocfjLT]3^7]' 
aaVj olofievoL tcl irdvTa VLKav kol Kvpov ^yv, iv ToyMj^Trpo-/ 
aS^ev \6ja> BeB'-^Xcorau 2. ^^A/xa Be ttj rifiepa o'vv6\'!^ovt€^ 
oi aTpaTTjjol O^avfia^ov otl Kvpo<^ ovt6 oXkov nTejjbiroi crTjfjLa- 
vovvTaS TC xpr} TTOielv, ovt avTo^ (pacpocTo: ''EBo^ev ovv 
avToU (7vaK6va(rafjLevoL<; a et')(pv kol i^o'Trkco-afieyoc^; irpoUvat 
eh TO iTpoa^ey, em Kypff (rvfjifjbi^ecav, 3. "HSt; Be ev opfifj 
ovTCoVi d/jb rJALcp dvi&j(pvTL rp^e TIpoKKrj<;, 6 TevS^pavLa<; dp- 
X'^'^y 76701^0)9 diro AajJLupdTOV tov AdKcovp^, kol T\ov<^ 6 
Ta/jL(o. Ovtol eXeyov otl Kvpo^ fiev TeBvTJ/cev; ^Apialo<; Be 
7re(j)evyd)^ iv tm CTa^fJicp etrj fieTa tcov dWcov /Bap^dpcov 
o^ev TTJ irpoTepaia wpfi&vTO • koI XiyoL oto tuvttjv [xev ttjv 
rjfiepav TreptfjLeivecev av avTov^;, el fieXKotev rjKeiv • tTj Be dXky 
dinevaL ^aiT) eirl ^Icovla<;, o^evirep r/XS^e.t 4. TavTa dfcov- 
aavTe^; oi crTpajriyol koI oi dWoL ^^EWrjve^ /3apeco^ e^epov. 
KXeapxo^ Be TdBe elirev • ^AXh! a>^e\e fjuev Kvpo<; ^fjv • iirel 
Be TeTe\evT7]KeVy dirayjeWeTe ^Apcat<p otl yfieh ye vL/ccojjbev 
^ao-LXea KaC, co? opaTe, ovBeU €TL rjfjiLV fxdx^TaL • teal el fjLr) 
vixeh r/XfJere, iiropevoiie^a dv iirL ^acTLXea. ^ETrayyeWo/Me- 
^a Be ^ApLalw, edv evS^dBe eXS^rj, eh tov S^povov tov fiaal- 


Xecov Ka^ielv avrov • twv yap Trjv fJ^d')(r]V vckcovtoov koI to 
dp')(€LV icrL 5. Tavr elircbv airoareXKei tov<; djjiXov<i koX 
crvv avToc^ Xeipiao^ov rov AaKcova koX Mevcova top Qerra- 
\6v ' KoX yap avTO<; 6 Mevcov i^ovXero • rjv yap (j)i\o<; Kal^ 
fei/09 ^Aptalov. 6. 01 fiev ai'^ovro, KXiap'^o'^ §e Treptifieve, ' 
To Se arpdr^vfjia ^iropi^ero alrov OTrco^iBvparo i/c tS)v vtto- 
^vyicov, K&TrTO^rei tov^ ^ov^ Kal ovovf* ^v\ot<; S* i')(^pcovTOy 
fJLLfcpov ifpolovTt^ diro TT}^ <})d\ayyo^ ov rj pid')(7] eyevero, toI<; 
re olaroh ttoXKol^ ovglv (01)9 rjvdyKa^ov ol "EKkr}ve^ ifcfidX- 
Xecv Toij^ avTOfjLoXovvra^ irapd /SaaiXeco^;), Kal tol<; yeppoi^; 
Kal rah ^v\ivat<; dcnriav ral^ AlyvTrTiai^ • iroXKal he Kal 
TreXrac Kal afia^at rjaav ^epea^ai eprjfioi' oh iraat ')(^p(afie' 
VOL Kpea €^jrovT€<; r^a^LOv eKeivrjv rrjv rjfxepav. 

7. Kal i]Si] T6 fjv Trepl irXrj^ovaav dyopav Kal €p')(pvTaL 
irapa ^aacXico^; Kal TcG'a'a(f>€pvov<; KrjpvKe^y ol fxev dXXot 
^dp^apot' rjv Be avroov ^aXlvo<; el<; ^^EXXtjv, 09 eTvy')(^avej 
irapa Tidcra^epveL cov Kal evripico^ €')(a)v Kal yap /n-'poae-' 
TTOielro ein<77rjii(ov elvai rcov dficj^l rd^ei^ re Kal oirXofia- 
%iav, 8. OvTot Se irpocrek^ovTe^; Kal KaXiaavre^; tou9 tcov 
^EXX7]vo)v dp')(pvTa^ Xeyovcrcv on /SaaiXev^; KeXevet tou9 
^^EXXrjva^;, iirel vckcov Tvyxdvei Kal Kvpov aTreKTOve, irapa- 
hovra^ ra oirXa lovra^ eirl Ta9 ^acrCXeco^ Bvpa^ evptaKea^av 
av Tt hvvoDvrai dya^ov* ^ 9. Tavra [lev elirov ol ^aatXeco^ 
KrjpVKe^* ol Be ''EKXr}ve<; /3apeco<; jiev rjKovaav, o/jim Be 
KXeapYo<; roaovrov elnrev on ov rcov vckcovtcov ecTj ra oirXa 
wapaBiBovai • 'u4XV, e(^r}, vfieh fiev, & dvBpe<; crTpaT7]yoi, 
TOVTot<^ diroKpivacr^e o n koKXicttov re Kal dpiarov e^^re • 
iycb Be avriKa y^co. ^EKdXeae ydp n^ avrov rcov virrjpeT&v, 
oirm IBot ra leplft .e^yprjfieva' eTU%e yap Bvcfievo^;. 10, 
"Ev^a Br) dTT^KpivaTO jKXedvcop fiev 6 ^ApKd';, 7rpecr^vTaT0<i 
wv, on TTpoa^ev av drrroi^dvoLev rj ra oirXa irapaBolev • Upo- 
fez/09 Be 6 Qr]^alo^, 'AXX' iyco, e<^r}, & ^aXive, Savfid^co iro- 
repa 0)9 Kparcov /3acr^Xeu9 alrec rd oirXa rj 0)9 Bid (piXiav 
Bcopa, El fxev yap m Kparcjv, ri Bel avrov alrelv, Kal ov 
Xa^elv eX^ovra ; ei Be Trelaa^ fiovXerai Xafieiv, Xeyerco ri 

LIB. II. CAP. I. , 43 

€(rrac roU aTparcwrai^;, iav avrtp ravra ')(apL(7covTac. 11. 
IT/?09 ravra ^aXLVO<; etTre' BacrcXev^; vifcav rjyecrac^ €7^et 
Kvpov aireKrove. Tl<; <yap avrw iarcv ocrn^ r?}? «/>%^9 avrt- 
irocelrat ; Nofil^ec Se /cat vfias eavrov elvat, e^coif iv p^eay 
rfj eavrov %<wpa Kal rrorafJLcop ivro^ dBiafidrcop, Ka\ ifkYf^o'^ 
dv^p(07ra)v e^' u/ia? hvvdjjLevo^ dyayeiv oaov ouS' el irape^ou 
VjJLLV Bvpaccr^^ av drroKrelvau 

12. ikfera rovrov QeoTTopmo'^ ^A^rjvalo^ elire • ^fl ^a- 
\lve^ pvp, a)<i av opa^ rjfxlp ovhep icrrip dya^op aXXo el fxrj 
^'OTrXc^Kal apery, ''Oifka fiep ovp ej(ppre^ olofie^a ap Kal rjj 
aperfj ^prjor^au • rrapahopfe^ S' dp ravra fcal rcop acofidrcop 
o-reprfhripat, Mrj ovp olov ra fiopa dyo!^d 7}fUP opra vfup 
TrapaBcocrecp ^ dWd avp rovroL^ Kal irepX rcop vfjuerepcop dya- 

^' ^(!)P fjLa'x^ovfie'^a, 13. ^Afcovaa<; 8e ravra 6 ^aXiPo^ eyeXaae 
Kal eiTrep' /AXXd (f)LXoa6(j)(p /jLepMoifca^^ & peaptcrKe, Kal Xi- 

I yets ovK dydpcqrra • Icr^c fxeproL dpoTjro^ cop, el olei dp rfjp 
vfierepap dperrjp irepLyepea^ai r7)<;, j^aor cXeoys Bvpd/^eco^;. 14. 
^AXXov^ Se ripa^ ecj^aaap Xeyetp v7rofiaXaKL^ofiipov<^ co? Kal 
Kvpo) iTLcrrol eyepopro Kal ^aaiXel y dp nroXXov d^ioc yepocp- 
ro, el /3ovXocro ^lXo<; yepecr^av • Kal ecre dXXo re ^eXoo '^^pi]- 
a^ac, ecr eir Alyvirrop arpareveip^ crvyKaraarpeyframr dp 
avrtS, 15. ^Ep rovrtd KXeap'^o<; rjKe Kal ypoorjjaep el tjSt] 
dTTOKeKptfiipoc elep, ^aXiPOS S' viroXa/Soop elirep • OvroL 
fxep^ 0} KXeap')(e^ dXXo<^ dXXa Xeyet • av S* r^jMlp elire ri Xiyetg. 

16. 'O S' elrrep • ^Eyco ere, & ^aXipe, dafiepo<; icopaKa, olpLat 
he Kal oi dXXot rrdpre^ [ovroi] • av re yap ^'EXXrjP el Kal 
r]{xehy ,roaovroL opres oaov^ av 6pa<;* ep rotovroi^ Be opre^ 
irpayfiaai avjjL^ovXevofxe^d aot ri '^prj rroielp *7repl cop Xeyet<;, 

17. Sv OVP, 7rpo9 ^ecop^ avfi^ovXevaop rjfMP o re aoL SoKec 
KaXXcarop Kai dptarop elpai, Kal 6 aot rtfirjp ooaec ek rop 
eireira yjpopop dpaXeyofxepoPy on ^aXlpo^ ^brerrefxc^^ 
irapa ^aacXeco^ KeM&aiifif^'^r'ov^ "EXX7]pa<^ rd oirXa rrapaBov- 
pau avix^ovXevqpbepoi^ avve^ovXevaep avroh rdBe. . Ola^a Be 
on dvdyKfjXeyea^ac ep rfj 'EXXdBt d dp avli0ovXevarj9\ 18. 

O Be KXeapj(o<^ ravra VTrrjyero, ^ovXofiepos Kal avrop rop 


Trapa ^aaiXeoD^ iypea$evovrcLjarvfjb^ov\evaai fir) irapaSovvac 

o vTroarpeYa^; Trapa ttjv oo^av avrov fi/wev <oo6, 
^> ^19. '^'yco, 66 p,ev Tcop /JLvplcov iXTTiScov fxla TC^ v/iitv iarc 
acohrjvac iTok€jjiovvTa<;^aaLKd^ avfi/3ov\evco /jltj jrapahLhovay 
ra oifKa* el he^TOi fjirjSefjLia acQj7]fiia<;\i€rTlv .ik'Trh aKOPT(fs 
^aacXico^j crvfi/SovXevco crcol^€o^q>L p/nty'' OTrrj'Svva^rov, ^^0, 
K\eap')(o<; he irpo^ ravra elirevr ^AXXa ravra fxev drj av Xi- 
fy6L<; • irap* rj/jiwp Se arrdyyeXXe rdSe, on, rj/xel^ oiofxe^a^ el [lev 
tSeoc /SaaiXel ^IXov^ elvat, 7rXeiovo<; av a^coc elvai <jbt\ot e^ov- 
re? ra oirXa rj irapahovre^ dXXco • el Se Seoi, TroXe/Jielv, dfjiktvov 
av TToXefiecv e^ovre^^ rd oirXa rj dXXo) TrapaSovre^. 21. *^0 Se 
#aA,6z/09 etTre • Tavra fxev Br] dirdyyeXov/jiev • dXXd Kal rdSe 
vpZv eLTreiv etceXevaev ^aaiXev^, ore fievovaL fiev vpuv avrov 
GiTovhal e'tTjo-aVj irpolovcn he Kal diriovai 7f6Xefiq<;. EliraTe 
ovv Kal irepX rovrov irorepa fievelre Kal (TTrovSal elcnv tj co? 
TToXepbov ovTos Trap v/jlcov aifcuyyeXS).: . 22. KXeap'^^o^ 8* e\e- 
^ev* ^ATrdyyeXXeroiVvv Kal Trepl tovrov on Kal jj/jllp ravrd 
hoKel aTrep Kal jSaatXel, Ti ovv ravr eariv ; e(f>rj 6 ^aXlvos* 
^ATTeKpivaro KXeap'^09' ^Hv fiev /jLevoy/jiev, CTrovSai* aTnovcro 
he Ka'y TTpolovcTL TToXefMO^, 23. JO he Ttakiv i^pcoTrjae* Sttov- 
Sa? 7] TToXe/jLOv aTrayjeXcO'; Kkeap^o^ he ravra iraXiv dire- 
Kpivaro • ^Trovhal fiev fievovatv^ aTTLovcn he rj irpolovai rrch 
XeiMO<;, ^'0 n he TroLrjaoi ov hiearjixave, t ^/ /-Z^l':.. 


1. ^aXtvo^ fjbev hrj a!;)^€TO Kal ol avv avrw, 01 he irapa 
^Aptaiov YjKov^ npoKXrjg Kal Xeipiaot^o^ • Mevcov he avrov 
€/ji€ve Trapa ^Aptaiw • ovroi S' eXejov on ttoXXov^ cpairj ^Apc- 
alo^ elvai IIepaa<; eavrov jSeXrlov^j 0&9 ovk av dvaay^ia^ac 
avrov jSaatXevovro^' dXX^ el ^ovXea^e avvaTTLevac, rjKeiv rjhrj 
KeXevei ri)^ vvKr6<; • el he jllt], avro^ Trpcoi aTnevai (f}i]aiv. 2. 
'O Se KXeap')(ps elirev • ^AXX! ovrco 'X^prj Troielv^ edv fiev tjkco- 

LIB. II. CAP. II. 45 

^er, &(T7r6p \eyeT6* el Be jbirjy nrpdrTere ottolov av to vfilv 
0Lt]b'^6 /jLaXiara av/ncpepeiv, "O tl he Troiijaot ovSe tovtol^ 
elire. 3. Mera he ravra, rjSr] rfKiov hvvovTo<;, avjKaXeaa^ 
TOv<; (TTparrjyov^; koX \o')(a'yov^ eXe^e roLciSe • ^Efjcoi^ & av- 
Bpe^i %voj^ev(p levac eVt ^acrikea ovfc iytypero ra lepd, Kal 
ekfcoTco^ apa ovfc ijcyvero, ^f2<i yap iyco vvv irvv^dvofiaL^ Iv 
fjbeaco i^fJLcop Kop ^aaCkeco^; 6 Tiyprj^^ irora/JLo^; earc vavaiiropo^^ 
ov ovK av hwal/ie'^a dvev itXolcop hia^rjvau' .TrXola S' rjfxel^ 
ovfc e^ofjuev. Ov /lev Sr] avrov ye fxeveiv olov re* rd yap iirL' 
rrjheta ovk eariv e^ecv levai he nrapd tov<; Kvpov cj)iXov<; 
Trd^v KaXdr/alv rd lepd fjv. "" 4. ^/2Se ovv j^pi] irouelv.^' aTTL- 
6vra<^ htiTrvkiv 6 tl tl^ e-^ec • eireihav he arj/nrivrj tS kepdri o)^ " 
dvaTravea^aCj arvaKevd^ea^e* eTrechdv he to hevrepov^ dvari- 
^ea^e eirl rd viro^vyta • eVl he tgS rplrcp eirea^e tw rjyovfjLi' 
v(pj rd fjuev vTro^vyia e^ovres irpof; rov irorapiovy rd he oirXa^ 
e^co. 5. Tavra aKovaavre^; ol aTparrjyol Kal Xo')(ayo\ dirrjX' 
^ov Kal eiroLOVV ovrco • Kal to Xolttov 6 puev VPX^^j ^^ ^' eVet'- 
^oz^To, ov)(^ eXofievoL, dXX\; opcovT€<;J p;rLfL6vo^ e<pp6p€L olahec 
Tov dp')(0VTa, ol he dXXoc aireipOL rjaav. 6. ^A.pcS^jjLo^he ttj^ 
ohov TjV rjX^ov i^ ^E(f)eaov ttj^; ^Ici>VLa<; f^e^pj' Trj<; fJid'^T]^ aTa- 
^fiol rpeZ? Kal evvevrjKovTa^ Trapaadyyai irevTe Kal TpcaKOVTa 
Kal irevTaKoatoit crTahtoc irivTrjKOVTa Kal e^dKca')(^LXLOL Kal 
fjLvpcoL • CLTTO he TT}^ f^d'^7]<; eXiyoPTO elpau eh Ba/3vXa)pa aTa- 
htoL e^TjKOPTa Kal TpiaKocrtot, 

7. 'EpTev^ev hrj^ iirel (Tk6to<; eyeveTo^ MlXtokv^tj(; puev 6 
&pa^, ^X^^ '^^^^ '^^ fTTTrea? T0U9jaeSr' eavTov eU Te^TapuKov- 
ra, Kal tcjp Tret^cop 0paKO)P &)? TpiaKoalov^^ i^vTO/JLoXrjae 7rpo9 
^aatXea, 8. K.Xeap')(o<^ he to?? dXXot^ rjyetTo KaTd Td ira- 
pTjyyeX/jLepa, ol S' eiTroPTO • Kal d(j)LKPOVPTai eh top irpcoTOP 
o-Ta^/jLOV irapd ^Aptalop Kal ttjp eKeiPov aTpajidp dpcf^l fiecra^ 
vvKTa^' Kal ip Ta^ec ^efxevot Td birXa avprjX^op ol aTpaTrjyol 
Kal Xo-^^ayol tcop 'EXXtjpoop irapd ^Apialov • Kal cofjLoaap ol Te 
' EXXrjve^ Kal 6 ^Apcaco^ Kal t&p avv avTco ol KpaTLcrTOC fJbrjTe 
TrpohcoaeLV dXX7]Xov<i av/jL/na'^^^oL Te eaea^ac * ol he ^dp^apoi 
irpoaco/jLoaav Kal rjyrjcrea^aL dh6Xo)<;. 9. TavTa S' ci/Moorav, 


cr^d^avre^ ravpov kol Xvkop /cat Kairpov koX tcpiov ek olgitU 
Suj ySaTTToz^re? ol /mev ^^EWrjve^ f/^o?, ol Se fidp/3apot Xoy- 
-^ ')(7]v, 10. 'Eirel Se rd Trtard ijei^ero, elirev 6 KXeap')^o^' 
"Aye 8}] J S) ^ A peace J eireiTrep 6 avro^; tj/jllv aroXo^ iari /cal 
v/jllv, elire riva yvoijJLrjv e')(ei^ irepl rrj^ iropeia^ • irorepov diri' 
fxev TjVTrep TjX^o/jiev rj aXXrjV rcvd ivvevoij/civac So/cet? oSov 
KpeiTTod ; 11. 'O S' elirev' ''^Hv fiev 7]X^o/JLev dinovTe^ irdv- 
T69 av vTTo Xi/iov diToXoifie^a • virdp^ec yap vvv r^pHv ovhev 
Tcov iTTLTTjSeicov, ^ETTTUfcaiSe/ca yap ara^/JLcov tcop iyyvrdrco 
ovSe Sevpo l6vTe<; i/c t^9 %ft)/?a? ovSev el'^^ofiev Xa/ji/SdveLV ' 
€P^a S' €LTi rjVy rjfjLei^ BcaTropevo/Jbevot fcareSaTravrjaa/jiev, Nvp 
S' iTTivov/Jiev TTOpevea^at jxaKporepav fiev, tcov B' iTrLTrjSeccov 
ovfc aTToprjcrojiev. 12. Hopevreov S' 7]iuv tov^ irpcoTov^ ara- 
^^aou9 ft)9 dv Svvcofie^a fxa/cpordrov^, Xva co? irXelarov diro- 
airaa^cofjiev tov ^aaiXiKov o-TparevfiaTO^ * tjv yap aira^ Bvo 
Tj rptcov rjfjiepcov oSov diroo-^^^coiuLep, ovtc en /jLT) Bvprjrai fiaat- 
Xei'^ y/xd^ /caraXajSeiP. 'OXcyM fiep yap arpaTevjuari qv 
ToX/Ji7]aet i(j>67rea^at • itoXvp B> €'^cop aroXop ov Bvprjaerai 
Ta^eco<; TTopevea^aL • tcro)? Be /cal tcop eiTLTrjBeicop airapieu 
TavT7]Pj e(f>7), T7JP ypcojuLTjp e^co eycoye. 

13. ^Hp B' avTT] T] GTpaTTjyla ovBep dXXo BvpafiepT] rj diro" 
Bpdvai 7] diro^vyeLP • tj Be tv^tj eaTpaTrjyrjcre kuXXlop, ^Eirel 
yap Tj/jLepa iyipeTO^ iiropevoPTO ip Be^ca e')(OPTe<i top rjXtop^ 
Xoyi^o/jLepot rj^ecp a/ia rjXico Bvpoptl eh tcco/jbas r^? Ba^vXco- 
pca^ x^pa<;. Kal tovto /xep ovfc^i-^evcj^rjcap. 14. ''Etl Be 
d/jL(f>l BeiX7]p eSo^ap irdXe^iov^ ^pdp linrea<; • Kal tcop re *£\- 
Xrjpcop di jiTj eTV')(pp ip Tal<; Td^eaiP ovTes eh Td<; Td^eL<; e^eop, 
Kal Apialos^ {eTvy^ape yap ej> afxa^rj^ Tropevo/iepo^ Bcotl eVe- 
Tpcoro^) KaTa^d^ e^copa/ci^eTO Kal ol avp avTw. 15. ^Ep c5 
Be SttXI^opto rjfcop XeyopTe<; ol irpoTre^cf^^ePTe^ g-kottoI otl ov^ 
LiTTreh elatp, dXXd viro^vyta ve/noiTO, Kal ev^v^ eypcoaap 
7rdvTe<; OTL eyyu? ttov ecTpaTOireBevero j3acnXev<; • Kal yap 
Kal KaiTPos e(f)acpeTO ip Kcofxau^ ov Trpoaco, 16. KXeap')(o<; Be 
eiTL fxep T0U9 7roXe/jLLOv<; ovk rjyep • {fjBec yap Kal direiprjKOTd^ 
TOv<^ aTpaTLcoTa^ Kal daiTov^ 0PTa<i • r/8?; Be Kal o-v/re rjp •) oi I 

LIB. II. CAP. III. 47 

fievTOL ovS^ aireicKtve^ (pvXarro/jLevo^ firj Sokolt] (f^evyecv • dX)C 
ev^vcopov dycov d/jua tm rfklw Svo/xev(p eZ? Ta? iyyvrdrco /cay- 
fia^ T0U9 TrpcoTOuy €')(cov /carea-fc^vcoaev, i^ a)u Sajpiraaro vtto 
Tov ^aatkifcov arparev/jiaTO^ kol avrd rd diro rcov olfcccov 
^vXa, 17. 01 fiev ovv Trpcorot o/jlco^ rpoircp tlvI eaTparoire- 
SevaavTOj oi S' varepoc aKoraloL irpoa-LOVTes w iTvyyjxvov 
efcaaroL tjvXl^ovto, kol fcpavyrjv iroWrjp iiroiovv KoXovvre^ 
dXKrjKov^^ coare koX tqv<^ TroXefjuiov^ d/covecv • coare ol fxev 
iyyvrara tcjp iroXepLLCov kol ecjyvyov i/c rcov cr/crjvco/jLdrcov. 18. 
ArjXov he tovto ttj varepala eyevero • ovre yap vTTo^vytov €TL 
ovSev icf)dv7j ovre arparoTreSov oiire Kairvo^ ovSajiiov irXriaiov. 
^E^eirXdyr) 8e, w? eoLKe, kol jSaacXev^ rfj icj^oSo) tov aTparev- 
/jLaTO<; • iSrjXcocre Be tovto oh ttj vaTepaia eirpaTTe. 19. 
npolova'7]<; /jbivTOt t^? vvkto^ TavTTj^ koX toIs "EXXrjai ^o^cq 

€/JL7rL7rT€C, KoX ^6pv/3o<; KOL SoOtTO? TjV oloV ellCO<^ ^O^OV i/jLTTe- 

<t6vto<; ylyvea^at, 20. KXiapy^o^ Be ToXfitSrjv ^HXelov, ov 
eTvyyavev e^oyv irap eavTco KrjpVKa dpicxTov tcov TOTe^ tovtov 
dveiirelv etceXevae aiyr]V KaTUKTjpv^avTa otl Trpoayopevovaiv 
01 dp')(OVT€^, o? dv TOV d(f)evTa tov ovov eh Ta oirXa /birjpvcrr], 
OTL X'^yfreTac fxta^bv ToXavTOv dpyvpiov, 21. ^ETrel Be TavTa 
iKr}pv')^r}, eyvcoaav ol aTpaTLcoTaL otl kevo^ 6 (j)6^o^ elr] koX oi 
dp')(OVTe<^ acboi, ^'Afia Be op^po) irapriyyeCXev o K.Xeap')(QS eh 
Ta^cv Ta oirXa ri^ea^aL tou? "EXXrjva^; yTrep el')(QV oTe fjv r) 


1. *^0 Be Br} eypayjra otl fiaaLXev^ e^eirXdyr] ttj i(^6Bw, 
TcoBe Br/Xov rjv • ttj fiev yap irpoa^ev rjf^epa Tre/jiTrcov Ta oirXa 
TrapaBLBovaL e/ceXeve, TOTe Be d/jua rjXiCi) dvaTeXXovTL Krjpvfca^ 
eirefi'^e irepl airovBcov. 2, 01 S* iTrel rjX^ov irpo^ tov^ irpo- 
(j)vXaf€a^, i^tjTovv tov<; dp^ovTa^, ^Eirel S' dirrjyyeLXav ol 
irpocf^vXafce^j KXeap'^o^ Tvyjav TOTe ra? Td^€L<; iiTiaKoirSyv 
€4776 Toh irpocftvXa^L KeXeveiv tou9 Krjpvicas irepiixeveiv d^pL^ 
av G')(oXdarj» 3. ^Eirel Be KaTecrTTjae to aTpaTevfjua u)(tt€ 


KoKw e'X^ecv opacr^ac Travrrj AdXayya TrvKVup, tcov Se aoTrXcov 
IJLTjSiva Karai^avrj elvai^ eicakeae tov^ ayy6Xov<; Kai avro^ t€ 
7rpor]X^e tov<^ t6 evoTrXoTcirovf; e')((DV koX eveLSeardrovf; rcov 
avTOV arpartcoTcop, icaX tol^ dXXot^ arparTjyol^ ravrd e(l)pa- 
crev, 4. 'Eirel Be rjv nrpo^ tol^ dyyeXois^ dvrjpcora tl /3ov' 
XoiVTo, 01 S' eXeyov on irepl airopScov yfcoiev dvSpe<; orr£z/e? 
i/cavol eaovrac rd re irapd /Saa-tXeco'^ rol^ ^^EXXrjatv dirayyel- 
Xac /cal rd irapd tcov ^EXXtjvcov fiaatXec. t &• O Be dire/cpi' 
varo' ^AirayyeXXere tolvvv avro) on fJi'd')(r]^ Bel Trpcorov 
dptarov yap ohic eanv ovBe 6 roX/x'^dcov irepl airovBSdv Xeyeiv 
T0L<; ^'EXXrjaL jut) Tropcaa^ dptarov, 6. Tavra aKovaavre^ ol 
dyyeXoL dirrfXavvov^ koI tjkov Tayy • & koX BrjXov rjv on 
iyyvg irov ^aatXei)^ rjv rj dXXo^ tl<; & eireTeraKro Tavra 
irpdrretv • eXeyov Be on eiKora Boicolev Xeyeiv ^aaiXel^ Kal 
rjKOiev r]ye\Jiova^ eyovre<^ ol avTov<;, idv at GrrovBal yevcovrai^ 
d^ovacv ev^ev e^ovac rd eircnqBeia. 7. ^O B' r/pcora el avrol^ 
TG?9 dvBpdat aTrevBocro lovat Kal dmovaiv^ rj /cat rols dXXoi^ 
eaoLvro airovBaL 01 Be, UdcTLV, €(j)aaav^ t^^XP^'^ ^^ ^aatXel 
rd irap vjjlcov BtayyeX^fj. 8. ^Eirel Be ravra elirov^ /lera- 
crrjadfievo^ avrov<i 6 KXeap'^o^; e^ovXevero • Kal eBoKeo ra? 
airovBd^; iroiela^ai ra')(y Kal Ka^^ rjav^Lav eX^etv re eVt rd 
eTrirrjBeia Kal Xa^etv. 9. 'O Be KXeap')(o<; dire • AoKel fjt^ev 
Kal e/jiol ravra* ov jmevroc rw^v ye airayyeXo}.^ dXXd BiarpU 
'yjrco ear av oKvrjawaiv ol dyyeXoL ^rj aTroBo^j] rjfitv ra^ 
a7rovBd<^ rroLrjaaa^ai' ol/iai ye fjuevroi, e^rjyKal rol^ rjfjLere- 
poL<; arpan(oraL<i rov avrov ^oj^ov irapeaea^ai, ^Errel Be 
eBoKet Katpb<^ eTvatj aTrrjyye'XXev on aTrevBoiro, Kav eL'^i'9 
rjyela^aL eKeXeve 7rpo9 rd e7nrr}Beia, 

10. Kal ol fiev rjyovvro, KXeap')(p<^ fxevrot eiropevero rd^ 
fiev a7rovBd<; TroLTjao/nevo^, ro Be arpdrev/xa e')(cov iv rd^ec ' Kal 
avro<^ Be o)7ria^o(f>vXdKec. Kal evervyyavov rd(f)pot<; Kal av- 
Xcbaiv vBaro<?j TrXrjpeaiv a)9 fJt^h Bvvaa^ai Bta/SatveLv dvev ye- 
^vpcov • aXX' erroLovvro Bca^daec^ eK rcov (f>oLvUcov, ot rjaav 
€K7re7TrcoK6re<;, rov^ Be Kal e^eKoirrov. 11. Kal evraif^a rjv 
KXeapxov Karafxa^elv w eTreardrei, iv fiev rf) dpiarepd 

LIB. II. CAP. III. 49 

ve^pi TO Sopv ex^ov, ev he ry Be^ca /Safcrrjplav Kal ei ti9 

aVTCO BofCOLTJ Tcbv TTpO? TOVTO TerajfJieVCOV ^XaK€V€LVy €K\ey6' 

/jb€Po<; Tov iTTLTtjSecov 67rat(7€V dv, fcal a/xa avTO^ TrpoaeXafi^a^ 
vev eU TOV irrfkbv ifi/Salvcov coaTe iraaiv alaxvvrjv etpat fir] 
ov avaTTOvSa^etv. 12. Kal eTax^rjaav fiev 7rpo9 avTOV oi 
TpcuKovTa 6T7] jejovoTe^ * eVel Se /cat Kkeap^pv €copo)V airov- 
8d^ovTa^ TrpoaeXd/jb^avov koX oi irpecr^VTepoi. 13. JJoXv he 
fiaXkov 6 KXeapxo'i eairevhev, viroTTTevcov fxr) ael ovToy ttXt]- 
pei^ elvai tcl^ Tcicjypov^ vBaTO^ • {ov yap rjv &pa p'ta to irehiov 
dpSetv) aXX Xva rjhr] TraXXd Ta CLTropa 7rpo(^aivoL¥o Tol<^ 
^[EXXrjcTLV elvav eh ttjv nropeiaVy tovtov eve/ca ^aaCXea 

1 vircoTTTevev eirl to rrrehiov to iiBcop a^eticevai, ^d-r^:f:^^i^2 » '^ 

14. Uopevofievoc he ac^UovTO eh KcoiJia<;, oS^ev airehet^av 
at r)yeii6ve<; XapL^dveiv tcl eiriTrjheLa, ^Evfjv he alTO<; ttoXu? 
Kol olvo^ (f)OLvUcov Kol 6^o<^ e^^r]Tov airo tcov uvtcov, 15. 
AvTol he ai ^dXavot TO)V ^olvlkcov, oia'^ fiev ev Toh ^^EXXtj- 

'CTLV ecTTiv IBelv, Toh ol/ceTaL<; a7re/ceiVT0'j^,he Toh hecnroTai^ 
aTTOfceifjievaL rjcrav diroXefCTOt, S^av/Jidcrtac to kuXXo^ fcal to 
fieyeS^o^ • 77 he oyjn^ rfXeiCTpovi ovhev hie^epe • ra? he TLva^ 
^'Y}paivovTe<; TpayrjuaTa direTlS-ecrav, Kal rjv Kal irapd tto- 
TOV rjhv jxevy fce(})aXaXy€<; he, 16. ^EvTav^a Kal tov iyKe- 

■ (j)dXov TOV (f)oiviKO^ TTpcoTov e^kyov ol (TTpaTLoyTai, Kal ol 

' TToXXol e^avyLacrav to Teelhosi Kal ttjv thtoTTjTa tt}? ^^hovi]^. 
^Hv he &(pqhpa Kal tovto Ket^aXaXyh, ^O he ^oivi^ o^ev 
i^dcpeS-eLrj 6 eyKec^aXo^ oXo<^ avalvefo, ^ , ,. 

17. ^EvTavSa epueLvav r]fiepa<^ Tpeh • Kal irapd fzeyaXov 
' fiaaiXeco^; rJKe Ttcraa(f>epV7]<; Kal 6 ttj^ /3a<TLXeo)<; yvvaiKo^ 

dheX(j)o<^ Kal dXXot JJepaai Tpeh * hovXoc he iroXXol eiirovTO. 
Eirel he diriqvTiqdav avToh ol t(ov ^EXXtjvcov crTpaTrjyoL, 
eXeye irpS^TO^ Ticrcra^epVT]^ he epfX7]veo)<; TOidhe* 

18. ^Eyco, S) dvhpe^ ^^EXXrjve^, yeiTcov oIkco ttj ^EXXdhc 
, Kai errel vfid^ elBov eh iroXXd KaKa Kal dpLrj^J^va epbireTTTco* 

' K0Ta<;y evprjfjLa e7rotr](TdfjL7]v el 7rco<; hvvaipbr}v irapd /SaacXeco^ 
^ aLTrjcraa^at hovvaC fioi dmoGiOdai vfid^^ eh ttjv ^EXXdha. 
liOcfMaL yap av ovk d^cipio'TG)^ /jlol e^ecp oiire Trpo? vfi&v ovre 


7r/309 T?}9 ^EWdBo^; d7rda7]<;. 19. Tavra Se yvov<; yTovfji7)i 
^aaCKea, Xejcov avrcp on BcKatco^ dv /jloc '^^apc^ocrOy ore avrtp \ 
Kvpov T6 €7n(TTpaT€vovTa TrpcoTO^ 7]yy6iXa /cat ^orj^eiav \ 
eycov djia ry djyeXLa d<pCfc6/jLr]v • koI [lovo^ rcov Kara tov<^ 
^^EXkrjva^ reray/Jiivcop ovk ecj^vyov, dWu hirfKacTa koX awe- ,, 
fii^a fiacrckel ev to3 vfjceripo) o-rparoTreBcp, evSa ^aacXev^ j 
dcf>ifC6T0 iirel Kvpov aTre/crecve. Kal tou9 ^vv Kvpo) /3ap^d' 
pov^ iBlco^a avv Tolahe toI^ irapovai vvv fier ifMov, oiirep \ 
avTQ} elcrc rrrtcrTOTaTou 20. Kal irepl jjulv tovtcov UTrecr^j^ero I 
[lOL fiovXevcraa-SaL • epeaB^at he jie v/id^ i/ceXevcrev iXMvra 
rivo^ eveKev eaTparevG-are iir avrov* Kal avjJi/SovXevco v/jllv 
fierpico^ aTTOKpLPaaBaty tva fiov evTrpa/crorepov y idv tl hvvco' 
fiat dya^ov vpLLV irap avrov hiaTrpd^aa^ai. 

21. JT/>09 ravra fierao-Tdvre'; ol '^EXX7]ve<; i^ovXevovro • 
ical direicpLvavTOy KXeap')(p<; S' eXeyev • ^Hjiel^ ovre c-vvrfX^O' 
fiev 0)9 fiaatXel iroXeiir}(TOVTe<; ovr eTropevofie^a iirl ^aaL- - 
Xia • dXXd iroXXd^ 7rpo(f)da€L^ Kvpo<; evpiaKev, 0)9 teal av ey \ 
oXa^a, Lva v/xd^; re dirapacricevdGrTov^ Xd^oL Kal '^fid^ iv^dSe 
dvaydyoc, -^ 22. 'JBTrel fievroc r/S?; avrov ecopcojubev iv BetvS 
ovra, yG"xvv3^r)fi€v Kal S-eov<; Kal dv^pdnrov^ nrpohovvat av- 
ToVy iv T&> nrpoa^ev XP^^V irape^ovTe^ rj/jid^ avrov^ ev irotelv. 
23. ^Eirel he Kvpo<; TeS-vrjKev, ovre fiaacXel dvTLTTOiovfJLe^a 
rrj<; dp^V^ ovr ecrriv orov eveKa /3ouXot/-te5-' av Tr)v ^aaiXeco<; 
Xd>pav KaKO}^ iroielv ovS* avrov dTroKrelvat dv iSeXoLuev, 
TTopevoLfjieBa S' dv ocKahe, el rt^ rj/jid^ fiy Xvttolt] • dhcKOvvra 
/jbivroL TreipaaofieS^a avv rol^ J^eol^ d/ivvaa^ac • idv fievroi 
T^9 ^/xa9 Kal ev ttolojv vTrdp^j), Kal rovrov €69 ye hvvafjuv ov^ 
^rrrjaofjue^a ev 7roLOvvre<;, 'O /lev ovrco^ ecTrev. 

24. ^AKOvaa^ he o Tiaaa^epvr]^ e^ri • Tavra iyco drray- 
yeXS) /SaaLXel Kal vjjlIv irdXiv rd rrap iKetvov • l^e^pf^ S' dv > 
€70; r;«:a> al airovhal fievovrcov • dyopdv he ^jiieL<; irape^ofiev. 
25. Kal eh fjuev rr]v varepalav ov^ 'rJKev • coaS-^ ol '^EXXrjve^ f 
€c})povrL^ov • ry he rpiry r}K(cv eXeyev orv hiaTreirpayfievo^ 
i]K0L irapd ^aauXeco^ hoSijvac avrS aco^ecv rov<; ^^EXXrjva^, 
fcacirep ttuvv ttoXX&v dvrcXeyovrcov w ovk d^iov ecrj ^aacXel -^ 

LIB. II. CAP. lY. 51 

a^elvai tov^ €(j> eavrov arparevaa/iivov^ • 26. TeXo^; S' 
elire • Kal vvv e^eanv v[m>v ircara 'Ka/Selv nrap rjficov rj firjp 
<j)c\iav irape^eiv v/itv rrjv %c6paz/ koX dBoXco^ aird^eiv €l<; rrjv 
'EWdSa, dyopdv Trape'x^ovra^ • ottov S* dp fir) '^ irpcacrJ^ac, 
Xa/jL^dvetv vixct^ ifc T779 X^P^^ ed(jo[iev rd eirLrrjheia, 27. 
^Tfid<; S* av rjfjLLV SeijcreL ojioaat rj firjv iropevcreaS^ac 0)9 Bid 
(j^cXca^ dacvco'^, alra /cal irord \a/jL/3dvovTa<;, oirorav firj dyo- 
pdv Trapi'xcofjiev • rjv Be iTape')(cojiev dyopdv, o)vovfjievov<; e^eW 
Ta iiTLTrjBeia, 28. Tavra eBo^e* koX coiioaav /cat Be^cd^; 
eBoaav Tio-o-acl^epvr]^; /cal 6 T779 /3aatXicj^ yvvaLfco^ dBeXcpo^^ 
Tol^ Tcov ^EWrjvcov (7TpaT7)yoL<; /cal '\o')(a/yol^ Kal eXa/Sov 
irapd Tcov 'EXkrjvcov. 29. Merd Be ravra TLcraac^epvri^ 
elire • Nvv fjuev Br) direifiL 009 ^aaCkea • iTrecBdv Be BtaTrpd- 
^cofiac d BeofJLai, rj^co av(r/cevacrd/jLevo<; 0)9 dird^cov vfid<^ 6t9 
T'r)v 'EXkdBa /cal avrb^; diricbv eirl Tr)v ijiavTOv dp'^ijv. 


1. Merd ravra Trepiefievov TLcr(Ta(j)epV7)V oi re ^^EWt]- 
z/69 /cal 'ApttaLO<;, iyjv<; dXk7]\cov icrrparoTreBev/jievot, ^qjiepa^ 
rfkeiov^ rj ec/cocTLV. ^Ev Be ravrai<; d^c/cvovvrao 7rpo9 ^Apc- 
alov Kal ol dBe\(j)ol Kal ol dXkot dvajKaloCy Kal 7rpo<; rov^ 
(Tvv eKeivco Ilepcrcov rcve<;, rrapa^appvvovre^ re Kal Be^td<^ 
evLOL rrapd /3acrL\eo}<; (j>epovre<; fir) /JLvrjacKaKijaeLV ^aaCkia 
avroc^ T779 cvv Kvpcp eTrccrrpareia^, fJLrjBe dWov fJLr)Bevo^ rojv 
7rapoL')(oiJLevQ)V. 2. Tovrcov Be ycyvofievcov evBrjXoc fjaav oc 
nrepl rov ^Aptalov r)rrov 7rpocre')(ovre^ rol^ ' EX\,7)cn rov vovv • 
wcrre Kal rovro roU jiev ttoWol^ rcov ^EXkrjvcov ovk 7)pecrK€v, 

\ dXXd irpoatovre^ tc5 KXedp')((o eKeyov Kal to?9 dXkoi^ arpa- 
rriyoL-^ • S, Tl fievofiev ; rj ovk eiriCTrdfie^a on ^acrCkev^ 

, r))id^ aTToXecrac av irepl rravro<^ 'iroLrjo-atrOy iva Kal rol^ dX- 

' XoL<^ '^EXX7]crt (^6^o<; f) errl fiacrcXea [leyav arpareveiv ; Kal 
vvv fiev rjiid^ virdyerai [leveiv Bid ro Biecrirdp^aL avrco ro 

^ CTpdrev/uxi • eireiBdv Be irdXiv dXtcrBfj avra> r) arparid, ovk 




ecTTLV 07ra>9 ovfc eTn^rjcrerav rjfitv. 4. 'Tcra)9 Se irov rj diro', 
aKairret tl rj airojeixi^fyi, co? amopo<^ ^ t] 6S69. Ov yap irord 
€Kc!)V j€ /3ov\7]cr€TaL rj/jLCi^ i\B6vTa<; ek rrjv 'EWdSa diraj- 
yeiXav m rj/^el^, Toaoihe 6vTe<;, evucoy^Lev rrjv ^aaiXeco^; Svva- 
fjLCV iirl rah Bvpac^ avrov /cal KarayeXdcravTe^; dirrjX^ofiev. 

5. KXeapxo^ Se dnreKpivaTo toI^ ravra Xeyovcnv • ^Eyco 
ivS^vfJLovfjLac fM€V Kol ravra irdvra • ivvoo) he on ei vvv dirt- 
fiev, Bo^ojjiev iwl iroXepLM aTnevai fcal rrapd rm o-irovhag ttol- 
eiv, "Eireira irpcbrov fJLev dyopdv ovBeh irape^et yfilv, ovB\ 
OTTO^ev eiricnrioviie^a • av3^L^ Be 6 '^yr}a6fjLevo<; ovBeh earau A 
/cal d/ia ravra iroLovvrcov '^/jlcov evS^v^ ^ApLalo<; dc^earri^ev f 
&crre (^iXo^ rjjxlv ovBel<; XeXei^^erai, dXXd Kal oi irpocr^evk 
6vre<^ TToXifiLOL rj/jblv eaovrat. 6. IIora/jLO<; Be el jmiv rc<^ Kai 
dXXo<; dpa tj/jllv ian BLa0areo<;, ovfc olBa • rov 8' ovv Ev(f>pd 
rrjv Xajxev on dBvvarov Bia^rjvat /ccoXvovrcov 7ro\e/jLLcov, 0\ 
fjLev Bt], av fJbd')(eaBaL ye Berj, l7r7rel<^ elalv "qfjulv crvfjb[ia')(pv 
ro)V Be TToXepbicDV lirirel^ elatv oi TrXetcrrot fcal TrXeccrrom 
d^Loi • &are VLK(hvre<; fiev rlva dv drroKreivaiiiev ; 7)rr(0fJbi' 
vcov Be firjv ovBeva olov re acoS^TJvat, 7. ^Eyco fxev ovv fiaac- 
Xeay M TToXXd ovrco^ earl rd c-vfji/jLa)(^a, elirep TrpoSvfJLelrai 
rijjLd<; diroXeaai, ov/c olBa 6 n Bel avrov ofioaai Kal Be^tdi 
Bovvai Kal ^eov<^ eirtopKriaai Kal rd eavrov mard drrKm 
TrocrjcraL '^EXXtjctl re Kal ^apjBdpoi^. Tocavra TToXXd eX^ 

8. ^Ev Be rovrco rjKe TL(7C'a^epvr}<^ ^X^^ '^^^ eavrov Bvva- 
jjLLv, ct)9 eh oIkov drridyv, /cal ^Opovra^ rrjv eavrov Bvvafjuv ' 
rjye Be Kal rrjv ^vyarepa rrjv ^ao-cXeo)^ eirl ydjiM. 9. 'Ev- 
rev3-ev Be tjBtj Ticraa^epvov^ rjyovjievov Kal dyopdv Trapi'X^ov- 
ro^ eiropevovro • erropevero Be Kal ^ApLalo<;, ro Kvpov fiap- 
^apcKov e^wv arpdrevfia, afxa Tiaaaipepvet Kal ^Opovra Kal 
^vvearparorreBevero crvv eKeivoi^, 10. 01 Be '^EXXrjve^ v(j)0- 
p(i)vre^ rovTov^ avrcl i(j> eavrcov ej(a)povv rjyefjuova^; ej(ovre<^, 
EarparoireBevovro Be eKaarore drre^ovre^ dXXrjXcov irapa- 
cruyyr]v Kal fxelov ' i^vXdrrovro Be dficjyorepoc coanrep TroXe-j 
/JLL0V<; aXXrjXov<;, Kal €vS^v<; rovro viro^ltiav Trapelyev* 1 


LIB. II. CAP. IV. 53 

^EvLore Se koX ^vXc^ofievoc etc rov avrov koI ')(opTov koX ciXka 
TOLavra avXkeyovre^; TrXTjya^; everetvov dXkrjXoL^ • cScrre kol 
TOVTO e')(^pav irapel^e. 

12. Atek^ovre^ he Tpel<^ ara^fiov^; ck^lkovto Trpb^ to Mtj- 
Bia^ KoXovfievov Tel^o<^, koI iraprjk^ov eicrco avrov, '^Hv Be 
(pKoBofJUf^iievov ttKlv^ol^ oTrrals ev aa^oXrcp /cecpLevaL^, evpo^ 
eiKoat TToBcov, vyjro^; Be eKarov ' /jL7]ko<; Be ekeyero elvat eUoai 
irapaaayyoyv • airel-xe Be Ba^v\c!)vo<; ov ttoXv. 13. 'Eprev- 
Sev S' eiropev^crav crraB^fiov^ Bvo nrapaadyya^; oktco • /cat 
Bte^rjaav BLci)pv^a<; Bvo, rrjv piev eirl yecj^vpa^, rfjv 8' i^evy- 
fiep7]v 7rXo/o»&9 eirrd • {avrai Be rjaav dirb rov TiyprjTO^; irora- 
pLOv • /caTererpLTjvTO Be ef avr&v teal rd^poc iirl ttjv ')(oipav, 
ai pLev TTpcorac pueydXaiy eireira S' iXdrrov^' reXo^ Be koL 
pLLfcpol 6')(eT0Ly coairep ev rf} ^EXXdBc eirl ra^ pLeXiva<; •) fcal 
d^LKVOvvrat, eirl rov Tiyprjra irorapiov* 7rpo<; c§ ttoXc^ tjv 
pLeydXrj koI 7roXvdv3^pco7ro<; fj ovopia Scrd/CT], diTe')(ov(ja rod 
TTorapbov araBlov^; irevrefcalBefca, 14. 01 puev ovv '^EXkrjve^ 
Trap avTr]v ecrK7]vcoG'av €772)9 irapaBeiaov pLeydXov koX fcaXov 
fcal Bacreo<; TravroLcov BevBpcov • ol Be ^dp/3apoL Bia^el^rjKOTe^^ 
Tov TCypr^ra ov puevroi Kara^avel^^ 7](jav, 15. M-erd Be to 
BecTTVOv eTVXpv ev irepnraTcp ovTe<; irpb tcjv ottXcov IIp6^evo<; 
Kol Uevo(j)cov' fcal TrpoaeXS^cov dvS^pcoTro^; Ti9 r/pcoTrjae tou9 
7rpo(j)vXafca<; ttov av cBol Ilpo^evov rj KXeap')(pv. Mevcova Be 
ovfc i^)]TeL, KoX Tavra Trapd ^Apcaiov cov tov Mevcovo<; ^ivov. 
16. 'jETret Be Upo^evo^ elirev otl Avt6<; elpLC ov ^rjTel^;, elirev 
6 dv^pco7ro<; rdBe • "EirepLylre pie ^ApLalQ<; koX ^ApTdo^o<;, 
TTta-Tol ovre^ Kvpco, fcal vpuv evvoc^ koI KeXevovav (^vXdrTe- 
a^ai pbf) vpLLv eTn^cdVTai Tri<; vvkto^ ol ^dp^apoi • eaTi Be 
orpdrevpLa iroXv ev tco TrXrjaLOV irapaBeiacp. 17. Trapd 
TTjv ye^vpav rov Tiyprjro^ TrorapLov TrepL^^av KeXevovaL ^v- 
XaKrjv, €09 Biavoelrai avrrjv Xvaai Tccro'a(j)epvr]<; rrj^ vv/CT6<;y 
ijvirep Bvvrjrac, ft)9 p^rj Bta^ijre, dXX^ ev pieaco diroX7]^^YiTe 
TOV TTOTapLov fcal T7)9 Btcopv^o^. 18. ^ AKov(TavTe<; Tavra 
dyovcLv avrov Trapd rov KXeap')(pv teal ^pd^ovcnv a Xeyei. 
O Be EXeap')(p<^ aKovcra^ eTapd')(^ acjioBpa Kal e(f>o/3elro. 


19. Neavia/co^ Si rc^ rcov irapovrcov ivvorjaa^ elirev co? ovic 
aicoKov^a elrj to eiri^rjcreo-^ab fcal Xvaecv rrjv <ye(pvpav. A?]- 
\ov jap ore iTrcnS-efjievov^ r) vt/cav Serjcrec rj rjTTCLG'^ai, ^Eav 
fiev ovv vc/ccoac, tl Bel avrov^ Xvevv rrjv yicj^vpav ; ovSe yap 
av TToWal yi(j)Vpai 0)c7Cv^e')(^0L/jL€V av ottol (j^vyovre^; rjfjieU 
c-Q)^a)fJbev. 20. ^Eav S* av 97/^669 viK&jMev, XekvfjiivTj^ Tfj<; 
ye(j)vpa^ ov^ e^ovcriv ifcelvoc ottol ^vycoacv • ovoe /jLrjv /3or]3^7]' 
aai iroKkwv ovrcov nrepav ovhel<; avroh Svvrjaerac \e\vfji€vrj<; 
TTj^ ye^vpa^. 

~-4 21. ^A/covaa<; Be 6 KXiap^o^ ravra rfpero tov dyyekov 
TTOCTTJ Tt9 €07} x^P^ V ^^ fJiGacp TOV Ttyp7jT0<; Ka\ TTJf; Btojpv- 
^09. 'O Be elirev otc ttoWtj /cal KWfxab eveiai fcal Trokec^; 
TToWal Kal [Jbeyakau 22. Tore Brj /cal iyvcoaSr) on ol /Bap- 
/3apot TOV avS^pcoTTOv VTroTrepi'^^aLev, o/cvovvre^ fir] ol ^^EXkr]- 
1^69 BteX6vTe<; rrjv ye(jyvpav [xevoiev iv Tjj vrjaco, ipv/xaTa 
ej(pVTe<^ eVf^ev /lev tov 1 lyprjra, evrj-ev ce ttjv CLcopv')(a • Ta o 
eiriTrjBeia e')(OLev etc Tri<; ev piecrco X(i>pa<; iTo\'krj<^ Kal dyaSr]<; 
ov(T7]<; /cal Tcjv epyaaopievcov ivovTcov • elra Be /cal aTTOcTTpo^T) 
yevocTO, el tl^ I3ovKolto /3acrtXea /ca/c(b<i TTocecv. 23. MeTcb 
TavTa aveiravovTO • iirl jievTou ttjv ye^vpav opbco^ (j^vXa/crjv 
eTrepi'yJrav. Kal ovre iireS^eTO ovBeh ovBa/juo^ev ovre 7rpo9 rfjv 
ye^vpav ovBeU rjX^e t&v TToXefiicoVy 0)9 ol cj^vXaTTOVTe^ dir^y- 
yeXkov. 24. ^ETreiBr] Be ea)9 iyeveTO, Bce/Sacvov ttjv ye(f>vpaVy 
i'^evy/jievrjv ifKoiot^ TptaKovTa Kal eirTa, fo)9 olov t6 pLoXicTTa 
'7re(pvXayiJbevco<; • e^rjyyeWov yap Tcve<; tcov nrapa Tt(Taa(j)€pi 
vov^ ^EXkrjvcov 0)9 Bta/SatvovTcov jieKkotev eTn^rjaea^ail 
^AXka Tavra pbev 'yJrevBrj rjv • BialBatvovTcov fievTOU 6 T\ov<^ 
avTol<; eirejidvrj pueT dXXcov ctkoitcov el Bia^aivoiev tov tto- 
TapLov • eirel Be elSev, oix^^^ direXavvcov. 

25. ^Atto Be TOV TcyprjTO^ eTTOpev^rjcrav (TTa^f.iov<^ TeTTa- 
pa<; Trapacrdyya^ eucoatv iirl tov ^vaKov iroTapiov, to evpo^ 
TrXeS^pov'iTTrjv Be yecj^vpa, Kal ivrav^a (pKelTO it6Xl<^ pie- 
ydXrj, fi ovopua '^flm^ • 7rpo9 tjv dirr^vTrjore tol<; ^'EXX/qcnv o 
Kvpov Kal ^ApTa'^ep^ov vgSo<; dBeX<p6^, diro Sovacov Kal 
^EK^ardvcov o-rpaTcav iroXXyv dycov 0)9 fiorjS^acov ^acnXel* 

LIB. II. CAP. V. "55 

Kal i7no'Ti]cra<; to iavrov o-rpdrevfia 7rapep')(^ofievov<; rov^ 
^^EWrjva^ iSecopec, 26. 'O Be KXiap^o^ rj^elro /xev eh Bvo, 
eiTopevero he aXXore kol dXXore i(j)tcrTdijievo<^. '^'Oaov 8' [av] 
ypovGV TO ly^Qviievov rod aTpaTevfjLaTo<^ eTnarrjaeie, roaovrov 
TjV avcu^KT] y^pQVQV Sl 6\ov tov arTpaTev/JLaTO<; fycyveaS^ac rrjv 
iTTLcracnv coare to aTpaTevfia fcal avTol^ toc^ '^EWrjac 
So^aL irdjJLTTo'kv elvav koX tov Ueparjv eiCTTeifXrj'^^^^ai S^ecopovv- 
TU. 27. 'EvTevS^ev Be eiropev^rjaav Bta ty]^ MrjBia^; aTU- 
r&/xou9 eprjiiov^ e^ 7rapaaarf^a<^ TpidfcovTa ek Ta^ IlapvadTL' 
So9 fccojjia^ Ti)^ Kvpov KoX ^acrCKeco^ fjLi]Tp6<;. TavTa^ Ticro-a- 
(j)epv7]<; KvpG) eTreyyeXcov BiapTrdaai tol^ ''EXKrjcriv eTreTpe'xJre 
irXrjv dvBpaTToBcov, 'Evrjv Be atTO^ ttoXu? koI irpo^aTa Kal 
aXKa ')(p7]/jLaTa. 28. ^EvTev^ev S' eiropev^crav a-Ta^[iov<^ 
ipTj/jLov^ TeTTapa^ Trapaadyya^ eticoaL tov TiyprjTa TroTajuLov 
iv dpiCTTepa e)(OVTe<;, ^Ev Be rw TrpcoTO) crToS^fjiM irepav tov 
TTOTafjLov TToXi^ wKelTO fiejdXi] KoX evBai/jicov ovofia KacvaL, 
e| ^9 oc fidp/3apoc Bcrjyov iirl (7')(eBcaL<; Bcc})3-epLvac<; dpTOV^, 
Tvpov^y olvov. 

CAP. V. 

MeTa TavTa dcpifcvovvTab iirl tov Zd^aTov iroTafioVy to 
evpo^ TeTTdpoDV TrXeS^pcov. Kal ivTavSa e/ietvav rj/jiepa'; 
Tpei9. ^Ev Be TavTai^ VTro'^lrcao jiev '^crav, (pavepd S' ovBe- 
fiia icpatveTo eirifiovKr}, 2. "EBo^ev ovv roJ KXedp')((p cruy- 
yevecr^ai toJ Tcaaa^epvec fcacy ec irco^ BvvaLTO, iravaav Ta<; 
vTToy^La^^, irplv e^ avTcov iroXefiov yevea^ai • koX eTre/x'yfre Tiva 
ipovvTa OTC (TvyyevecrS^ac avT& ')^pr)l^ot, 'O Be eToifico<; eKe- 
\evaev Tj/cetv. 3. ^ETretBrj Be crvvrfK^ov, \eyei 6 KKeap')(p^ 
TdBe • ^Eyco, c5 TtcraacpepVT], olBa fiev tj/jllv op/cov^ yeyevrj/jbi- 
vov<; fcal Be^td^; BeBofxiva^ /Jbrj dBiKiqcreiv oKKiqKov^ • (j^vXaTTo- 
fjbevov Be ae re opco a)9 Tro\e[LLov<; rjiid^ • koX rjfjLel^ 6po)VTe^ 
Tavra dvTC(j)v\aTT6fie!^a, 4. ^Errel Be CKOircbv ovBev Bvva- 
fxao ovre ere alcr^ecr^ab TretpcojiJievov r/fid^; fcafcw TTOtelV) iyco 
Te aa(^o)^ olBa otv rjjiel^ ye ovS" eTrcvoovfLev tocovtov ovBiv, 


eSo^e fioi eh Xoyov^; aoc iXSecv, ottco^ el SwalfieSa e^ekotfiev 
aKKrfKo)V rrjv airiGTiav. 5. Kal ^yap olBa tjStj avS-pcoTTOV^y 
TOV<; fiev ifc Btal3oX7]<^, tov<; Se fcal e^ v7ro'iJrca<;, ot ^o^ri^evre^ 
/ aXkrjKov^, <^^daai ^ovKojJLevoC^'plv Tra^elv, enroiricrav avi^Ke- 
era Ka/ca tou9 oiire [leXKovra^ ovr av j^ovkofxevov^ tolovtov 
ovSiv. 6. Ta? ovp TOtavTa<; djvcofioavva^ vofii^cov avvovcri- 
at<; fidXtara av iravea^av, Tjfcco koX BtSda/ceLV ae fiovXofiai, 
0)9 crij r}iuv ovk opBco^ dirLarel^. 7. Upcbrov fiev jdp Kot 
/jLeyccTTOVy ol Se&v op/coo ri/jLd<; /ccoXvovat iTokeiJbiov^ elvac d\- 
XijjXoc^; • oarc^ Be tovtcov cvvoiBev avT& waprjjjLeXTjKco^, rov- 
TOP eyd> ovTTOT av evSat/jLOVio-atfJiu Tov jdp J^eS)V TroXe/iov 
OVK olBa ovT dirb ttolov av Td')(pv^ ^evycov t^9 diro^vyoLy 
ovT eh iroLOV av g'k6to<; diroBpaiT], ov9^ ottco^ av eh i^vpov 
j(copLOV diTocTTaiT], UdvTT) jap irdvra Toh ,&eo?9 VTro^a Kal 
nTavTa')(fi nrdvrcov caov ol ^eol Kparovat. 8. Uepl fiev Srj to)V 
Secbv re Kal rcov opKcov ovrco ycyvcocrKcOy Trap* oh rj/ieh Trjv 
^Lklav avvMfJievoi KareS-ifie^a ' rcov Be dv^pcoirivcDV ae 
eycoye ev rS Trapovrt vo/jll^co [lejicTTOV elvac 7}iuv dyaSov. 
9. Hvv jJLev <ydp crol Trdaa fiev yfJLLV 6S09 evTropo^y ird^ Be tto- 
Tajxh^ Bca/Saro^y rcov S' eTnTTjBeicov ovk diropia • dvev Be aov 
iraaa puev Bca (TKotov^ 77 6S09 * ovBev yap avrrj^ eTrcardfJLeSa 
7ra9 Be iroTafio^ Bvcriropo^^y ird^ 8' o)(Xo^ <j}ol3ep6<; • (f>o^ep(o- 
rarov S* ipTjfjLta • fiearr] yap iTdKKri<^ diropia^ eariv, 10. Ei 
Be Br] Kal jiavevre^ Ge KaraKTeLvaifieVy dWo re av rj tov ev- 
€pjeT7]v KaraKTeivavre^; 7rpo9 /SaatXea rov fMeytcTTOv ecpeBpov 
dycovL^oifie^a ; ^'Oacov Be Brj Kal otcov av ekirlBcov ifjuavrov 
arep'ijo'acfjLi, el ae n KaKov eTrcx^LpTjcraL/xc irouelvy ravra Xe^co. 
11. 'jB7a> ry^p Kvpov eire^vjJLrjcjd /jloc (piXov yevea^ac, vofit- 
^cov rcov Tore iKavcorarov elvao ed Troielv ov fiovXocro. Se Be 
vvv opS) TTjv re Kvpov Bvvapicv Kal ')(^copav e')(pvTa Kal rrjv 
aeavTov dpx^v aco^ovra, rrjv Be fiaatXeco^ Bvva/JLtVy fj Kvpo<; 
TToXeiila i^prJTo, aol ravTTjv avjjbfjba'xpv ovcav. 12. Tovtcov 
Be TOLOvTcov ovTcov, Th ovTco iiaiveTav o(7tl<^ ov (SovXeTai crol 
i^iXo^ ecvai ; ^AXXa fjLrjv, {ipco yap Kal TavTa e^ &v ex^ 
iXirlBa^i Kal ae /SovXijaeaBat, ^iXov rj/ilv ehav) 13. olSi 


LIB. II. CAP. V. 57 

[lev yap vfilv Mvcrov^ XvirTjpov^ ovra^, ou? vojjbli^a) av avv rfj 
'jrapovay Bwdfjuec TaTreivov^ vjuv iTapaa')(eiv' olha he fcal 
UecacSa^ • aKovco Be koI aXka eS^vrj rrroWa Toiavra elvat, a 
ol/Jiat av Travcrat evo')(\ovvTa del rfj v/jLerepa evBaifjLOvla, 
AlyvTTTLOV^ Be, oh /idXca-ra vfMa^ vvv jtyvcoaKO) Te^vjicofie- 
vov<^, ov)(^ 6p5), iroia Bvvdfiei crv/Jifid')(^a) ')(^p7]G'd/jievoc fiaXkov 
av KoXdaeor^e rrj<^ vvv cvv ifjLol ova7}<;. 14. ^AXka fjirjv ev je 
Tot9 irepc^ olfcouac av, el jiev /3ov\ol6 tm <^/\o9 etvac, oo^ fii' 
ytcTTO^ dv €Lrj<;, el Be tl<; ae XvttoItj, o)^ BecTTrorrj^; dvaG-rpi" 
(})oto e^^cov 7]iJid<; virrjpera^, oi aou ovfc av rod [iia^ov eveica 
fiovov vTTTjperoljJLev, dWd /cal tt}? ')(^dpcTO<; fjv aco!^evTe<; vtto 
GOV aol dv €')(pi[iev Btfcaico^., 15. ^E/jloI fiev Bfj ravra iravra 
ivS^v/jiovfievG) ovTco Bofcel J^avfjuaarov elvai to ere rjixlv diri- 
crrelv cocrre /cal 7]BiG-T dv dfcovaac/jio rovvo/ma rk iartv ovrco 
Beivo^ Xeyecv (oare ae irelaav Xeycov a>9 T^/ze?? aoL i7rc/3ov\eV' 
Ofjbev. KXeap'Xp^ fi€V ovv roaavra elire' Tiaaa^epvri^ Be 
&Be diT7]fJbei^^ • 

16. ^AXX! 7]Bofiai /lev, S) KXeap')(e, dtcovcov aov (^povifiov^ 
"Koyov^ ' ravra yap ytyvcoa/cwv eo re ifiol KaKov fiovXevot^, 
d/jba dv fJLoc BoKeL<^ fcal aavrSy KaKovov^ elvat, ^f2<^ B' dv fid- 
.&J79 OTO ovS* dv vfiel<^ Btf€aico<; ovre ^aaCKel ovt i/JLol diriaroi' 
Tjre, dvraKovaov, 17. El yap v/id^ ej3ov\6fjie^a diroXeaai, 
TTorepd aoi Bofcov/jiev iiTiTecov ifkrj^ov^ diropelv rj Tre^cov rj 
OTfkiaeco^, ev y v[jid<^ fjuev pkairreiv ifcavol etrj/nev dv, avrnrd' 
a')(eLV Be ovBeh klvBvvo^ ; 18. ^AWd ')(copLcov eTTLTrjBeicov^ 
vfilv iTTLTLBeaS-aL diropelv dv aov BoKOVfiev ; Ov roaavra 
fiev ireBla tj/jlcv ^tXta ovra avv ^jtoXXm ttovco BtairopeveaSe, 
roaavra Be opr) vfilv Spare ovra iropevrea, a rjiuv e^ean 
TTpoKardXa^ovaiv diropa v/jllv Trape^etz/ ; roaovroo Be elac 
TTorafjLOL, ecf} &v e^eanv rjfjLLV rafitevea^ai OTToaot^ dv vfi&v 
/3ovXco/JLeBa fid')(^eaS^aL ; Elal 8' avra)v ov^ ouS' dv iravrd- 
iraaL Bia/SaiTjre, el fjurj rjfiel^; v/id^ BcairopevoLfiev.-^Lld. El Be 
iv irdai rovrot<; 7)rr(f/JLe!^a, dXXd ro ye rot Trvp rov Kapirov 
Kpelrrov iarcv • ov 'j^fieU BvvaifieSi* dv KaraKavaavre^ Xc/jlov 
vjuv dvrcrd^ac, S u/^et? ouS' el irdvv dya^oX elrjre [xd'xea^av 


av Zvvaia^e. 20. Ilm civ ovv exovTe<; TocTovrov<; Tropov^ 
7rpo9 TO vfJLLV nrdKefielVy /cal tovtcov /jirjSiva yfilv iTrtKivBvvov, 
eireiTa i/c tovtcov TrdvTcov tovtov av tov Tpoirov e^ekoijie^a 
0? iiovo^ iMev TTjOO? ^eo)V dcr€^7]<;, fi6vo<; Se 7r/509 dv^pcoircov 
alo-ypo^ ; 21. UavTaTracrt Be diropcov ecrrl Kal dfirj^dvcov 
fcal dvajKy i'X^o/jiivcov, koI tovtcov irovrjpcoVy OLTtV€<; iS^eXovao 
Sl eTnopKla<; re 7rpo9 ^eoi)^ fcal diridTia'^ TTpo<^ dv^pco7rov<^ 
rrrpaTTeiv tl, Ou^ ovtco^ "^fiec^;, & KXiap')(^e, cure rjXl^ioi, 
0VT6 dXoyiaTOt icr/xiv, 22. ^AWd tl Br) v/xd^ i^ov diroXeaai 
ovic iirl TOVTo rfk^ofiev ; Ev ta^i otl 6 i/juo^ epco^ tovtov 
alTC0<; TOV roi? ^^EWrjatv i/jue itkttov jevicrSat koX o5 Kvpo^ 
dvelSrj ^eviKM Bed fJnaS^oBooria^ incrTevcov, tovtco i/xe KaTafii]- 
vac Bi €V6py€CTLa<; IcrjQjpovri 23. ^^Oaa Be fjbov vfiel^; ')(^pr]crcfioo 
ecrecTfJe, ra fiev /cal av elire^, to Be jjieyicrTov iyco olBa • ttjv 
liev yap iirl Tjj Ke^cCky Tidpav fiacrckel pbovco e^eaTiv op^rjv 
e')(eLV, TTJV 8' iirl ttj KapBici caco^ av vfjicov irapovTcov Kal ere- 
po9 evireTw^ ^xot* 

24r. TavTa eiTrcov eBo^e tS KXedp')(co akr]^?} Xeyecv, fcal 
elirev • Ov/covv, ecj^Tj, o'LTLve<^ tocovtcov "^/jllv et9 ^Ckiav wrap- 
')(ovTcov TreipcovTac Biaj^dXkovTe^; TroirjcraL 7ro\e/JbLov<^ ^/^a9, 
d^WL elcTL Ta e(T')(aTa Tra^elv ; 25. Kal iyco fjuiv ye^ecfn] 6 
Ticraa^ipvr]^, el jSovXea^e /not oi re GTpaTrjyol Kal oi \o')(a' 
yol ek^elv ev toj ifJLcfyavel, Xe^co tov^ 7rpo9 ifxe XeyovTa<; &<; av 
eTTi^ovXevei^ e/jLot re Kal tj} avv e/Jiol aTpaTia, 26. ^Eyco 
B\ e^Tj 6 KXeap')(p^y d^co TrdvTa<^ • Kal aol av BrjXcoaco o^ev 
iyco TTepl aov dKovco, 27. ^Ek tovtcov Bt) tcov Xoycov 6 Tea- 
aa^ipvrj^ (j)LXo(})povov/JLevo^ totc fiev fievetv re avTov iKeXevae 
Kal avvBeiirvov iiroLTjaaToj^Tfj S' vaTepaict KXeap^o^, iX^cov 
€7rl TO aTpaToireBov, BrjX6<^ re tjv irdvv ^CXlkw olofievo^ Bta- 
Kela^ac tco Tuaaa^epvei, Kal a eXeyev iKelvo^ dTnjyyeXXev • 
e(f>7] Te XPV^^^ Uvat irapd Ttaaa^epvrjv ov^ iKeXevae, Kal oi 
av i^eXey^^^coai Bua^dXXovTe^ tcov ^EXXtjvcov, o)<; irpoBoTa^ 
avTov^ Kal KaKovov^ T0Z9 ^^EXXrjaiv ovTa^ TifJbcoprfhrjvaL. 28.. 
TTTcoTTTeve Be elvat tov Bca^dXXovTa Mevcova, elBcb<; avToi 
Kal avyyeyevrjfjievov Ttaaa^epveo fieTa ^Apvaiov Kal aTuaiM 

LIB. II. CAP. V. 59 

^ovra avTO) kol iTnjSovXevovray ottco^ to arpdrevfia airav 
7r/909 eavTov Xaficov (f>L\o<; y Tcaaa(j)ipv€u 29. ^E/BovXero Se 
Kol 6 K\eap')(o<; airav to arpdrev/jLa tt/oo? eavrov e')(eiv rfjv 
fyvco/jL7]v Kol Tov<; 7rapd\v7rovPTa<; ifCTroBcou elvac, Tcov Se 
arpaTCcoTCJV dvreXeyov nve^ avrS fxr] livai iravra^ roi/? Xo'^a- 
you? KOL aTpaTrjyov<;j firjSe Trcarevecv Ttaaa^epvet, 30. ^O 
he K\6ap'^o<^ laxvpw /carereiveVj eare SceTTpd^aro irivre fiev 
aTparrjyov<; ievat, eiKoai Se Xo^ayov^ • arvvrjfcoXov'^rjaav Be co? 
€LS dyopdv fcal tcov dWcov aTpaTCcoTcov co? BcaKocnou 

-/-SI. 'ETTel S* rjaav iirl rat? ^vpaL<^ rat? Tcaaa(})€pvov<;, oi 
fxev CTpaTrjyol iTapeKXrj^r](7av etaco^ Upo^evo^ Boccotco<;, Me- 
pcop 0eTTaX6<;^ ^Ayia<; ^ApKd^^ KXeapj^o^ Ad/ccov, ^coKpdT7]<^ 
^A')(^ac6'^' oi he Xo^ayol eirl Tai<^ ^vpac<; efxevov, 32. Ov 
7roXX(p S* vaTepov aTro tov auTov arj/jiecov oi t€ evhov awe- 
XafjL^dvovTO KoX oi e^co KaTeKoirrjaav, ikfera he TavTa t&v 
/3ap^dpci)V TLve<^ iTTTrecov, hca tov irehiov eXavvovTe<;^ a>TLVO 
ivTvy')(dvoLev ^'EXXtjvl rj hovXco rj eXev^eprp, TrdvTa<; eKTetvov, 
33. Oi he '^EXXrjve^ ttjv re iirTraa-tav avTCJV e^av/xa^oVy ifc 
TOV aTpaToirehov 6po)VTe<;^ kol 6 tl eiroiovv rjpL^tyvoovVy irplv 
NUap^o^ 'Apfcd^ rj/ce <})evyo)v, TeTpcofievo'^ els ttjv yacTepa 
KoX TCL evTepa iv Tal^ ')(epa\v e%a)z/, koX elire nrdvTa tcl yeyez/?;- 
[leva, 34. ^Eic tovtov hrj oi ^^EXXrjve^ e^eov eVl ra OTrXa 
TrdvTe<^ ifCTreTrXrjy/jLevoL kol vopui^ovTe^ avTi/ca fj^eiv avTov^ iirl 
TO (TTpaTQTrehov, 35. Oi he Trai^re? fxev ovk r^X^ov, ^Apcalos he 
Koi 'ApTdo^o^ fcal Mt^pchdTrj<;, oc rjaav Kvprp irco-TOTaTOL • 6 
he tS}V 'EXXrjvcov epfi7]vev<; ecpr] koX tov Ttao-acj^epvov^ dheX- 
(f)ov avv avToc<; opav kol yiyvdxiiceiv • gvv7]k6Xo\j^ovv he koi 
aXXoc Ilepacov Te^copaKicrpLevoi eh Tpcafcoo'LOv<;:j^l36. Ovtoc 
eTrel eyyuj rjaav^ TrpoaeX^etv ifceXevov et Ti9 ecrj tcov EXXrj' 
vccv Tj aTpaTriyo<; r) Xo')(ay6<;, Xva dirayyeiXcocn tcl irapd ^aac- 
Xea)9. 37. MeTa Tama i^rjX^ov (^vXaTTOfxevot tcov 'EXXtj- 
vcov (TTpaTTjyol fiev KXedvcop ^Op')(^o/JLivco<; Kal ^o^aiveTo^ 
2!TV/jLcf)dXco<;, avv avToh he aevo^cov ^A^r]vaco<;, ottco^ fia^oc 
TCL ire pi Tlpo^evov • Xeipiao^o^ S' eTvy')(avev dircbv iv Kcofxnj 
Tivl avv dXXot^ eTTcaLTC^ofjievo^. 38. 'ETrel 8' eaTtjaav eh 


iirrifcoov^ ehrev ^Apualo^ rdSe* KXiap^o^ fiiv, & dvSpe^ "EX- 
Xr]V€<;^ eVet eTriopKwv re icfxivT] /cat ras airovhm Xvcov^ e')(eb 
TTjv diKTjv Kol T6^v7]fC€, Upo^evo^; Be KoX Mevcov^ OTL /carryy- 
fyeCkav avrov rrjv i7n/3ov\7]v, iv fxeydXy rtfifj elauv • t'/^a? Se 
^aaCkev^ ra oirka oTraLTel* eavrov yap elvat (fitjcriv, eireLTrep 
Kvpov rjaav rov eKeivov BovXov. 

39. ZTpo9 ravTa direKpivavro oi ^'EXXr}ve<;^ (eXeye Be KXed- 
vcop 6 ^Op')(pfxevLO<;) ' ^/2 Ka/aare dv^pcoTrcov, ^Aptale, Kot oi 
dXXoL oaoL Tjre Kvpov (j^lXoi, ovk ala'^vvea^e ovre ^eou? ovre 
dv^pcowov^^ oliTLve^ ofioaavre^ tj/jlcp tov^ avTOv<; ^lXov^; kol 
i)^pov<; vofiielvj irpoBovre^ r/fid*; avv Tiaaa^epvei tw a^eo)- 
Tdrcp re koL rrravovpyordrM rov^ re dvBpa<^ avrov^ oh coiivvre 
0)9 diroXcoXeKaTe koX tov<; dXXov<; rjiia^ irpoBeBcaKores avv to?? 
TroXepLLOL^; i(f rj/jLa^; ep'X^ea^e ; 40. ^O Be ^Apiato^ elire • 
KXeap^o<^ yap irpoa^ev ein^ovXevcov (pavepo^; iyevero Tiaaa* 
(ffepvec re fcal ^Opovra koX rrrdcnv rjfjilv roh avv tovtol^. 41. 
'JEttI touto^9 Be p,evocj)cov rdBe elire • KXeap^og fxev tolvvv, el 
irapd T0U9 opKov^ eXve rds a'jTovBdf;, rfjv Blktjv e;^et • Bucaiov 
yap diroXXva^at tov<; i7riopKOvvTa<; • Upo^evo^ Be /cal Mevoov 
eTreiirep elalv vpLerepoi fiev evepyerac, rj/meTepoL Be crpaTrjyoL, 
TrefJLylrare avTov<^ Bevpo • BrjXov yap ore <^iXoi ye oWe? d/jL^o- 
TepOL^ Tretpdo-ovrac fcal vfitv koI tj/ulIv rd /SeXrco-ra avfi^ov- 
Xevetv. np6<; ravra oi /Sdp^apot iroXvv 'X^povov BcaXe')^evTe^ 
dXXijXocs dirrjX^ov ovBev diro/cpcvd/jievoL, 


1. Oi fjuev Br) arrparrjyol ovtco X7jcf>^evTe^ avrij^ricrav ©9 
fiaatXea, Ka\ dTroTpLrf^evre^; Ta9 fce(j)aXd<; ireXevrrjaav ' eh 
fjbev avTOiV KXeap^o^ 6fJLoXoyovfJLevo)<; e/c Trdvrcov tcov i/jLTrei- 
pft)9 avTov e')(6vT0)v B6^a<; yevea^at dvrjp koI nroXefMiKo^^ Ka\ 
(^iXoiroXefio^ ea')(dTco<^» 2. Kal yap Brj ecos [xev iroXefio^; rjv 
Toh AaKeBaifiovioL^i 7rj0O9 tou9 ^A^Tjvaiov^ Trapifietvev iirel 
S' elprjVT) iyevero, Treiaa^ Tr]v avrov iroXiv ct)9 oi ©paKe^ dSc- 

; LIB. II. CAP. VI. 61 

Kovcrc T0U9 "EXKrjva^ fcal 8ca7rpa^dfjL6vo<; Ss iSvvaro irapa 
TO)v 'E(f>6po)V efeVXet (i? TToXe/jbTjacov toI<; virep Xeppovrjaov 
KoX Uepiv^ov ©pa^LV. 3. 'Ewel Se /JLerayvopre^; ircos oi 
"Ecf^opoo 7]87] €^a> ovro^ avrov airoaT pec^eiv avrov iireLptavro 
ef 'la-^fiov, ivrav^a ovfcerL Trei^eraL^ aX>C ftJ;^6T0 TrXicov ek 
^EXkrjaTTovTOV, 4. ^Eic tovtov koX i^avarco^r] viro toov iv 
Tjj STrdprrj reXcov ct)? aTrec^cov, "HBrj Se ^vya<^ cop ep'xerau 
7rpo<; Kvpov, koX ottolol^ fiev Xoyoc^ eireccre Kvpov dXXjj ye- 
rypairraL • BiScoat B' avr^ Kvpo^ /jLvpiovs Sapecfcovs • 5. 6 Se 
Xa/3a)V, ovK iiTl pa^vfjbiav irpdirero, dXTC o-tto tovtcov tcov 
'^prj/jbdrcov crvXXe^a<; arpdrevfia iiroXefjieL rols @pa^L* fcal 
f^^XV '^^ ^viK7]ae Kol diro tovtov 8r) e^epe koI ^yev avTOV^ • 
KoX TToXe/jLwv SieyiveTOj p^^XP^ K.vpo^ eherf^r] tov cTpaTeviia- 
TO^* t6t€ S' dTTTjX^ev 0}<;-avu i/celvo) av iroXeiMTjacov. 

6. TavTa ovv (^LXoiroXepLov fioc Bofcel avhpos epya elvaCj 
ocTTC^, i^ov fJL€V elpTjvrjv ayetv avev alo-'xyvT]^ kol fiXd/3r]^j 
alpetTac iroXepuelv • e^ov he pa^v/uLetv, fiovXeTUC irovelv coaTe 
TToXe/jLelv' i^bv Be ')(^p7]fjLaTa e')(eiv dKivhvvw^y alpetTao TroXe- 
jULCjp fieiova Tama iroielv. ''E/ceLVo<; Be SaTrep ek TracBcKa rj 
els aXX7]v Tiva 7]Bovr]v rf^eXe Barravav eh iroXeixov, Ovtco 
fiev (j>LXo7r6XefjLO(; rjv. 7. HoXepuKos Be av TavTrj eBo/cec elvao 
OTL ^lXoklpBvvo^ Te rjv, Kal rifjLepa<; Kal vvktos aycov iirl Toi;^ 
TToXejuLiov^j Kal ev Toh BecvoU ^povc/Jios^ o)<; oi irapovTe^ iravTa- 
^(ov 7rdvTe<; wpuoXoyovv, 8. Kal dp')(^bKos Be eXeyeTO elvac w? 
BvvaTov etc tov tolovtov Tpoirov olov Kal €Kecvo<; el')(ev. 'iKa- 
vos pLev yap co? tc<; Kal dXXo<; ^povTiXetv rjv ottcos e^eo r) cTpa- 
TLCL avTov TCL eTTCTTJBeLa Kal irapaaKevd^eiv TavTa • CKavbs Be 
Kal. epuTroLrjaac Toh irapovaiv co? TretaTeov eHrj KXedp^qy, 9. 
TovTO S' eTToUi eK tov ')(aXe7ro<; elvau Kal yap bpav aTvyvo^ 
rjv Kal Tfi (})covy Tpa^us • eKoXa^e Te del la"xypcos^ Kal opyfj 
evloTe^ &o-Te Kal avTa> pueTapieXeiv eV^' oTe. Kal yvcopir] Be 
eKoXa^ev • aKoXdcTTOv yap crTpaTevfiaTo<^ ovBev rjyeuTO o(f)eXos 
eLvac, 10. ^AXXa Kal Xeyetv avTov €(j)ao'av a)9 Beoc tov cTpa- 
TccoTTjv cj^o^eLo-^ac fjLaXXov tov ap'XpvTa rj tou9 TToXe/i/ov?, el 
fieXXoL rj ^vXaKas (fivXd^ecv rj ^iXcov dcjie^ea^aL rj dirpot^aaU 


(7X0)9 iivac Trpo^ rov^ rroKeiiiov^. 11. ^Ev [juev ovv rot? Set- 
vol<i rf^ekov avrov aicoveiv <7(l)6Spa koX ovtc oXkov rjpovvro ol 
aTpaTLcbrao. Kal yap to arvyvov rore ^auhpov avrov ev Tol<i 
iTpoacDirois e^ajav (j^atvea^at Kal to ')(aXe7rov ippcofievov 
77009 T0U9 TToXefjiiov^, iSoKec elvau • coare acorijpiov Kal ovKeru 
^aXeTTov i(j)aLV6T0. 12. "Ore 8' e^co tov Setvov jevoivro Kal 
€^6L7] 7rpo9 aXXou9 ap')(pjJbevov^ aTnevai^ iroWoo avrov aTrekec- 
TTov • TO yap eTTi')(apL ovk ^1%^^^ oXka ael ;)^aX67ro9 'rjv Kau 
ft)yuo9 • coare Bc€K6Lvto 7rpo9 avrov ol arpartcorac coairep nral" 
Se9 7rpo9 SiSdcTKaXov, 13. Kal yap ovv ^uKta puev Kal evvoia 
eTTOfJLevovs ovSettot el')(ev • oXnves Se rj viro 7r6X€co<; rerayfie- 
voi Tj VTTO TOV heto^av t) aXKrj nvl avdyKri Kare')(opi,evoL irapei- 
Tjaav avrcSy cr^ohpa *7r€L^ofi€VOL<; e'^prjro, 14. ^Erreihr] he Kal 
Tjp^avro vcKav avv aurcS tov<; 7ro\ejj.LOV<;^ rjhri /xeydXa fjv ra 
"f^^pTjo-i/jLOV^ rroiovvra etvau rov^ avv avra> o-rparLcora^ to re 
yap irpo^ rov^ iroXe/jLcov^ ^appaXeco^; e^ecv iraprjv Kal rb rrjv 
Trap eiceivov ri/JLcopiav (po/Sela^ac avrov^ evraKTov^; eiroUL. 
15. ToLovro^ fjL€v St) dp')(cov rjv ' dp')(ea^aL S* virb dXXcov ov 
fjbdXa i^eXeiv iXeyero. ^Hv Se, ore ireXevra, dfiipt ra irevTrj" 
Kovra errj. 

16. Ilpo^evo^ he 6 Boccorco<; ev^v^ fiev fieipdKtov o)V iire- 
^v/jLet yevea^au dvrjp rd pueydXa irpdrretv Uavo^ • Kal htd 
Tavrrjv rrjv eTTc^Vfjiiav ehcoKe Topyia dpyvpiov tc3 AeovrlvcoM j 
17. ^Eirel he avveyivero eKeivcp, CKavo^ vofjLiaa<; rjhr] elvav Kal 
dp')(eLV Kal (})lXo^ cov tol^ irpcorot^ /jurj rjrrda^ai evepyercbvj 
rjX^ev 669 Tavra<; rds avv Kv pep rrpd^ecs' Kal (pero KTrjaea^ao 
eK rovrcov ovofia fiiya Kal hvvafjuv fieydXrjv Kal '^pyfiara 
TToXXd. 18. Toaovrwv S' eTTL^v/jLcov a(f>6hpa evhrfXov av /cat 
rovTo el')(ev on rovrcov ovhev av ^eXoc Kraa^ac fierd dhtKia^;, 
dXXd avv tq5 hiKaicp Kal KaXoi (pero helv rovrcov rvyydveWy 
dvev he rovrcov iirj, 19. ''Ap^^cv he KaXcov fiev Kal dya^dov 
hvvaro<; rjv ov fxevroL ovr alhco roc^ arpartcorac^ iavrov 
ovre (po^ov iKavo^ ifjiTTOtrjaac, dXXd Kal rja')(yvero fidXXov 
T0U9 arparicora<^ rj ol dp')(OfjLevoL eKelvov • Kal (f>o/3ovfievo^ 
fxdXXov Tjv (f>avepb^ to direj^dvea^ai rol^ arparidorai^ rj ol 

LIB. II. CAP. VI. 63 

arparccoTaL to aiTLCTTelv itceivcp. 20. "iflcero Se apKelv Trpo^; 
TO ap'x^iKov elvai koI Bok€lv top fiev fcaXw irocovvra iTratvelv, 
TOP Se dScKovpra fir] eiraipelp. Totyapovp avrS oi fiep KoXoi 
T€ Kaja^ol TOiP avpopTcop evpOL rjaapj oi S' dSiKoc iire^ov' 
Xevop ct)9 €VfjLeTa')(etpi(TT(p optl, ^^Ore he aire^prjaKep, rjv 
ircop 0)9 Tpcd/copra, 

21. Mipcop Be 6 &eTTa\o<; SrjXos rjp eiri^vfjicop jmep ttXov- 
retp la'^vpa)<;, eTn^v/jicbp 8e dp')(eLP^ oirw^ irXeLco Xafx^dvoo • 
iirt^Vfjicop Be TtfJida^aL, Xva irXeico Kephaivou • (f>LXo<; r i^ov- 
Xero elpat T0L<y fieycara hvpafJLepot^, Xva dBticodP jmrj ScSolr] 
SiKrjp. 22. ^EttI Se to KaTepyd^ea^at S)P eTrt^Vfiolr] avPTO- 
/jLcoTaTTjp ftiero oSop elpac Bed tov eTTLop/celp re /cal ylrevSea^ai 
zeal i^arraTap' to Be drrXovp xal to dXr]^6<; ipofii^e to avTO 
Tcp rjXiiiiCjLi elpai, 23. STepjcop Be (j)apepb<; fjuep rjp ovBipa^ 
0T(p Be (ftaiTj ^t\o9 eipac, tovtm epBrjXo^ ejljpeTo iin/Sov- 
Xevcop, Kal iroXepbiov pep ovBepb<; KoreyeXa^ tcop Be avpop- 
Tcop TrdpTcop ft)9 KaTayeXcop -del BteXeyeTO. 24. Kal toIs p.ep 
Tcop TToXep^icop KTrjpLaaLP ov/c eire^ovXeve • yaXeTrop yap oieTO 
elpat Ta tcop (j>vXaTTop,ePQ)P Xap.j3dpeLp • Ta Be tcop ^iXcop fio- 
vo^ cpeTO elBepat paaTOP op d(j)vXaKTa Xapb^dpetp. 25. Kal 
oaov^ p.ep ala^dpoLTO eiriopicov^ Kal dBUov^, cb? ev coirXLap^e- 
pov^ e^oj3elTO • T0Z9 S' 6aioL<^ Kal dXrj^etap daKovacp w dpdp- 
BpoL<^ eTretpaTO '^(^prja^ai. 26. ^^flaTrep Be tl^ dydXXeTac eTrl 
^eocre/3eia Kal dXrf^eia Kal BcKatoTrjTt, ovtco Mepcop rjydXXeTO 
Tc5 e^airaTap Bvpaa^aij Ta> irXdaaa^at ^jrevBr], t& i^iXov^ 
BiayeXaP' top Be firj Trapovpyop tcop drrraiBevTcop del ipopLL^ep 
upac, Kal Trap* oh p^ep irre'^^^eipei irpcoTeveiP <j)LXia^ Bta^dX- 
' \cop T0U9 7rpcoT0V<;, TOVTOVS oJero Belp KTrjcraa^au 27. To Be 
Trei^opepov^ Tovg aTpaTLcoTa^ 7rape')(ea^ai eK tov avpaBiKelp 
avTOL<; ip,7jj(apdT0. Ttpda^ac Be Kal ^epaTrevea^ai rj^iov 
eirtBeiKpypLepo^ otl TvXelaTa BvpatTO Kal i^eXoc dp dBcKecp, 
Evepyeaiap Be KaTeXeyep, orroTe tls avTov d(pLcrTacT0, otl 
'^pa)/jLepo<$ avTM ovk dircoXeaep avTOP. 28. Kal Ta puep Brj 
d(f)aP7] e^ecTTL irepl auTov ylrevBea^ao • d Be 7rdpTe<; iaacTL, raS' 
€(7Tt. Uapd ^ApcaTiTT'TTcp pbep €TC wpalo^ COP cTpaTTjyelp Bi,e- 


TTpd^aro Tcov ^ivcov • ^ApLacrp Se /Sapfidptp optc, otc fiupaKv* 
OL^ fca\ot<; i]86TOy olfcecoTaTo^; ert 6>palo<^ cbv iyevero • aifro^i Se 
iracSc/ca elx^ Qapvirav^ dyiveco^ <ov yeveichyra* 29. ^Airo- 
^vrjaKOVTcop Se tcop avar parrjy ojv, otl iarpdrevaav eVl ^aat- 
Xia avv Kvpo), rama 7reTT0LrjK(k><^ ovk dire^aj/e ' fiera Se top 
TCOV dXKwv ^dvarop (TTparrjyvop, rc/xcoprj^eU viro ^acrCkeo)^ 
dire^apep, ov^ coairep KXeap'Xp^ Kol oi aXXoc G-TpaT7]yol 
diroTfiTj^epres ra^ Are^aXa?, ocnrep rd^caro^ ^dvaro^ 8ok€L 
elvai^ dXKa ^o)P aiKca^ets ipcavTop w? iroprjpo^ Xeyerac t?}? 

T6\€VT7]<; TV^€LP. 

30. ^Aylas Se 6 ^ApKa<; /cal ^(OKpdjr}^ 6 ^A')(aio<; /cat tovtco 
d7r6^aP6T7]p. TovTwp he ovSeh ouV o)? ip TroXi/no) xafccop 
Kareyeka ovr 69 (f>t\lap avTov<; iiMtixc^ero • TJarrjp re d/JL(f)(o 
dfjb(pl T€TTapdf€OPTa err] cItto yepeds. 

LIB. III. CAP. I. 65 


CAP. I. 

1. ''OX A fJLev Br] iv Trj ava^dcrei rjj fjL€Ta Kvpov oi ''EX' 
\7]V€<; eiTpa^av fJ^^^XP^ '^^^^ /^^%^^j '^^^ ^'^^ ^'^r^^ Kvpo^; ireXev- 
rrjaev iyivero, aTTLovrcov tcou 'EXXtjvcov gvv Tc(Taa(pepv€Cy iv 
TaU (Tirovhal^y iv tg5 irpoa^ev Xoyco BeBrjXcorac, 2. ^Eirel Be 
OL T6 arpaTTjyol avv€tXr]/M/jL6V0L rjcrav koX tcov Xo^ciySdV koX 
Tcov cTpaTLcoTcov Oi avveTTOfjuevoL airoXdoXeaav, iv nroXXfj Bfj 
airopia rjaav ol ''EXXrjve<;, iv'^vfiovfievot jnev otl iirl rah ySa- 
c-cXico^ ^vpat^ rjcrav J kvkXco S' avroU iravrrj TroXXa /cat e^vT] 
Kol 7r6Xet9 iroXe/jLcai rjcrav j dyopav Be ovBeU ere Trapeze cv 
efxeXXev, direlxpv Be tt}? 'EXXdBo^ irXeov rj /jLvpta o-rdBca, rjye- 
(jLcbv S* ovBel<^ tt}? oBov rjVj Trora/iol Be Bcelpyov dBcd^aroc iv 
fxea(p TTj^ OLfcaBe oBov^ 7rpovBeBd)Keo-av Be avTov^ fcal oi avv 
Kvp(p dva^dvre^ fidp^apoc, pLovot Be /caTaXeXet/nfiivoo rjaav 
ovBe iTTirea ovBiva avfifiaxov e^ovre^ • coctt evBrjXov rjv otc 
VLKcovre^; fxev ouS' av eva Karafcaivocev, rjTTTj^evrcov Be aurcov 
ovBeh dv Xei(j>^ei7]» 3. Tavra ivvoovpLevot Kal d^vpLco^; e^ov- 
Te9 oXiyoL (xev avrcov 6i9 ttjv eairipav airov iyevaavrOj oXtyoi 
Be TTvp dveKavG-aVj iirl Be rd oirXa ttoXXoI ov/c '^X^ov ravTrjv 
TTJV vufcra, dveTravovro Be ottov irvyxfivev eKaaro^^ ov Buvd- 
fxevot Ka^evSeLV virb Xv'jt7j<; Kal tto^ov irarpiBcjov^ yovecov, 
yvvatKoiv^ TraiBcov, ov^ ovirore ivofii^ov en oylrea^at. Ovrco 
fxev Brj BtaKeLfievoc irdvre^ dveiravovro, 

4. ^Hv Be TL^ iv rfj err par ta aevo<pcov ^A^rjvaco^y 09 ovre 


(TTpaTTjyo^j ovre Xo^ajb^ ovre arpaTicorr}^ cop (7VV7]ko\ov^€L, 
dXka JJp6^€vo^ avTov iiereTrefx^^aTO OLKo^ev, ^ipo^ cop ap')(al' 
09* vTTia')(vetTO Se avro), el'eXbotj (J)l\ov Kvpco irotriaeLv ov 
avTO^ €cf)7] /cpetTTco iavTM vofxi^eiv rrjs iraTpiho^. 5. 'O /juiv- 
TOt ^evo^o)V^ avayvov^ T7]v einaTokriv^ avaKOivomai ^coKpd- 
ret T(p ^A^rjvaicp irepl tt}? nTopela<^, Kal 6 Scofcpdrrj^;, viro- 
Trrevaa^ (Mt) to 7rpo<; ttj^^ 'TToXecos oo viraiTiov eXr] Kvpcp <f>LXop 
jevia^ai, {on eSofcet 6 Kvpo<; Trpo^u/xco? tol^ AaKeSac/jiopioc^; 
iirl rd^ 'A^ijva^ av/JLTToXe/jurjaatj) av/ji^ovXevec tw Pi€po^covtc 
iX^opra ek AeXcpov^ dpaKOipSxjac rw Sew irepX rrj^ iropelas. 
6. ^EX^cop Be 6 'p,€Pocj)(bp eTrrjpero top ^AttoXXco tlpl up ^ecop 
^vcop fcal €v)(Ofxevos KdXXccTTa fcal dpccTTa eX^OL ttjp oSop fjp 
eiripoel Kal /caXw nrpd^a^^ aoy^etT], Kal dpelXep avToi 6 
^AttoXXcop Seo?? oh eSeo ^vetp, 7. ^Eirel Be irdXip rfS^e^ 
Xejeu Tr]P fxapTecap tc3 ^cofcpdTec, 'O S' dfCovcra<; rjTidTO av- 


TTopevea^aL rj fjuepeip^ dXX^ avTo<i Kpipa^ heop elpat tovto 
eTTVp^dpeTOy ottg)? ap /cdXXcaTa nropev^eir], ^Eirel /lePTot 
ovTO)^ 7]pov, TavT, €(}>7], '^(^prj iTotelp oaa 6 Seo? i/ceXevaep. 8. 
O jULep Sr] aepo^cop ovtco ^vcrdfiepo^; oh dpelXep 6 ^€09 efe- 
irXet^ Kal KaTaXapb^dpei ep IldpSecn Upo^epop Kal Kvpop 
fJLeXXoPTa<^ 7]Srj opfxap ttjp ctpco oSop ' Kal crvpeaTdl^r) Kvpcp, 
9. UpoB^vpLOVjiepov Be tov Upo^ipov Kal 6 Kvpo<; avpLirpov- 
SvfMecTo fjuelpat amop • elire Be otc iirecBap Td')(icTTa tj GTpa- 
Tela Xrj^rjy €vBv<; diroTre/jb^Jret avTov, ^EXeyeTO Be 6 (7t6Xo<; 
eipa<; eh Ueio-CBa^. 

10, ^EdTpaTeveTO puep By ovtco<; i^airaTTjI^eh ou% vtto 
TOV npo^epov • ov yap TjBeo ttjp iwl fiaaiXea opixrjPy ovB^ dX- 
Xo9 ovBeh Tcop ^EXXrjPcop ttXtjp KXedp')(ov • iirel fievTOV eh 
KiXiKiap rjXBop, (Ta(^e^ Trdcrtp 7]B7] iBoKev elpav otl 6 gtoXo^ 
ecrj iirl ^aacXea. ^o^ovfiepoi Be ttjv oBop Kal aKOVTe^ o^co^ 
oi TToXXol Be al(T')(yprjv Kal dXXijXcov Kal Kvpov <7VP7]koXoV' 
Srjaap* o)P eh Kal aepocficop rjp, 11. ''Eirel B^ aTTopia rjp, 
eXvireiTO puep avp Toh dXXoi<; Kal ovk eBvpaTO KoBevBeiP' 
fjLLKpop Be VTTPOV Xa')(cbp elBep opap. ^'EBo^ep avTcp /8poi/T?}9 

LIS. III. CAP. I. 67 

fyevofJLev7]<; ct/ct^ttto? nreaeiv eh rrjv nrarpwav olKiav, koX etc 
TOVTOV Xd/MTreaS^ai iraaav, 12. Tl€pi<^o^o^ S' ev^v^ avr^ryip- 

S^TJy Kol TO OVap ITTj fJilv €fCpCV€V djoSoV, OTt iv TTOVOt^ 0)V fCol 

fccvSvvoc<; <^c59 jJiija ifc Atb^ ihelv eBo^e • tt?; Be /cat i(j)o^ecTO, 
on dirb Alo^ fiev ^aaCKeco<^ to ovap iBofceo avTM elvai, kvkXg) 
8' eBo/cec XdjMirecr^aL to Trvp, /xrj ov BvvaiTO e/c tt}? %c6pa9 
i^eXSetv Tri<; fiacrckeco^;, dX)C etpjocTO irdvTO^ev vtto tlvcov 


13. 'Ottocov TV fievTOL eaTL to tolovtov ovap iBelv e^ecrTC 
(TKOTrelv ifc tcov avjjL^dvTcov fieTa to ovap. Ti^verab yap 
TdBe. Ev3-if^ eirecBrj dvTjyepS^, nrpoiTOV fiev evvoca avTw efi- 
TTLTTTet ' Ti fcaTd/cetfiaL ; rj Be vv^ irpo^aiveb • afxa Be ttj 
r/iiepa ei/c6<; tou? TroXe/jblov^ rj^eiv. El Be yevrjaofieS^a iirl 
^acrcket, tL ifMiroBcbv jjurj ov^o irdvra fiev Ta '^(aKeiriiTaTa 
eiriBovTa^, irdvTa Be tcl BeivoTaTa Tva^bvTa^ v^piCpybevov^ 
diTO^avelv ; 14. ^^Ottco^ Be dfivvovfieSa ovBeU Trapaa/cevd^e- 
Tao ovS* iTTLfieXelTac, dWd KaTafcec/jbe^a &cnrep e^bv r)crv')(^Lav 
dyeiv. ^Eyo) ovv Tbv eic iroia^ iroXeco^ aTpaTrjybv irpocrBofca) 

. TavTa TTpd^ecv ; Trolav S' rjXiiclav ifiavTS iXS^elv dvafjiivco ; 
ov yap eycoy eTC irpecr^VTepo^ eaofjuat, edv Trjfiepov nrpoBco 
ijjbavTbv Toh TToXe/jiiOL^, 15. ^E/c tovtov dvicrTaTao /cal crvy- 
KoXel Toi}^ Upo^evov irpoiTov \o')(ayov<;, ^Eirel Be crvvrjXSov, 
eXe^ev ^Ejco, S) dvBpe<; Xo')(ayoL, ovTe fcaSevBecv Buva/iac, 
&o'7rep olfiaL ovB^ vjJbeh, ovTe fcaTaKelcrS^ac eTt, opcov iv oiOL<; 
ia/jiev. 16. 01 [lev yap Bfj iroXefJbLov BrjXov oto ov nrpoTepov 
irpb^ r)iJbd^ Tbv nToXefJLOv i^ecftrjvav irplv evofiiaav fcaXoj^ to, 
eavTcov TrapecrfcevdcrSao • r/ficov S* ovBeh ovBev avTeTrifjueXetTai 
oiTco^ 0)9 KdXXiCTTa dycovtovfie^a, 17. Kal /j^rjv el vc^rjaofie- 

i Sa Kal eirl ^acriXel yevrjaofieBa, tl olofxe^a ireicreG'^aL ; 09 
Kal Tov bfiofiTjTpiov Kal ofjuoiraTpiov dBeX^ov Kal Te^vrjKOTO^^ 
riBrj aTTOTe/jLcbv Trjv Ke^aXr]v Kal ttjv %e6/3a dvecrTavpcocrev ' 
')]fLd^ Be, oh KrjBe/jLcbv /Jbev ovBeh nrdpecTTLV, ecTpaTevaafJiev S' 

I eir avTbv C09 BovXov uvtI ^aa-LXeco<; irocrjcrovTe^ Kal diroKTe- 
vovvTe<^^ el BwalfjieS^a, tI dv olo/xeS-a 7ro3elv ; 18. '^Ap ovk 
dv eiTi irdv eXS^ov, €09 ^ycta9 Ta ea')(aTa alKLadfjLevo<; irdatv 


av^p^iroL^ ^o^ov irapdo^xpo tov arparevcrai irore iir axh 
Tov ; ^A\X oTTCt)? rot /xr} eir ifcelvM yevrjao/JLeSay nravra \ 
'jrocTjTeov, 19. ^Ejco fxhv ovv, ecrre pcev at airovhal f/aav, 
ovTTore eiravoiMTiv rj/xd^; fiev olfCTecpcov, /Saatkia Be /cat Tov<i 
crvv avTM fjLaKapi^cov, Biased) puevo^; avrcov oarjv puev X^P^^ 
/cat oiav exptev, o)<; Be a(j)3^ova ra iTrLTTJBeca, ocrov^ Be S^epdr 
TTOvra^j oaa Be fcryvr], ^P^^ov Be, icrS^ra Be' 20. ra B^ av 
TO)v (TTpaTicoTcbv OTTOTe ev^vpLOip.r}Vy on Tcbv p^ev djaS&v 
irdvTcov ovBevo^ rjpHv pLeretrjy el pur) nrpiaipie^ay orov Be covrjao- 
pce^a yBetv en oXcycv^ e^ovra^y oXK(o<^ Be irco^ iropi^eo'^aL 
Ta eTTCTijBeta rj o)vovpLevov^ op/cov<; tjBt] KaTe')(pvTa^ rjpbds* 
TavT ovv "Xoyc^opievo^y eviore ra? airovBa^; puaXKov icpo^ov- [ 
pLi]V rj vvv TOV TToXepiov, 21. ^Eirel pbivrot i/ceLVoc ekvaav 
rd^ CTTOvBd^;, Xekvo-^ai pboc Bo/cel fcal rj ifcetvcov v^pt<; koI fj , 
r/perepa viro-^ia, ^Ev pueaco yap rjBr] Kelrai ravra rd dyaSd 
dSXa, oTTorepoL dp yp&v dvBpe^ dpuecvoi^ef; &cnv' dycovo^e- 
rao S' ol ^eoL elcnv, o? avv rjplvy <h<; to et/co?, ecrovrac, 22. 
OvToi puev yap avTov<; eTncopfcyKacnv * rjpi^el^ Biy TroXkd op&v- 
Te9 dyaSd, cTeppSy^ avToov dTretx^/xeS^a, Bed tov^ tojv Secjv 
op/cov<; • cocTTe e^elvai puob Bofcel levai eirl tov dytava irokv \ 
avv (jypovTjpbaTO pbei^ovc rj tovtoc^, 23. "Etl Be e^pp^ev crcO' 
piara l/cavcoTepa tovtcov koX '^vxV ^^^ 9^d\7rrj Kal 7r6vov<; 
(j^ipeiv ' e^ppev Be Kal '\jrv')(^d<i ovv tol^ S^eol^; dpbeivova^' oi Be 
dvBpe<; fcal Tpcorol Kal S^vrjTol p^aXKov rjpcoVy rjv ol Seol codTrep \ 
TO iTpoa^ev VLK7JV rjplv BlBcoctcv. 24. '^W' laco'^ ydp Kal 
aXkoL TavTa iv^upiovvTaiy Trpo? t&v S^ecov pir) dvapuevcop^ev 
aXXou9 e^' 77/^^9 eXSelv TrapaKaXovvra^ eTrl Ta KaXkcaTU 
epyay dX)C rjpel^ dp^copLev tov e^oppLrjaac Kal tov<; dWov^ im 
TTjv dpeTrjv. ^dvrjTe tcov \o')(ayS)v dpiCTOi Kal t&v CTpaTi]- 1 
ycov d^coo-TpaTTjyoTepot, 25. KdyoD Biy el p.ev vpLet<; eS^ekeTe 
e^oppav errl TavTa, eTreaSaL vpZv jBovKopiaL' el Be vpLec<; 
TdTTeTe pe rjyeLcrS^aL, ovBev Trpocpaal^opbai ttjv rjXcKiaVy dXkd^ 
Kai uKpd^ecv rjyovpac ep-uKetv dir ipbavTOv Td KaKa, 

26. 'O p^evTavra eke^ev, ol Be Xoxayol, aKovcravTe^ rau- j 
Ta qyela^ai eKekevov diravTe^. Ilkrjv ATroXkoDviBr]^ n^ ^V I 

LIB. III. CAP. I. 69 

jSoccoTcd^cov rfi ^(ovy • o5to9 S' elirev on (pXvapotT] oart^ Xi- 
yoc dXkco<^ TTCO^ acoT7]pia<; av tv')(€lv tj fiacrtkia 7r6L(Ta<;, el 
hvvaiTO • Kol afia rip')(eTO Xejecv Ta<; d7ropca<;, 27. ^O fiev- 
TOi Uevo(f>(bv /lera^v viroka^cov eXe^ev coSe • '^il Savjmacnd)- 
7 are dv^pwire, av je ovS* opcov yiyvd)a/cei<; ovS^ clkovcov 
fjiifivrjaat, ^Ev ravroi ye fievrot rjcrS^a tovtol^ ore /SacrtXeu?, 
iirel Kvpo<; aTre^ave, [leya ^povi]aa<^ eirl tovtco 'Tre/JLircov e/ce- 
Xeve TrapaBcBovac ra oirXa. 28. ^Eirel Be rjfiel^ ov irapa- 
B6pTe<;, dXX^ e^coTrXicTfjievot eX36i/T69 7rapecr/C7]V'^(Ta/iev avrai, 
TL ovK eiroirjcre 7rpea/3ei<^ irejiircov fcal crTroi^Sa? alrcov fcal 
7rape')(^cov rd iirirrjheLa, eare aTrovBcov erv^^ev ; 29. ^Eirel S' 
av G-rparrjyol kol Xo)(ayoi, &cnrep Brj av KeXevei<^, eh Xoyov^ 
avTOL^ ctvev oirXcov rjXS^op Trcarevaavre^ Tah airovBah, cv 
vvv ifcetvoc iraiofievoc, Kevrovfievoty v^pc^o/jLevot, oiS'' cltto- 
^avelv ol rXrj/jiove^ Bvvavrac ; teal fia)C olfxai eptavre^ rov- 
Tov • d av irdvra elBw rov^ /lev dfjLvveaS^at KeXevovra^ 
^Xvapelv (j)y<;, TrelBecv Be TrdXtv /ceXevec^ l6vTa<;. 30. ^E/jloI 
Be, & dpBpe<;, BoKel tov dv^pcoTTOv tovtov fxrjTe irpoalea^ai eh 
ravTo rjfjLLV avroh d<peXo/jLevov<; re rrjv Xo')(ar{iav aKevi] dva- 
MvTa<; CO? TOtovTG) ^(^pria^aL. Ovro<; yap fcal rrjv irarpiBa 
KaTaiayyvei koX irdaav rrjv 'EXXdBa, ore ^'EXXrjv cov tolov- 
t6<; iarcv. 

31. ^EvrevS-ev viroXa/Scov ^Ayaa[a<; ^rvfi^dXio^; elTrev 
^AXXd TOVTG) ye ovre t?}? BoLcorla^; irpoarjiceL ovBev ovre t^9 
^EXXdBo^; Travrdiraaiv • eirel iyco avrov elBov ioairep AvBov 
dfJL^oTepa rd &Ta TerpVTrrjfjievov, 32. Kal el')(ev ovrco^. 
Tovtov fiev ovv diryjKaaav ol S' dXXoc irapd Td<; Ta^ec^ 
l6vTe<; OTTOV fiev aTpaTrjyo^ a&o<; elr] tov aTpaTTjyov irapeKd- 
Xovv ' OTToBev Be ol')(piTO tov vTroaTpaTrjyov • oirov 8' av 
Xo')(ayo^ a(oo<; eiTj tov Xo')(ay6v. 33. 'JSTrel Be 7rdvTe<; aw- 
TjX^ov, eh TO nrpoaS-ev tcov ottXcov ixaS^e^ovTo • fcal iyevovTo 
ol avveXS-ovTe^ aTpaTrjyol fcal Xo')(ayol dfji(})l tov<; efcarov, 
*^OTe Be TavTa rjv a-)(eBov fieaaL rjaav vvfCTe<;, 34. 'EvTav^a 
'IepcovvfjL0(; 'HXe?09 7rpea^vTaT0<; cbv tcov Upo^evov Xo)(^aycov 
ijpX^TO Xeyecv a)Be • ^H/jllv, & dvBpe^ aTpaTrjyol Kal Xo'xar^oC, 




opcbo-v ra nrapovra eSofe koI avrocg crvveX^etv koX vfia^ 
jrapaKokeaaL, ottco^ ^ovKevaaiixe^a d tl hvvaifie^a dya- 
^6v. Ae^ov h\ e(p7], fcal av, w *Eevoj>wVy airep kol 7rpo9 

35. 'Eic TovTOV \iy6L rdSe Sez^o^coz/* ^AWa ravra fjiev^ 
S?) 7rdvTe<^ iTTta-rdfJbel^a on ^aackev^ /cat TLoraa^ipV7}<; 0&9 
fiev iSvvTJS^rjcrav avveCKri^a(TLV rj/Jicbv • tol<; S' dWoi<; SrjXov | 
OTC i7ri/3ov\€Vov(7CV, ft)9 '^v hvvcovTao dirokeacoaiv, ^Hjuv 8e 
7' olliat Trdvra TroLTjria 6)<; pufjiror eTrl toc<; /3ap^dpot<; yevco- 
fie^ay dXKa fioKkov rjv Swco/jue^a i/celvoc i(j> tj/jlIv. 36. Ev 
TOivvv iTriarracrBs otc v/jL€t<^ toctovtol ovre^ oaoc vvv avveXr]' 
Xv^are jjbi^LcrTov e^ere Kaipov. 01 yap arpartcoTaL ovroi 
Trdvre^ irpb<^ u/^a? aTro^XeirovcrL • Kciv /Jbev vfia<; opcocrtv dS^v- 
/jLovPTa<;, Trdvre^ KaKol eaovrat • rjv Se vixeh avroi re irapa- 
cnceva^o/Jievoi (j^avepol rjre eirX tov^ iroKefiiov^ fcal tou9 ok- 
Xov^ irapaKoXrJTe, ev tcrre ore eyJrovraL v/jllv /cal ireipdaovTaL 
liijxeta^aL, 37. "laco^ Si roc /cat StKaiSp eariv v/JLd<; Bcacj^i' 
peiv Tl TOVTCov, ^T[xei<^ ydp iare (TTparrjyoi, vfjL€L<; Ta^iap')(Ob 
/cat \o')(ayoi' kcu ore eiprjVT] rjv u/i€t9 teal ')(^prjiiacn fcal TLjiah 
TOVTcov eifKeoveKTelre • koX vvv tolvvv, iirel TroXe/io"; icrrcv, 
d^LOvv Bet v/jid<; avTov<; afieivov<; re rov ifX'^S^ov^ elvat /cal 

7rpo/3ov\€V6LV TOVTCOV Kol TTpOTTOVelv, 7]V TTOV Bijj, 38. Kal 

vvv TrpcoTOV fJLev otojiai av viid<^ fieya ovrjaac to crTpaTevfia, 
el iirifji€\7]^€ir]T6 ottco^ dvTv tmv diroXcoXoToyv 0)9 Td')(^LaTa 
(TTpaTrjyol fcal '\o')(ayol avTiKaTaaTa^Sxriv, ^Avev yap dp- 
')(^ovTO)v ovBev av ovTe kgXov ovt6 dyaS-ov yivocTO, 0)9 fJ^^ev 
avveXovTL eiTrelv, ovBa/iov * iv Be Brj to?9 iroXefJUKol'^ iravTd- 
Traatv. H fiev yap evTa^la aco^eiv BoKet, rj Be dTa^ca iroX- 
Xou9 rjBr] diroXcoXefcev. 39. ^EireiBdv Be /caTaaTrjcrrja^^e tou9 
dpxovra'^ 6aov<; Bel, rjv Kal tou9 dXXov^ crTpaTtcoTa^; crvXXe- 
yrjre /cat TrapaB^appvvrjTe, olfiat av v/id^; Trdvv ev fcatpoy Troirj- 
aau 40. Nvv jxev yap l<tco<; /cal viMei^ ala^dvea^e 0)9 d^v- 
fim f^ev ^X%v eTrl tcl oirXa, d^vjxoi<; Be Trpo<; Ta^ (j)vXa/cd<; • 
coa-Te ovTco ye i^ovTCtiv ovk. olSa 6 tl av tl<; %p?7<7atTO avTol<; 
eire vvkto^ Beoc tl elre Kal rjfjLepa^;. 41. '"Hv Be tv^ avT&v 

LIB. III. CAP. I. 71 

rpiyfrij Ta<^ yvco/Jia<;, ax? fjLrj tovto fMovov ivvocovrai ri TretaoV' 
TUL aWa Kai rC Troirjaovai, ttoXv ev^vjiorepoL eaovrat* 42. 
^ETrL(TTa(T^e yap hrjirov on ovre ifKrj^o^ iarcv ovre iG")(p^ i) 
iv TO) TToXi/jLO) Ta9 VLxa<; Trocovaa • aXV oirorepoi av crvv rol^ 
f9eo?9 Tal^ 's^v')(al<; ippco/jLevicTTepot ccoatv iirl Toi/9 iroXefiiov^, 
TOVTOv<; ct)9 eVl to ttoXv ol ivavriou ov hk'XpvTai. 43. 'Evre- 
Sv/jbTj/jLat S' eycoye, &> avhpe^, fcal tovto otl oiroaoL jxev fia- 
cTTevovcTC i^fjv i/c iravTO'^ Tpoirov iv toI^ nroXefJLLKol^y ovtol 

fllv fCUKCO^ T€ KoX alG")(^p5)^ 0)9 €776 TO TToXv aTToBvT^CT/COVaiV ' 

OTTocroi he tov fiev S^dvaTOV iyvcofcacrc Trdac Koivov elvau koX 
avap/Kolov dv^^pcoirot^;, irepl he tov fca\co<; dTTO^vrjaKeiv dyta- 
VL^ovrac, tovtov^ opco fioXKov 770)9 eU to yfjpa^ d^Lfcvovpie- 
vov<;, /cat, ea)9 &v ^coatv, evSac/iovicTTepov hidyovTa<;, 44. '^^ 
Kol r]jxa<; Set vvv KaTafiaS-ovTa^;, iv tolovtco yap jcaipcp ia/jiiv, 
avTov^ Te av8pa<; wya^ov^ elvao /cal tov^ aXXov<^ irapaKaXelv. 
*0 fxev TavT eiTTcov iiravaaTO, 

45. MeTa he tovtov elire Xeipicro^o^' ^AXka Trpoa^ev 
[lev, S) p,evo(j)(J!)V, ToaovTov fiovov ae iyiyvcocTKOv oaov tjkovov 
^A^valov elvat • vvv he Kal iTraivco ere, i(f>^ oh \eyeL<; Te /cal 
nTpdTTGL<; Kal fiov\oL/JL7]v CLV OTL ifkeiaTov^ elvac tolovtov^ • 
fcocvov yap av eiT] to dyaS^ov, 46. Kal vvv, ec^rj, /llt] pbeXkco- 
fiev, 0) dvSpe<;, dX^J dire\^GVTe<^ r/S?; alpela^e ol Seofievoc 
dp^ovTa^, Kal ekojievoL 7]KeTe eh to fieaov tov crTpaToirehov 
Kal Tov^ alpe^evTa^ dyeTe* eirecTa iKel avyKaXovfiev tov^ 
aXXoi'9 crTpaTLcoTa<; • irapecrTCO K rjfjblv, ec^rj, Kal ToX/jllSt]^ 6 
KTjpv^. 47. Kal dfia TavTa elircov dveaTrj, a)9 p^r) fieWcLTO 
dXkd irepaivoLTO Ta SeovTa. ^Ek tovtov ypeS^crav dp')(0VTe<^ 
dvTl /lev K\edp')(ov Ti/jLaaicov Aaphavev<^, dvTl he ScoKpd- 
T0U9 'BavStKXrjf; ^ Ayaio<;, ovtI he ^Ayiov KXedvcop ^ApKd<;, 
uvtI he Mevcovo<; ^c\rj(TLO<; ^A'^^aco^s dvTi he Upo^evov Sez^o- 
(^(hv ^A^valo'^, 



1. 'EttgI Be yp7]VT0, '^/xipa re cr^^hov vTre^atve /cat ek to 
fiicTOV rJKOv oi ap')(pvTe^y Kol eBo^ev avrol^ 7rpo(f)v\aKa^ fcara- 
crrrjcravTa^ (jv^KoXelv tov<^ arparmra^;, ^Eirel Be /cal oi 
aXkoi G-Tparccorat avvfjX!^ov, dvearr} irpoyrov fiev Xetptao- 
<jE)09 6 Aa/ceBat/JL6vL0<; kol eXe^ev oiBe • 2. ^il dvBpe^ crrpor 
TLcoraty ^aXeTra fxev ra irapovra, oirore dvBpcov arpaTTjjcov 
TOLovTcov arepo/JbeS^a koX Xo%a7coz/ koX aTparicoToov • 7r/)09 S' 
€TC /cal oi d/JL(j)l ^Apcalov oi Trpoad^ev G-vfifiaypo ovre^ irpoBe- 
BdoKacTLv yfjid<;. 3. ^^O/jlco^; Be Bel i/c rcov Trapovrov avBpa^ 
dyaBov<; re ek^^elv /cal firj v(j)iearBac, dXkd TrecpdaBat oiroa^ 
rjv jjuev Bvvco/ieSa /ca\(j!)<^ viKcovre^ aco^co/jiel^a • el Be ixYjy oKka 
/ca\w 76 diroS^VTJcr/ccoiJiev, viro'^^eLpLOL Be fi'^TTore jevco/jieSa 
^cbvre^ Tol<; iroXefjuloc^, OXofiat yap dp rj/jbd^; TOtavra ira^elv 
Ota T0U9 e^'^pou? ol f&eol iroLrjaeiav, 

4. "^Eirl TOVT(p Kkedvcop ^Op')(oixevLo^ dvecm] /cal eXe'^ev 
SiBe* ^AX)C Spare fiiv, c5 dvBpe^, rrjv /3acn\eco<; eiriopKiav 
Kal dae^etav • opdre Be rrjv Tccraa^epvov^ dirtarLav, oan^ 
Xijcov 0)9 jecTCOv re ecr] rrj^ ^EXXdSo^; /cal nrepl TrXeiarov dv 
iroirjcraLTO acoaac ojfid^;, /cal iirl tovtol<^ avrb^ opbocra^ rjfuVt 
avTo^ Be^La^ Bov^, avTo<; e^airarrjaaf; avveXa^e tov<; arparr)' 
70V9, Kal ovBe Ala ^kviov i^BeaSr], dXXd KKedp')((p /cal ofio- 
Tpdire^o^; yev6/xevo<; avrol^ Tovroi^; e^airarrjo-a^ tov^ dvBpa^ 
diroXcoXeKev. 5. ^ApLato<; Be, ov rjpbel^; r^^eXofiev fiaaiXea 
KaS^Lcrrdvai, /cal eBco/ca/iev /cal eXd/SofJbev Trcard fir] TTpoBcO" 
ceiv aXX7]Xov<;, /cal ovto<; ovre tou9 S^eov<; Beiad^ ovre Kvpov 
Tov reS^VTj/cora alBeoS-ek, Tifidoixevo^^ fidXiG-ra virb Kvpov 
^(ovTo<; vvv irpo^ tov<; i/ceivov ej^^^LCTTOV^ diro(TTd<^ 'fjfid^ rov^ ^^ 
Kvpov (j^tXov^ /caKco^ iroielv ireipdrai. 6. ^AXXd rovrov^ 
jiev oi Beol dTroricraLVTO • 7jfid<; Be Bel ravra 6pS}VTa<^ pbrjirore 
e^airarrj^rivai en viro tovtcov, dXXd iiaj(oiJievov^ 0)9 dv Bv- 
vco/ieSa KpuTLara tovto o re dv Bo/cjj T0t9 S^eoU rrd(T')(eiv, 

7. Ek rovrov aevotpcov dviararaL iaraX/Mevo^ iirl 'TroXe- 

LIB. III. CAP. II. 73 

fiov Q)<i iBvvaro /caXkcara • vofjbl^cov, ecre vlktjv BcSolev ol 
9-6o2, Tov KoXKca-TOv Koajiov tcd viKav Trpiiretv • elre reXev- 
rav Seoc, op^w ^X^^^ ™^ KaXkicrrcov iavrov d^ccoaavra iv 
TovTOL<; T?}9 reXevrrj^ rvjx^^^^'^ ' "^^^ \6yov Be ripx^TO S)Be • 
8. Ti^v [ilv Tcov l3ap/3dpcov iirtopiCiav re koI dinarTLav Xiyeo 
KXedvcop, iTriaracrBe Be koX vfiel^ ol/JLac. El fiev ovv /3ou- 
Xevojie^a irdXiV avTol^ Bid ^tXia^ ievac, dvdjfcr} T^yiia? 'ttoXXtjv 
oBv/jiLav ex^LV, opcovra^; koX tov^ crrpaTTjyov^, oc Bed TTicrreco^ 
avTol^ eavTov<; evex^ipiaav, cla ireirovBaGnv • el fMevrot Bia- 
vooviieBa avv toI<; oTrXot? &v re ireiroLrjKaG'i Bl/C7]v einBelvai 
avTol^ fcal TO Xolttov Bid iravTo^ TroXifiov avTol<^ lepac, crvv 
Toc<; S-£OL<; TToXXal rj/jLLV Kol fcaXal eXircBe^ etal acorrjpla^. 9. 
TovTo Be XeyovTO^ avrov irrdpyvTai tl<; • aKovaavre^ Be ol 
arpartcoTat 7rdpre<; fxta opfjifj TTpocreKVvr}aav tov 3-e6v. Kal 
Uevotpcov etire' AoKel fiot, & dvBpe^, eVel Trepl acoTTjpLa^; 
r]iJbo)v XejovTcov ol(ovo<; tov Alo^ tov 2!coT7]po<; e<pdvri, ev^a- 
aSaL TO) Se^ tovtg) Bvaeiv crcoTrjpia ottov dv TrpcoTov eh 
(piXlav %ft)paz/ dcpcfcco/jie^a • (TvveTrev^aa^aL Be fcal toU dX' 
XoL<; Beol<; BvcreLV /caTa Bvpajxcv. Kal oTtp Bofcel TavT, ecfyTj, 
dvaTeivdTco ttjv xelpa, Kal dveTetvav diravTe^. ^Efc tov- 
TOV ev^avTo Kal eTraccovccrav. 'ETrel Be Ta tcov 3-ecov KaXS)^ 
elx^v, Tjo^eTO' irdXiv o)Be • 

10. ^ETvyx^^^^ Xeyccvy otl TroXXal /cat fcaXal iXTTiBe^; 

^7]}uv elev acoT7]pLa<;. TIpcoTov jiev ydp 7][iel<; [xev iixireBovfiev 

\tov^ t&v Bewv opKov^y ol Be iroXefJbiOi i'jricop/CTjKaa'L re /cat ra? 

(TiTovBd^ Kal TOv<; opKov<; XeXvKacnv, Ovtco 8' ej(0VTcov cIko^ 

T069 /lev 7roXe/jLLOC<^ evavTiov<; elvai tov^ Beov<;, rjfuv Be crvjUL' 

fjbdxov^;, OLTrep iKavoi elau Kal tov<; fieydXov^ t^%^ fiCKpov^ 

; iroielv Kal tov^ [iLKpov^ kuv ev Becvoh Sycriy crco^ecv ev7reT0)<;, 

OTav ^ovXcovTac, 11. "ErretTa Be, (dva/jivrjcrco yap vfid^ Kal 

Tov^ TCOV irpoyovcov tcov r/fieTepcov kcvBvvov^, Xva elBrjTe &>? 

ayoBoh Te v/jllv irpocrriKet elvai crco^ovTai re crvv Toh S-eoc^; 

\Kal eK irdvv Beivcov ol dya^ol') eXBovTcov fiev yap Tlepacov 

Kai TCOV <Tvv avToh 'JTaix7rX7]Bel cttoXco co? d<pavLOvvTcov av9^t<; 

Ta^ 'ABrjva^;, v7rocTT7]vaL avToh 'A^rjvalot, ToXfiriaavTe<^, evL" 

] 4 


KTjcrav avTov^» 12. Kal ev^dfievoi ry ^Apri/icBL OTroaov^ av 

KaraKCLVOiev tojv TrdXefiicov TO(TavTa<; ')(^Lfjiaipa^ /cara^vaetv 

ry ^ew, eVet ovk el^pv Uava^ evpeiv, eho^ev avrol^ Kar ivc- 

avTov TrevraKoaia^ "^vecv • /cal en kol vvv aird^vovaiv. 13. 

''Eirecra ot€ aep^V^ varepov ajelpa^ rrjv dvapl^fjLTjrov arpa- 

Tiav rjXitev iirl rrjv 'EXkdSay /cat Tore evUcov ol rj/xerepoc 

Trpoyovoc tou9 tovtcov irpoyovov^ /cal Kara jfjv Kal Kara 

^dXarrav, '^flv eari fiev Te/cfiijpca opav ra rpoTraca, fjiiyc- 

(TTOV he puapTvpLov 7} eXev^epca to)v iroXecov ev ah vjxel^ eye- 

vea^e Kal irpdcf^rjre • ovSeva yap dv^pcoTrov BeaTrorrjv dWa 

TOL'9 ^eou? rrrpoaKwelre, Tolovtcov fiev eare irpoyovcov. 14. 

Ov fJLev Bt) tovto ye ipco &)9 vfjieh KaTaLG")(yveTe avTOV<;' d\X i 

ovTTco TToWal 7]iJLepaL d(j> ov dvTcra^d/JLevot tovtol^ toI<; eKei- 

vcov e/cyovoL^ iroWaifKaG iov^ vfioov avrcov eviKare avv rol^ \ 

^eoL<;. 15. Kal rore fiev Br) irepl tt}? Kvpov ^aai\eia<; dv- 1 

Sp€9 rjre dya^oi' vvv S' oirore irepl Trj<; vfjuerepa^ acoTTjpia^ \ 

6 dycov e<JTi irokv BiJttov v/JLd<; irpocnJKet Kal dfielvova^ Kal 

7rpo^v/JLOTepov<; elvau 16. ^AXkd fjurjv Kal ^appaXecorepov^ 

vvv irpeireu elvav irpo^ rov^ irokeiiiov^. Tore [lev yap direi- 

poL 6vTe<; avTOOv to re 7rX7}^09 d/jberpov opcovre^, 6/jlco<; eroX- 

fiTJaare avv rai Trarplq) (^povrjfjLarL levac eh avTov<; • vvv S', 

OTTore Kal irelpav r}Br] e^ere avrcov on ^eXovac Kal TroXXa- 

m'XdaioL 6vre<; /jltj Be')(^eG'^ao vfid^, ri en v/jllv irpoarjKei rov- \ 

rov<; ^o^ela^ai ; 17. MrjBe [levroi rovro [lelov Bo^rjrel 

e')(eiv el ol Kvpeloi irpocr^ev avv rj/ilv rarropievoi vvv d^e- 

arr^Kaaiv • en yap ovroi KaKiove^ elai rcov v(l> 7]iicov yrrrj- 

/jbivcov • e^evyov yovv irpo<; eKeivov^ KaraKnTovre<^ r}iJLd<;. 

Tov<; Be €^eXovra<; ^vyy)^ dp')^ecv ttoXv Kpelrrov <rvv roh 

iroXep^Lot^ rarrofxevov^ rj ev ry rjfierepa rd^ei opav. 18. El 

Be n<; av v/jloov a^v/JLel ore 7]iuv fiev ovk elalv Imreh, roh Be 

iToXepLLOi^ TToXXol irdpecacv, ev'^vpiy^rjre ore ol fivpioi linTeh 

ovoev dXXo rj puvpioi elacv av'^pcoiroc • virb fiev yap lttttov ev 

fidxy ovBeh TTcoTTore ovre Brj^^^h ovre XaKncr'iifeU dire^a- 

vev ol B' dvBpe<; elalv ol 7roLovvre<; 6 n dv ev rah /xa;)^at9' 

yiyv7]rai. 19. Ovkovv r&v ye Irrireodv iroXv rjfieh eir da^a-^^ 

LIB. III. CAP. II. 75 

Xearepov ox^f^ctro^ ia/Jiiv • ol fiev yap icf) Zttitcov Kpi/JLavrac 
(f>o^ovfjL€Vot ov-^ rjfjLa^ fiovov dWa Koi to fcaTairecrelv, 7]ixeL<; S' 
eirl TTJ^ jr]<; /Se^rjfcoTes ttoXu fiev la^xypoTepop iraiaoixev tjv tl<; 
irpoalyt iroXv S* ere fiaXkov orov av ^ovXcofjLe^a rev^o/xe^a. 
'Evl /JLOVO) TrpoixovaLP ol i7nrel<; rj/nd^ • ^evyecv avroi^ dacf^a- 
Xiarepov iarcv rj rjjjblv. 20. El he Brj ra? /xev fid^a^ Sa/5- 
f)€LT€j OTt S' ovfcerc rjfilv Tcao-a^epvr]^ rjyTjaerai ovSe /3aacXev<^ 
dyopdv irape^et,, tovto a^^ea^e, aKe-^^raa^e irorepov Kpelrrov 
Tiaaac^epvrjv rjyeiiova e^eiv, 09 iTTcfiovXevcov rjfxlv ^avepo^ 
iartv, Tj 01)9 dv Tjpbel^ dv8pa<; Xafi6vT€<; rjyeia^ai fceXevco/iev • 
OL elcrovrai ore 7]v re irepl rj[Jbd<; d/jbaprdvcocrc, nrepl rd^ iavrcop 
^jrv^d^ Kol rd aco/jLara dfiaprdvovo'c. 21. Td S' eTTLTTjSeca 
TTorepov coveia^aL Kpelrrov i/c t% dyopd^ rj^ ovroi iTapei')(ov 
/jLL/cpd fierpa ttoXXov dpyvplov^ fi7]8e tovto eTL €')(OVTa^^ rj 
avTov<; Xa/x^dvecv, rjvirep /cpaToofJiev, fxeTpco ')(pco/jLevov<; oiroacp 
dv €/caaTO<; ^ovXtjtuc ; 22. El he TavTa fxev yiyv6>GKeTe oTi 
KpeiTTOva, Tov<; he TroTafJiov<^ drropov vofjLi^eTe elvat /cat fxeyd^ 
Xco^ TjyeLa^e i^airaTrf^rivat hca^dvTe';, aKey^raa^e el dpa 
TOVTO KoX ficopoTaTov TTeTTOLTJfcaacv ol /3dpl3apoc. UdvTe^ /xer 
ydp ol TTOTapbol, rjv kol irpocrcD tcop Trr]yS)v diropoL (hai^ irpol- 
ovat Trpo? Ta^ irr]yd^ Sca/SaTol yiyvovTai ovSe to yovv ySpe- 
^oz^re?. 23. El he fJLrf^^ ol TroTapbol hcoiaovatv rjyefxdov re 
yLCT^Sei? r}}Jilv cf^avelTac, ovh' o)? 97/^61^ ye a^vfxrjTeov. ^ETTLaTa- 

, /xe^a ydp Mvaov<;, ob<; ov/c dv tj/jlcov (^airjfiev /3eXTL0v^ elvac, . 

1 ot ^acnXeco<^ d/covTo^ iv Trj ySacr^Xety? X^P^ TroWa? T€ koI 

' fieydXa^ kol evhalfiovas 7r6XeL<; ol/covacv • eTnaTapie^a he 
UeLO-iha^ (haavTco^; • AvKdova<; he fcal avTol ethofjuev otl, iv 
Tot^' TrehioL^ Td epvp,vd fcaTaXa/36vTe<; ttjv tovto v %copaz^ /cap- 

] irovvTau 24. Kol rj/id<; S' dv ^ati^v eycoye XPW^^ [Mrj-rrco 
^avepov<; elvai otfcahe copp^r^pikvov^^ dXXd icaTaa/cevd^ea^at co? 
avTov TTov olfC7]aovTa<;. OlSa ydp otl koI MvaoL9 j3aaLXevs 

' TroXXov<; pev rjyepova^ dv So/77, 7roXXov<; S' dv opurjpov^ tov 

I dhoXo)^ efCTrejiiyjreLV, koX ohoTroLrjaeLe y dv avTol<; kol el avv 
TeSrptTTTroi? jSovXoLVTO diTLevaL, Kal rjplv y dv olh otl 

^ TpLadapievo^ tuvtu eTroleL, el ecopa rjpd<; pbeveLV TrapaaKeva^o- 



fievov^. 25. 'AWa yap SiSocKU fjit) av aira^ fid^cofiev apjo\ 
^fju fcal ev a(f>'^6voi^ /ScoreveLv, kol Mr,hwv he Kol Uepacbv 
KokaU fcat /iieyaXat.^ jvvat^l koX '7rap^ivoc<; op^tXelv, firj 
axTTrep oi Xcoro^dyoL iinXa^co/JLe^a tt}? oi/caSe oSov, 26. 
AoKel ovv fioi eLKO^ koX Si/catov elvau TrpcoTOV et9 ttjv EXXdSa 
KOL 7rpo9 Tovs olicelov^ Trecpda^afj dipLKvelcr^ac kol iirihel^at, 
T069 "EXkrjrxLV on etcovre^ Trevovrac, i^ov avTol<^ tov<^ vvv oUoi 
dKkrjpov^ iroXcTevovra^ iv^dSe /cofZLaa/Jiivov^; TrXovaiov^ opav. 
^AXXd ydp, 0) dvSpe<;y irdvra ravra rdya^d BrjXop ore rcop 
fcparovvTcov ecrrL 27. Tovro Srj Bel Xeyetv ttw clv iropevolr 
pif!hd re ft)9 dcrcbaXicrTaTa fcal, el fid'^ea^ai 8eot, co? /cpdrcaTa 
fia^oL/jLe^a, Upcbrov puev roivvv, e^r], hoicel juloc fcaraKavaat 
ra? dfid^a'^y a? exo/^ev Xva fir} rd ^evyrj tj/jlcov arpaTrjyy^ 
dXXd TTopevcapie'^a oirrj dv ttj arpana crvjJL(j)epr) • kireiTa Kot 
Td<; aicy]vd^ avyKarafcavaai. Avrac ydp av 6)(Xov piev irape- 
yovaiv dyetv^ avvoxpeXovac Se ovSev ovre et? to ptd'^ea^ac 
ovT ek TO rd eTriTTjSeca e)(eiv. 28. ^'Eri he /cal tcov dXXcov 
aKevSiV rd irepiTTd aTraXXd^copiep vrXrjv oaa nroXepiov evefcev 
Tj (TLTcop Tj TTOTcov e^x^o/jiep ' Xpa w TrXeldTot pbep '^p.cop ep rot^ 
OTrXoi? a)cnp, w? iXd'X^LO'Tot he cr/cevo(l)opa)crc, Kparovpiepcop 
fiep ydp eirlaTaa^e ore irdpra dXXorpta' rjp he KparcbfiePj 
KoX Tovs TToXefMLOV^ hel (TKevo^opov^ rj/jLerepov^; pofxi^eLP. 29. 
AoLirop fjbOL elirelp oirep koI pbeyicrrop po/jll^o) elpac, ^Opdre 
ydp KOL Tou? TToXefilov^ on ov irpoa^ep e^epeyKelp eroXpirjaap 
Trpo^ rjiid'^ iroXe/iop irplp TOv<i arparTjyoif^; r]jiS}p avpeXa^op, 
pofxil^ovre^ optcop fiep tcjp dp^oPTcop kol tj/jlcop Treu^ofievoDV 
iKapov^ elvai rj/xd^ irepiyepea^aL T(p TroXepiW' Xa^6pTe<; he 
T0v<; dpxopra^ dpapyja dp fcal dra^ca epofXii^op i^/xd<; diroXe- 
(T^aL 30. Ael ovp ttoXv fxep rou^ dp^opra^ eTn/JLeXeo-repov^ ^ 
yepea^ai rov^ pvp tcop irpou^ep^ mroXv he rov^ dp')(opLepov^ 'i 
evraKTorepov^ kol Trec^ofiepov^; fxdXXop rah dp^ovat, pvp tj 
m-poa'^ev. 31. '^Hp hi n<; direc'^T], rjp '\Jr7](f>L(77)a'^e top del 
v/xS)P evTvyxdpovra avp tm dp^ovn KoXd^ecp, ovtco<; oi TroXi- Ij 
fiLOL irXelarov i-y^evo-jmipoL eaoprac • T^Se ydp rr} rjfiepa puvpi- i! 
ou? oylropTuc dp^' epo^ KXedp')(ov<i tov<; ovh' epl iTrtrpeyJroPTa^ 

LIB. III. CAP. II. 77 

KaK(^ elvai. 32. ^AWa yap koX irepaiveiv tj^t] <opa • IVo)? 
fyap oi TToXi/JLtoL avrcfca TrapeaovraL, ^'Orcp ovv ravra SoKel 
Ka\m ^'^^iv, eiTLKvpwadray o)? Td')(^LaTa, iva epjo) rn-epaivTjrau 
Ei 6e TL dX\o /SeXnov rj ravrrjy roXfjiaTco kol 6 lSLCi)T7]<; dcSd- 
(TtceLV • irdvTes yap kolvt]^ a(DT7]pia<; Seofie^a. 

33. Merd ravra XetpCaoc^o^ elirev ^AXX! el ^ev tcvo<; 
dWov Set 7rpo9 rovrocs ols elrre Uevo^cov^ Kal avrUa i^earao 
TTocelv* d Be vvv elprjice hoKel fioc m Td')(^LaTa 'yjrrjcpio-aa^at, 
dpcarov elvat • Kal orco hoKel ravra, dvarecvdrco rrjv %6t/5a. 
^Averetvav diravre'^, 34. ^Avaard^Be rrdXcv elire 'Sevocj)cov' 
'^if2 dvSpe^ d/covaare &v rrpoahelv hotcel [xoi, ArfKov on iro- 
pevea^ai fjixas Set ottov e^ofiev rd e7Tirr}heia, 'A/covco Si, 
Kcofias elvai Ka\d<i ov ifkelov eiKoai araSicov aTre^oucra?. 36. 
Oufc dv ovv ^av/id^ot/jLL el oi TroXejuioc, coairep oi SeCkol Kvve^ 
rov<^ fiev rrapLQvra<^ Stco/covori re Kal SaKvovaiv rjv Svvcovrac, 
T0U9 Se SccoKovra^ ^euyovanv, el Kal ovroc 7]iuv dinovaiv 
eiraKoKov^olev, 36. "Icrco^ ovv da^aXearepov tj/jllv iropev- 
ecr^at rrXaLaiov TTOCTjcrafievov^ rcov ottXcov^ iva rd aKevoc^opa 
Kal 6 TToXv^ 6')(Xo<i ev da(f>aXearep(p "q. El ovv vvv drro- 
Sei')^eir] riva ')(pr] rjyelcr^aL rov irXacaiov Kal rd rrpoa^ev 
Koapuelv Kal riva^ eirl rcbv irXevpcov ercareptov elvai rlva^ S' 
OTTLo^ot^vXaKelv, ovk dv oirore oi rroXe/xioL eX^otev ^ovXev- 
ea^ai rjjud<; Seot^ dXXd ')^p(pfjLe^^ dv cu^u? rots reray/jievoL<;, 
37. El fiev ovv dXXo<; rt? fieXnov 6 pa, dXXco<; e')(erco • el Se 
firj, Xecpiao^o^; fjbev rjyolro eTrecSrj Kal AaKeSat/novLo^ earc* 
rcbv Se rrXevpwv eKarepcov Svo rcov TrpecT^vrdrcov arparTjyco 
eTnixeXoia^rjV • omcr^o^vXaK&piev Se rjixel'^ oi vecoraroc eyco 
re Kal Ttfiao'lcov ro vvv elvat, 38. To Se Xotirov Tretpco/nevot 
ravrrj<; ri}^ rd^eco^, /SovXevcrofjie^a 6 rt dv del Kpdrtarov So- 
KoiTj elvat. El Si rt<; dXXo 6 pa jBiXrtov, Xe^drco. ^Eirel Se 
ovSeU dvreXeyev, elrrev • ^^Orco SoKet ravra, dvaretvdrco rrjv 
X^lp^* 39. "ESo^e ravra. Nvv roCvvv^ ecfyrj^ dirt6vra<; rrotelv 
Set rd SeSoyfiiva • Kal oart<^ re vfioov rov<; olKeiov^ errt^viiel 
ISetv, fjLejiiv't]a^co dvrjp dya^o^ elvat • ov yap ecrrtv dXXco<; rov- 
rov rv-^^eiv* oart<^ re tyv eTrt^vfiet, iretpda^co vtKav* rwv ftev 


^ap VLKcovTcov TO KaratcaiveLV^ tcop Be rjTTcofjLevcov to airo^vi]- 
GKeiv iaTL Kal et tl^ he "^prjixaTcov iTn^v/jLec, KpaTelv irec- 
pda^co • Tcoi^ jap vlkcovtcop earl Kal Ta eavTcop ado^eiv Kal tcl 
Tcov TjTTW/jLepcop Xa/n^dvecv, 


1. TovTcov Xex^evToov dveaTrjaav Kal uTreX^ovTe^ KUTe- 
Katov TCL^ dfjid^a^ Kal ra? o'K7]vd<; • tcop 8e irepCTTcop otov [xep 
heoiTO TVS fieTeSiSoaap aWTyXot?, Ta Se dXKa eU to irvp ^ppL- 
tttovp. TavTa TroajaaPTe^ r/pcaTOTTOLovPTO, ^ApiaTOTroLov- 
fjL6Pcop Se avTOJp €p')(eTat MC^pihuT-q^; avp linrevaLP 0)9 Tpid- 
Kopra, Kal KaXead/mepo^ tov9 GTpaTrjjov^ eh iirrjKoop Xeyec 
a)Se • 2. ^Eyco, & dphpe<; '^EXXrjpe^;^ Kal Kvpco TnaTo^ r/v, wj 
vpLeh eTrlaraa'^e, Kal vvp v/jllp evpov^* Kal ip^dSe eljud avp 
itoXXg) (j)6l3(p Bcdjcop. El ovp opcprjp vp.d<; crcoTTJptop tl fiov- 
XeuopLepov<;j eX'^oLfiL up 77/309 vfid<; Kal tov<; ^epdrropTas irdp- 
Ta9 e)((OP» Ae^aTe ovp irpos fie tl ep pw e^ere 0)9 rrpo^ (^iXop 
Te Kal evpovp Kal ^ovXo/jLepop kolptj avp iffup top (ttoXop 
TTOLela^aL, 3. BovXeuopbipoL^ tol<; aTpaTTjyoh eSo^ep diTOKpi' 
paa^ac raSe • {/cat eXeye XeLpLO'0(f)o<; •) ^Hpip BoKel, el piip 
T69 ea rjpid<; dTTLepai olKahe, SLairopevea^aL ttjp j^wpap ct)9 dp 
Svpcop,e^a dcTLpeaTaTa • fjp he tl<; Tjpid^; T779 6S0O aTTOKwXvrj, 
hLaTToXepLelp tovtco &)9 dp Svpcopie^a KpdTLaTa, 4. ^Ek tov- 
Tov eireLpaTO M.L^piBdTr]<; hLhdaKeiP w diropop elrj l3aorLXea)<^ 
UKOPTO^ o-co^rjpaL. ^'Ep^a Srj eyLypcoaKeTO otl VTroirepi'TrTo^ 
€L7] • Kal yap tcop Tiaaa^eppov^ ti<; olKelcop iraprjKoXov^ec 
7rt<7T6Ci)9 epeKa. 5. Kal €K tovtov iSoKeL Toh <TTpaT7]yol<^ 
/SeXTLOP elpaL Soy/jia TroLTJaaa^at top iroXepLOP dKrjpvKTOP elpai 
eaTe ep ttj iroXep^ca elep • SLecj^^etpop yap TrpoacopTe^; TOi'9 
cTpaTLcora^^ Kal epa ye Xo-^ayop BL€<f>^etpap NUap')(pp ^ApKd- 
ca • Kal oi^ero dinchp pvkto<; avp dp^pco7roL<; d)<; eLKOcrc, 

G. MeTa Tavra dpLaTtjaapTe^ Kal 8La/3dpTe<; top Zd/3aT0P 
TTOTafiop eiropevopTo TeTayfiepoL Ta viro^vyLa Kal top o)(Xop ep 



uecro) eYoz/T6?. Ov ttoXv Be ^jrpoeXrjXv^oTcov avrcov eTn^ai- 
veraL TraXiv 6 Mc^pcSdrrj^j iiTTrea^ ^X^^ ^^ hLaKO(TLov<i fcal 
ro^ora^ koX <T(^evhovrjTa^ w rerpaKoaiov^ fiaXa iXacf^poif^ koX 
ev^covov^. 7. Kal irpoarjet jxev co? </>t\o9 cov nrpo^; tou? "EX- 
Xr]va<; • eVet Be iyyv^ iyevero, e^airivrj^ oi /m€V avroov ero^evov 
Kal l'inTel<; koX ire^oi, ol S' ia^evhovwv fcal erLrpcoaKOV. Oi S' 
oTTca^o^vXa/ce^ tS)v ^EXXtjvcov eiTaa")(ov fiev KaK(o<;, avreTroL- 
ovv Be ovBev • ol re yap Kprjre^ ^pa')(yTepa rcov Uepcrcop iro- 
^evov Kal ajjua '^iXol ovre^ elaco tcov ottXcov KareKeKXetvTo • ot 
re aKOVTcaral ^pa^yrepa tjkoptc^ov, rj &)? i^CKpeca^ac rcou 
a^evBovqrSiV, 8. ^Ek tovtov iHtepocpcovTC iBoKet BccoKreov 
elvai • Kal eBiwKov tcov re oitXltcop Kal toov TreXrao-rcov ot 
eTV)(ov avp avrai 67na^o^vXaKovPTe<; • BtcoKOvre^ Be ovBeva 
KaTeXdfji/3avov rcov iroXefiicov. 9. Ovre yap i7nreL<; rjaav tol<; 
^^EXXyatv oure ol Tre^ol rov^ Trefou? eK iroXXov (})evyovra<^ 
eBvvavTo KaraXajx^dveiv ev oXcyM '^copicp • iroXv yap ov^ 
olov re Tju diro rov aXXov arparev/jLaro^; BccoKecv. 10. 01 Be 
^dp^apot LTTTreU Kal <pevyovre<i afxa iriTpcocrKOV eZ? rovTrc- 
a^ev To^evovTe<; diro tcov lttttcov • oiroaov Be TrpoBtco^ecap ol 
''jE\X7;i/e?, ToaovTOP TrdXtp eTrapaj^copelv fia'^o/jLepov^ eBec. 
11. '^ flare tt}? r^fjuepa^ oXt]'^ Btrp^op ov irXeop irepre Kal eUo- 
(TL (TTaBlcop, dXXa BeiXr]^ dcj>LKOPTo eh ra? Ka)fjLa<;. ^'Ep^a Brj 
irdXiP d^v/JLta rjp, Kal XetpiO'ocf)o^ Kal ol irpea^vraTot tcop 
arparrjycop p,epo(j)coPTa rjTLWPro on iBlcoKep diro tt}? (fydXay- 
yos Kal axjTo^; re eKipBvpeve Kal tov<; TroXefLiov^ ovBep fiaXXop 
eBvparo ^Xdirretp, 

12. ^AKovaa^ Be 6 "Bepocpcop eXeyep ort op^w? yricjPTo Kal 
avTo TO epyop avrols fJiaprvpoLT]. '-4XV eyco, ecj&T;, iqpayKd" 
a^7]p BccoKecpj eTreiBrj ecopcop rjjjLa'^ ip tw fiepeip KaKO)^ fiep ird- 
(7^ovTa<;^ dpTCTTOLelp B' ovBep Bvpafxepovs. 13. ^ETrecBr) Be 
iBicoKOfjLep^ a\?y^77, e(f)rj^ vfieU Xeyere* KaKW fiep yap irocecp 
ovBep fidXXop iBvpd/jb€^a tou9 7roXeiuL[ov<;, dpe^copovfiep Be 
Trdvv ')(^aXeir(o^. 14. Tol<; ovp ^eo2<^ X^P^^ ^'^^ ^^ ^^^ TroXXy 
pco/j>7j dXXa avp oXiyoc'^ rjX^op ' coare ^Xdyfrac fiep jjlt] fxeyd- 
Xa, BrjX&aac Se, (Si/ Beo/jue^a* 16. Nvp yap ol fjbep nroXefiLot 


To^evovat kol a^evhovSicnv oaov ovre ol Kprjre^ avrtro^evet/V 
hvvavrai ovre ol i/c %et/309 fiaXXovre^ e^LKvela^ai ' brav he 
avTov^ SicoKcofjLev^ ttoXv /Mev ou;)^ olov re ^((Dpiov anro rov arpa- 
revjiaro'^ Stco/cecv, iv oXcycp Be ouS' el Ta')(p<; elr] iTe'(^o<^ ire^ov 
av BicoKcov KaraXdjSoL ifc to^ov pvpiaro^;. 16. ^Hp^eh ovv el 
fieWopLev TovTov^ etpyetv coare pif) Bvpaor^ac iSXairreLV rjpa<^ 
iropevopLevov^y a^evBovrjrwv re rrjv Ta')(laTriv Bel /cat imrecav, 
^Akovcd S' elvau ev rep arparevpiaTL rjpLcov ^PoBlov^y &v tov^ 
TToXXov^ (j^aacv eTriaraa^av a^evBovav, /cat to /3eXo<; avroov 
Kol BiTrXdaLov (pepea^ao roov IlepaiKcov acpevBovcov, 17. ^EKel- 
vac jdp, Bia to '^eipoiTXrfhecn toc^ Xl^ol^ a<^evBovav ein /Spa- 
p^u e^LfcvovpTaL' ol Be ye^PoSiOi kol tols pboXv^Blatv errlaTav- 
Tat, ')(^pf]o-^at, 18. '^Hv ovv avT&v iTTtaKeyJr copied a TLve^i 
ireiravTaL a(j)ei>B6va^, kol tovtcov tm puev B^puev avToov dpjv- 
pLOPj Tcp Be aXXa^ irXe/cetv e^eXovTi aXXo dpyvptov TeXcopbev^ 
/cat TftJ aq:'evBovav evTeTaypuevcp e^eXovTi aXXrjv tcvcl aTeXetav 
evpla/ccopiev, IVco? Tcve^ (pavovvTai l/cavcl rj/xd<i ocx^eXelv, 19. 
'Optj Be KoX LTTTTOV'; ovTa^ ev t(5 aTpaTevpiaTi, tov<; piiv Tiva<^ 
Trap ipLOL, Tov<; Be tm KXedp'^cp fcaTaXeXetpLpbivov^ • ttoXXou? 
Be KoX aXXov<; al')(pLaX(OTovs dKevo^opovvTa^;, '^Av ovv tov- 
Tovg 'wdvTa^ i/cXe^avTe^ a/cevo^opa pcev dvTtBcopLev, Toif^ ^41 
tTTTTOi;? eh /TTTrea? /caTaaKevdaoopLev, caco^; koX ovtoI tl tov^ ' 
^evyovTa<; dvidaovaiv, 20. "EBo^e TavTa* fcal TavTTjg r?}? 
vvKTo<; a^evBovrjTaL ptev eh Biatcoaiov^ eyevovTO^ Xttitol Be Kat 
iTTTreh eBoKipbda^aav ttj vaTepata eh irevTrjicovTay koI aTO- 
XdBe^ /cal ^chpaice^ avToh eTropLa-Brjo-av • koI L7r7rap')(p^ Be 
iTTeaToSr) Avkcos 6 UoXva-TpaTov ^ABr}valo^. 


1. MeivavTe^ Be tuvttjv rrjv rjpbepav ttj dXXr) eiropevovro 
rrrpcoiaiTepov ava(TTdvTe<; • ')(apdBpav yap avTOV^ eBev BiajSi)' 
vat ecf) y e(po/3ovvTo p,f) eTTiBolvTO avToh Btaj^aivovaiv ol 
TToXefMCOL. 2. AialSefirjfcoarL Be avroh TrdXiv (^aCveTau 6 

LIB. III. CAP. IV. 81 

MiBpcBdTr]<;, E'xcDV iTTirea^ ^x^lXlov;, ro^ora^; Be koX ac^evBovrj' 
ra^ ek TerpaKi(j')(^CKLOV<^ • toctgvtov^ yap yrrjcre Tccraa^ipvrjv 
KoX eXa^eVy v7roa")(pfjLevo<^ av tovtov^ ^(^/3j} 'TrapaBcoaecv avrof 
Tov<; ^^EW7]va^y Karai^povrjaa^, ore ev rfj rrrpoa^ev Trpoa^o- 
Xy oXljov^; e')(cov eira^e /jl6P ovBev, TToXXa Be fcafca ivofii^e 
iroLTJcrac. 3. ^Eirel Be ol ^^EXXrjve^; Bca^e/STj/core^; airel^ov 
rf]^ ')(apdBpa^ ocrov ofcrco crraBiov^, Bce^atve kol 6 MLSpcBd- 
T7j<; €')((ov TTjv BvvafJbtv. IIap7]yyeXT0 Be rcov re TreXracTTcbv 
Oi)9 eBec Bico/cetv kol tcov oirXirSiVy koX tol^ LTTTrevaiv etprjTO 
^appovcTL Bccofcecv, co9 e^e-y^rofievrif; lKavri<^ Buvd/JLeco^. 4. 
'JEvrel Be 6 Mt^ptBdrrj^ /caT€iXt](})eL, koI rjBrj crtpevBovao koX 
To^evfjLara i^cfcvovvro, earjiJLTjve tol<; ^^EXXrjcro rrj adXTnyyc, 
KOL ev3-v^ e^eov o/JLocre oh elprjTO fcal ol lirireh rjXavvov • ol 
Be ov/c iBe^avTO, dXX^ e^evyov eirl rrjv ')(apdBpav, 5. ^Ev 
ravrrf rfj Btd^ec roc<i ^ap^dpoc<; rcov re nre^wv dire^avov 
TToXXol KoX TO)v lirirecov ev rrj ^^^apaBpa ^cool eX7](j)S^aav eh 
oKTcofcacSefca • tov<^ S' diro^avovra^; avrofceXevaroc ol ^^EXXtj- 
ve^ fjiciCTavTO, a)9 on ^o^epcorarov roh iroXefJuiot^^ etrj 6 pap. 

6. Kal ol fiev iroXe[iLot ovtco Trpd^avre^^ dirrjX^ov * ol B 
'^EXX7]ve<; dacftaXcos iropevofievoo to Xolitov ttj^ ri/xepa<;, dcpi- 
KOVTO eirX Tov Tiyprjra Trora/iov, 7. ^EvravBa 7roX^9 r/v 
ipi]/jL7], jieydXT], ovofxa K avrrj rjv AdpLcraa* Skovv S' avrrjv 
TO irdkatov MtjBol • tov Be Te6^ov9 ^v avTrj^ to evpo^ irevTe 
Kal elKoai iroBe^, {5-^09 6' eKaTov • tov Be icvfcXov r] nrepioBo^^ 
Bvo irapaadyyai • (pKoB6[Jb7]TO Be ttXcvBol^ Kepafilai^ • Kprjirh 
Be virrjv XcS-lvrj, to {5-^09 ec/cocrc iroBcbv. 8. TavTrjv j^acn- 
Xev^ 6 Uepacov, ot€ nrapa MijBcov ttjv dpxr]v eXdfJi^avov 
Hepaai, iroXiopKoov ovBevl TpoTrqy eBvvaTO eXelv • tjXlov Be 
ve^eXrj irpoKaXvy^raaa 7](^dviae, f^^XP^^ i^eXcTrov ol dv^pcoiroiy 
Kal ovTco<; edXco. 9. Uapa TavTrjv ttjv ttoXcv rjv irvpafih 
Xl^lvtJj to fiev evpo^ evo<; irXeS^pov, to Be {;'v|ro9 Bvo nrXeS^pcov, 
'JEttI TavT7]<; "iroXXol tcjv /3ap^dpa)v rjaav, ck t&v irXTjaiov 
KO)/jLcov aTTOTre^evyoref;, 

10. ^EvTev^ev eiropevBrjaav (TTaS/ibv eva irapacrdyya^ ef 
TTpo^ Tecxp^ eprjfjLov, fteya, 7rpo9 Tjj TToXet Kelfievov • ovofjia S' 



rjv rfj TToKei Micnrtka • MtjSol S' avrijv TTore wkovv. '^Hv 
Be 7} fiev Kprjirh XlBov fecrroO A:o7%uXfcaTOi;, to €S/}09 Trevrrj- 
Kovra TToBcjv Kol TO vy\ro<^ TrevTrjKovra. 11. ^Eirl he ravry 
iTTcpKoBoixr^TO ifklv^LVov Te?%09, TO fxev €vpo<; irevTrjicovTa iro- 
Scov, TO he i!i|ro9 ifcaTov • tov Be fcv/cXov 97 Trep/oSo? e^ irapa- 
adyyao. ^EvTavS^a iXeyeTO MrjBla yvvrj ^aaCkeco^^ KaTacpv- 
yetv, 0T€ aTTcoXeo-av ttjv dpxv^ i'Trb Uepacov MrjBoc, 12. 
TavT7]v Be T7]v ttoXlv TToXiopKcov 6 TIep(TO)V /3a(7^Xeu9 ovic 
eBvvaro ovTe XpovM ekelv ovt6 ^la • Zev<; S' €/JLfipovT7]TOV<; 
TToiel Tov^; ivoLKovvTa^;, /cat ovtco^ edXco, 

13. 'EvTevS^ev S' iiropev^^rjaav cTaB/iov eva irapaadyym 
TeTTapa%, Eh tovtov Be tov CTaS-jJibv Ttcraa^epvrj^; eVe^a- 
V7]y ov<; T6 avTo^ iTTTrea^ ^XSev e)(cov fcal ttjv ^OpovTOV Bvva- 
[jiiv TOV TTJV /3a(TLXeG)<; S^vyaTepa expvTO<; zeal ov^ Kvpo<; e^^v 
dvejSif] fiap^dpov^y koX 0&9 ^aatXeco^ dBeX(f>o<; e^^v /3aacXe2 
i/SoriS-et, Kol 7rpo9 tovtol^ oaov^ /3acnXev^ eBcoKev auroS* 
coo-re TO crTpdTev/Jia irdfiTroXv i(j>dprj. 14. ^ETrel Be iyyv<; 
eyeveTO, tcl^ fxev tcov Td^ecov el^ev oincr^ev KaTacrTTjaa^, Ta<; 
Be ei9 Ta TrXdyta irapayaycbv i/jL^aXXetv /juev ovic eToXfJUTjaev 
ovS* i^ovXeTO BiaKivBvvevetv crcj^evBovav Be TraprjyyeCXe koX 
To^evecv. 15. ^Eirel Be BiaTa^^evTe^ oi ^PoBlol ia^evBovr)- 
crav fcal ol Xfcv^ai To^oTab eTo^evaav /cal ovBel<; "qjidpTavev 
dvBp6<;, ovBe yap el irdvv TrpoS^u/jbotTo paBuov rjv, kol 6 TtG-aa- 
<^epvr]<; fidXa Ta^^co^; e^co ^eXSov aTrex^peu fcal ai aXXav 
Ta^ei^ dire^dyprjaav. 16. Kal to Xolttov tt]^ Tji^epa^ oi jiev 
eTTopevovTOy oi 8' eiirovTO • KciX oviceTV eaivovTO ol ^dp/3apod 
TTJ t6t€ d/cpo/3oXLcr€C • fiafcpoTepov yap ol Te ^PoBlol tcov 
Uepaoov ia^evBovcov Kal tcov TrXetcTTcov to^ot&v, 17. Me- 
ydXa Be Kal Ta To^a Ta JJepaucd icTTiv • aScre ^PV^^f^^ V^ 
oiroaa dXlaKOLTo tcov TO^evfidTcov TO69 Kprjai* Kal BteTeXovv 
XP^P^evob Toh TCOV TToXe/JLLcov TO^ev/JLaat, kol i/jbeXeTcov TO^ev- 
ecv dvQ} levTe^ fiaKpdv. EvpicTKeTo Be Kal vevpa iroXXa iv 
Tah Kco/xaL^ Kal /x6Xv/3Bo^, SocjTe XRW'^^^ ^^^ '^^'? cr^ei/- 

18. KaL TavTTj fiev ttj rj/jLepa, iirel KaTecTTpaTOTreBevovTO 


LIB. III. CAP. IV. 83 

ol ^'EWrjve^ KcofjLac^; iTnrvxovre^;, aTrrfk^ov oi fidp/3apoc, 
fxelov €^ovT6^ iv TTj Tore aKpo^okiaet • Tr]v he eTnovcrav rjixi- 
pav cfieLvav ol ^'EXk7]ve<; koX eirecnTiaavTO • r}v yap ttoXv^ 
alro^ ev rai^ fccofJLac<;, Tfj 8' varepaia iiropevovTO Bca rod 
TreSiov, /cat Tiaaa^epvri^ etTrero aKpo^oXc^ofievof;, 19. "Ev- 
Ba Btf oi '^EX\7)V€<; eyvcoaav ore ifkaicnov laoifKevpov tto- 
VTjpa rd^t^ ecrj TroXefiicov eirofievcov. ^AvdyKrj ydp ia-rcv, rjv 
fiev GvyfcvTrrrj ra /cepara rov ifKaiaiov rj oSov arevcoTepa^ 
ovo-7](;, rj opicDV dvajKa^ovrcov rj ye^vpa^;, eKSXt/SecrJ^ac tov^ 
OTrXira^ koL iropevea^at irovrjpw^i dfia fiev Trie^o/jbivov^, ajia 
Be Kol raparrofjiivov^ • &(7Te Bva')(^pi]o-Tov<; elvav dvdr//c7j drd- 
KTOV<; 6vTa<;. 20. '^Orav S' av Bcaaxv tcl /cepara, dvdyfcrj 
BcaaTrdcr^ao tov<; rore i/c3\L^ofjLevov<; Kal Kevov ytyvecrSat rb 
fie(70V Tcov fcepdrcov Kal d^vfjuelv tov<; ravra 7rda')(pVTa<; rcov 
TToXefjLLcov eTTOfjievcov. Kal oirore Beoc ye^vpav Bia^aiveiv rj 
dWrjv TLva Bcd/Sacrcv, eairevBev eKaaro^ ^ov\6fjLevo<; (j)S^daaL 
7rp(OTo<;' Kal eveiri^eTOV rjv evrav^a roh iroXefitoc^, 21. 
^Eirel Be ravra eyvcoaav oi arparrjyoi, eTroLrjcravro e^ Xo^^pv^ 
dva eKarov dvBpa<^ Kal \o')(ayov<^ eirecrrrjaav Kal aX\ov<; 
irevrT]KOvrrjpa^ Kal oXkov^ evcoiiordp')(a^. Ovroc Be TTOpevo- 
/jbevoc oi Xo^ayoiy oirore fxev GvyKvirroi ra Kepara, vrrefievov 
varepoi, cocrre jult) evo')(Xelv rol^ Kepacrc* rore Be Traprjyov 
e^coS-ev r&v Kepdrcov, 22. ^Oirore Be Bida')(ptev ai irkevpal 
rov ifXaLaloVy rb fiecrov dve^eiripuifkacrav, el fiev crrevcorepov 
elirj rb Bie')(pv, Kara Xoypv^ • el Be rrXarvrepov, Kara irevrrj- 
Koarv<; • el Be irdw rfXarv, Kar eva)ixorla<; • ware del eKirke- 
cov ehac rb jieaov, 23. El Be Kal Bcafialvecv rcvd Beoc Bed- 
^aatv rj yecpvpav, ovk erapdrrovro, aXV ev rw fiepeo oi 
Xo')(ayol Bte^aivcv • Kal ev rrov Beoc re rrj^ (j)dXayyo<;, eTTCira- 
prjaav ovroc, Tovro) roJ rpOTTco irropevS^crav araSfioii^ 

24. 'HvLKa Be rbv nrefjiirrov eiropevovro elBov /3aaiXec6v 
re Kal rrepl avrb Kcofia<; iroXXd^;' rrjV re oBbv irpb^; rb ')((opLov 
rovro Bia yr]X6(f)cov v-^rfXoov ycyvo/jLevTjv, o? koStjkov dirb rov 
6pov<;, v(\> (p rjv Kcofjcrj, Kal elBov fiev rou? yr]X6(f>ov<; dafievoc 


ol ^'EXkTjve^, C09 elfco^, rcov 'irdXe/JLLcov ovrcov iiTTricov. 25. 
^Eirel Be iropevoiievoL i/c rod TreZiov avi^rjaav iirl tov irpco- 
Tov ^TjXo^ov KoX Kari^aivov, ft)9 iirl tov erepov dva^alev, 
ivrauBa iirLjiyvovrao ol /3dpfiapOL fcal diro tov vyJfrjXov eh 
TO irpave^ e^aWov, ea^evSovcov, eTo^evov viro piaaTuywv* 
26, Kal 7roWov<; KaTeTiTpcoafcov fcal e/cpuTrjcrav tcov ^EXki]- 
vcov ^vfivrjTccv koX /caTefcXecaav avTOv<; ecao) tcov ottXcov 
cocTTe TTavTairaai TavTrjv ttjv rjfiepav d')(pr]aToc rjaav ev t& 
o)(Xg) ovTe^ KoX ol G^evhovrjTat koX ol To^oTao, 27. 'Eirel Se 
irLe^ofxevoL ol ^^EXKrjve^ eTre^x^elpTjaav Bccofceiv, o'X'^^V f^^^ ^'ttI 
TO dfcpov d(^tKVovvTat oirXiTav ovTe^ • ol he TroXepnoi Ta^v 
dve7r7]S(ov. 28. UdXiv Be oiroTe dirloiev irpo^ to dWo aTpd- 
TevjULa, TavTCL eiracr')(pv • koX eirl tov BevTepov jtjXo^ov TavTct 
iycyveTO • coaTe diro tov TpiTov j7]\6(pov eBo^ev amol^ fifj 
Kivelv TOV<; cTpaTCooTa^; • Trplv diro ttj^ Be^cd^; ifXevpd<; tov 
TrXaicTiov dvrfjayov TreKTaaTa^ TTpo^ to opo^, 29. ^Eirel S* 
ovTOL eyevovTo virep tcov eirofievcov Tro\e[iLcov, ovfceTt eTreTi" 
SevTO ol TToXepLcoc Toi<; KaTa^alvovcri, BeBoiKOTe^ purj diroTfir]' 
^eir](jav teal ajxi^orepco^ev avTcov yevoivro ol iroXe/jLLOL, 30. 
OvTCO TO XocTTOv T7]<; rjfjuepa^ vropevo/Jievot, ol fiev Tjj oBS /caToi, 
T0U9 y7)\6(pov<;y ol Be fcaTa to opo<; iircTrapcovTe';, d^UovTO 
eh Ta^ Kcofia^y kol taTpoii^ KaTeaTTjaav oktco * 'iroXKol yap 
^crav ol TeTpcopLevoL, 

31. ^EvTav^a ejieivav ripLepa<; Tpeh teal t&v TeTpcopievwv 
evefca kol dfia eTTLTrjBeia woWd el^ov, dXevpa, olvov, KpL^d^ 
LTTTTOC^ €rvpb^epk7]pbeva<; TroWd^, TavTa Be (rvvT^yfieva rjv tm 
o-arpairevovTO t?)9 x^pa<;. TeTdpTjj S' ypiepa fcaTajSalvovcTCV 
eh TO ireBlov, 32. 'JEttcI Be KUTeXajSev avTov^ TLaaa(^epvr}<; 
Gvv TTj BvvdpLeCy eBlBa^ev avTOV^ 97 dvdyKT] KaTa(TKr]vr\(iai ov 
irpoiTov elBov Kcojurjv Kal pbf] Tropevea^ao eTi pba'Xpp^evov^' 
TToXKol yap rjaav diropba'xpi ol TeTpcopuevoty Kal ol eKelvov^ 
(f)epovTe<; Kal ol tcov ^epovTcov Ta oirXa Be^dpLevot. 33. 
Eirel Be KaTeaKijvrjcrav Kal e'7Te')(eiprjcTav avToh aKpo^oXc^e- 
cr^at ol ^dp/3apoL 7rpo9 ttjv Kcopbrjv irpocnovTe^, ttoXv irepci]- 
crav 01 ' EW7jve<; • ttoXv yap Bce(f>epov eK %c6pa9 oppLcovTe^ 

LIB. III. CAP. IV. 85 

aXi^aaSac rj Tropeuo/jievoo iinovac tqI^ nrokeiiioL^; fxa^ecrBac. 
34. 'HvLfca S* Tjv rj'^r) heiXr], &pa rjv airikvai rol^ 7roXe/x/o^9 ' 
ovirore jap fietov arrrecTTpaTOiTehevovTO ol /3dp^apoc rod 'EX- 

'K7]VLK0V k^TjlCOVTa (TTaBLCOV, (})0/30Vfl€J/0L /jLT) Tt)? VVKTO^ ol 

''EXk7]ve^ eTTcS-covTaL avTol<^, 35. Hovrjpov yap vvkto^ icTTO 
aTpdrevfJLa HepaLKOv. OX re jap liriroi avrol^ BeBevraL koI 
0)9 iirl TO TToXif ireTroBicTfievoi eial rod firj (pevyeiv evefca el 
XvBscrjcrav idv re tl^ ^6pv^o<; jijvrjTai, Bel eiricrd^ai tov 
Xttttov mpar} dvBpi, fcal ^(akivcoaaL Bel ical ScopaKcaS-ivra 
dva^rivai iirl tov lttttov. TavTa Be TrdvTa ')((ikeiTa iroielv 
vvKTcop fcal ^opv^ov ovTO^, Tov TOV eveKa iroppco direGKr]- 
vow tS)v ^EWijvcov, 

36. 'Eirel Be iyiyvcoo-fcov avTOv^ ol '^EWrjve^ /SovXo/jLe- 
vov^ dinevai fcal BcayyeWofjievov^, etcrjpv^e toI<^ '^EWtjctl 
arvcTKevd^eo-^ai aKovovrov Tcbv TroXefitcov. Kal ')(^p6vov fiev 
TLva eirea")(ov T7]<; iropeta^ ol ^dp^apoL, eTreiBr] Be o^jre eyiyve- 
TO, dirrjeaav • ov yap eBoKev \veiv avTol^ vv/crb^ TropeveaB^au 
Kal fcaTdyeaS^ac iirl to aTpaTOireBov. 37. 'ETrecBr] Be cra^S)^ 
diTLovTa'^ rjBT] ecopcov ol ^'EXKrjve^, eiropevovTO Kal avTol dva- 
^ev^avTe^, Kal BltjXS-ov oaov e^ijKovTa crTaBlov; • Kal ylyveTai 
ToaovTov fieTa^v tcov crTpaTevfidTcov cocrTe ttj vaTepala ovfc 
e^dv7]aav ol iroXefitoL ovBe tj} TpLTrj • Trj Be TeTdpTrj vvkto'^ 
TrpoeXSovTe^ KaTaXa/x^dvovac ')((opLOV virepBe^cov ol /3dp/3a- 
poLy y e/JbeWov ol ^^EW7]ve<; irapievaL, aKpcovv^lav opov^, v(^ 
rjV 7] KaTd^aai'^ r\v eh to ireBlov. 38. 'ETrecBr] Be ecopa Xec- 
piao^o^ 7rpoKaTec\7jfjL/jLev7]v ttjv dKpcovv')(^Lav, KaXel ^evo^oyv- 
Ta aTTo T^9 ovpd<; Kal KeXevec XafiovTa tov^ 7reXTaaTa<; 
Trapayevea^ai eh to irpoaS-ev, 39. ^O Be "Sevocpcov tou9 j^ev 
TreXTacTa'; ovk rjyev • eTrt^atvofxevov yap ecopa Ttaaac^epvrjv 
Kal TO (TTpaTevfia nrav avTo^ Be TrpoaeXdcra^ rjpoiTa' Tl 
KaXeh ; 'O BeXeyev avTtp* "E^eaTLV opav TrpoKaTeiXrjTTTaL 
yap Tjixlv 6 virep Trj<; KaTa^daeco<; X6(j)o^, Kal ovk ecTTL irapeX- 
Belv, el fjbf] TOVTOV^ diroKoy^ofiev. ^AXXa tL ovk fjye^ tov<^ 
7reXTacrTd<i ; 40. 'O Se Xeyec otl ovk eBoKec avTw eprjfjia 
KaTaXnrelv tcl oirLcrBev TroXe/xicov i'7rc(f>aivo/Mevciov. ^AXX^ 


fjLr]v &pa y, €cj>7], ^ovkevecr^at ttw tc^ tou9 dvBpa<; aireka 
airo Tov \6(j)ov, 41. ^Evrav^a ^evo^cov 6 pa rod 6pov<i rrjv 
Kopv(f>r]v virep avrov tov iavr&v crrparevfjiaTO^; ovaav, KaX 
CLTTO TavTT]^ €^o8ov eTTL TOV Xo^ov ev^a rjaav oi TToXe/JLioc, /cat 
Xiyev KpaTtaTOV, & Xecpiao^e, rjiuv tea^av co? TayicrTa 
IttX to CLKpov ' riv yap tovto Xd^oy/Jbev, ov hwrjaovTav fjuevetv 
oi vTrep Tr]<; oBov. ^AW\ el ^ovXec, fieve eVl tco GTpaTev- 
[laTi ' iycb Se iS^iXco iropevea^aL • el he %/?j?fet9, TTopevov eVl 
TO opo^y ejo) Be fievc!) avTov. 42. ^AWa SlBco/jlI croc, e(p7j o 
XeipCao^o^;, OTroTepov fiovXet, eXecrS^aL, EIttoov 6 'Sevocj^cop 
OTL vea)Tep6<; icTTCV, alpelrat Tropeveo-^at • KeXevei Be oi (tv/m- 
nreii-y^ac airo tov (TT6fJLaT0<; avBpa<; • fia/cpav yap rjv airo Tri<^ 
ovpd^ Xaj3elv, 43. KaX 6 XecpL(70(j)o^ cvfiTre/jiTrei, tov^ cltto 
TOV cTTOfJuaro^ 7reXTacrTd<; ' eXa/3e Be tov<; KaTo, fjueaov tov 
irXatalov. Xweirea^ai 8' etceXevcrev avroy KaX Toif^ Tpca- 
KocTiov<; 0&9 avTo<; el)/e tcov eTrcXifCTcov eirX tS aTOfJuaTO tov 

44. ^EvTevS-ev eiropevovTO co9 eBvvavTo Td')(^b(TTa. 01 S' 
€776 TOV Xo^ov TToXe/jLcot, CO? ivoTjcrav avTO)v TTjv TTopeiav eirX 
TO dfcpov, ev^v<; KaX avToX a)p/JL7]crav djuLcXXdaS^ao eirX to 
aKpov. 45. KaX evTav^a iroXXr} /xev Kpavyrj rjv tov ^EXXt)- 
VLKOv crTpaTevfiaTO<; BtaKeXevofjbevcov T0t9 eavTcov • iroXXr] Be 
Kpavyrj to)V dfic^X Tco'aa(j)epvr]v tol<; eavTcov BcaKeXevo/jLevoov. 

46. aevocj)(i)v Be irapeXavvcov iirX tov lttttov irapeKeXeveTO • 
"AvBpe<;, vvv eTrX Trjv ^EXXdBa vofxi^eTe dfiLXXdaS^av, vvv irpo^ 
Tov^ iralBa^ KaX tcl^ yvvalfca^y vvv oXtyov TrovrjaavTe^ dfia')(eX 
Trjv XoLTTrjv iropevcropbe^a, ^coTr]piBa<; Be 6 ^lkvcovlo^; elirev • 

47. OvK e^ LcroVj & aevocj^cjv, icr/jiev • av fiev yap i<j> lttttov 
oxfjy €70) Be %a\e7ra)9 KafJuvcD Trjv dairiBa ^epcov. 48. KaX 09 
uKovcra^ TavTa KaTaTrrjBTjcra^ diro tov lttttov, oD^^ecTat avTov 
€K Tr]<; Td^eco^ KaX Trjv daiTiBa d^eX6fjL€V0<; <h<; iBvvaTO Td- 
'X^LO'Ta, eiTopeveTo, ^ETvy')(ave Be KaX S^copaKa e')(cov tov itt- 
TTCKov coaTe eiTtei^eTo. KaX Toh fiev e/JLTTpoaSev viTdyecv 
TTapeiceXeveTO, toI<; Be oiTia^eVy TTapievai, jjloXl^ eirofjuevoc^. 
49. Oi 8' dXXoL aTpaTLcoTao Traiovo-c KaX fidXXovcrc KaX X06- 




hopovcTL Tov ^corrjpiSav, eare rjvwyKaaav Xafiovra rfjv acTr/- 
Ba TTOpevea^au 'O he ava^d^, €co<; fxev /Sdac/jLa rjv, cttI tov 
LTTTTOV fjyev • iirel Be ajSara fjVy KaraXtTrcbv rbv lttttov eorTrev- 
Be Tre^TJ. Kal (j)Bdvovcnv iirl rS uKpco yevdiievoi tov<; irdXe- 


CAP. V. 

1. "EvSa Bv oi jjLev ^dp/3apoc arpai^evTe^ €(j)evjov § efca- 
(TTO<; iBuvaro* ol S' ^^EXkrjve^ el^ov to ccfcpov. Oi Be dfi<pl 
TLcraa(f)epv7]v /cat ^Apialov aTroTpaTrofievoi aXXrjv oBov qi')(0V' 
TO • OL Be dfjLcf)! Xecplcro^op, KaTa^dvTe<^ eh to TreBiov, idTpa- 
ToireBevaavTO ev tcco/jbrj fieaTy ttoWcov dyaScov. '^Haav Be 
Kol oKkav KcofiaL TroWal ifKrjpeL^ rrroWcov dyaScop ev tovto) 
Tfp TreBicp 'jrapd tov TcyprjTa TTorafiov, 2. ^Hvifca S' yv BeL- 
Xt], e^airiVT]^ ol TroXe/JLCot eTrccjyalvovTao ev toj TreBitp, kol t&v 
^EWrjvcov KaTeKO'yjrdv Ttvm tmv icrfceBacfjievcov ev tS ireBiM, 
KoJy dpTrayrjv • /cat yap vofjcal TroWal /SocTKrj/jLdTcov Bta^L^a- 
^ofjievac eh to irepav tov nroTa/jiov icaTeXrj^^aav, 3. 'JEz;- 
TavS-a Tccraacj^epvr]^ fcal ol crvv avTO) /calecv eire')(eipr}aav tcl^ 
fcciOfjLa<;. Kal tcov 'EXX'^vcov jidXa rjBv/jLrjcrdv Ttve<;, evvoovfie- 
VOL fir] TCI eTTLTTjBeLa, el /cacocev, ovfc e'^otev OTro^ev Xafx^d- 
vocev. 4. Kal ol fiev djjicj^l Xetplaocj^ov diryeaav etc tt}? 
^07]^eLa^ • Be ^evo^cjv eirel KaTe/Sr], "jrapeXavvcov ra? ra- 
^6^9 TjvUa diro ttj^ ^orjS^eta^ dirrjVTrjaav ol ^'EXXrjve^ eXeyev 
5. 'OpaTe, S dvBpe<; ^^EXXTjve^;, v(j)LevTa<; ttjv j(d>pav rjBr] 
'^jieTepav elvai ; a yap OTe eairevBovTO BteirpdTTOVTO, firj 
Kaieiv Tr]v ^a(nXeco<; ')(a)pav, vvv amol Kaiovaiv a)9 aXXo- 
Tplav. ^AXXd idv irov KaTaXlircocri ye avToh tcl eircTi^Beta, 
o-^ovTac Kal rj/jid^; evTav^a iropevopievov^, 6. ^AX\!, & Xec- 
ptcTocj^e, e^T], BoKel [jlov ^orjS^elv eirl tov^ KalovTa<^ 6)<; virep 
T?)9 rjfieTepa<;, ^O Be XeLpiao(^o<; elrrev Ovkovv e/ioiye 
BoKec • dXXd Kal rj/ie?^, €(f>7], Katcofjuev, Kal ovtco ^clttov irav- 

7. 'JETrel S' eirl Ta9 <TK7]vd^ aTrfjXSqVy ol fiev aXXoi irepl 


Ta eiTiTriZeLa rjaavy crrparrjyol 8e fcal Xoxctjol crvvrjXSov, 
Kal evrav^a ttoWi) airopia rjv. "Ev^ev fiev yap opr) 
rjv vTTepvyfrrjXa, ev^ev Be 6 Trora/JLo^ toctovto^ to /3d^o^ 
0)9 /jL7]Be Ta hopaTa vTrepex^iv TreipcofJiivoL^ tov fid^ov^. 
8. ^A7ropovfJbivoc<; Be avTol^ TrpocreXScov tc<; dvrjp 'PoBio^ 
elirev • 'Eycb BeXco, w dvBpe<;, Bca/St/Sda-aL vjjbd^; kutcC TeTpa- 
icidxO^l'OV^ oifKLTa^, av epbol oiv Beofiai vTrrjpeTTjarjTe Kal 
TaXavTov jjlkt^ov ^iropccrTjTe. 9. 'EpcoTdi)iJLevo<^ Be otov BeocTO, 
^Aaxcbv, 6^7], BLa')(p\.icov BerjCOfiaL • iroXKa Be opco TavTa irpo" 
^aTa Kal alya<; Kal /3ov^ Kal ovov^y a diroBapevTa Kal ^vaT}- 
S-ivTa paBloD^ av irape-xpb Trjv Bcd/3acrcv. 10. Aeijcro/iat Be 
Kal T&v Becr/jLcov oh XPW'^^ irepl tcl vTro^vyca • tovtol<; ^ev- 
^a9 TOV<^ d(TK0V<^ 7rpo<^ dXKrjXov^, opfJULcra^ efcaaTOV daKov 
XiS-ov^ dpT7]cra<; Kal d(j)el^ cocrirep dyKvpa<;, eh to vBcop Be 
dyaycbv Kal d/ji^oTepcoS-ev Brjaa^y i7n/3aX(o iiXrjv Kau yrjv 
ein^oprjaco, 11. '^On (mIv ovv ov KaTaBvcreaBe avrcKa fJudXa 
e'caeaS-e • ttS? yap d(7Ko<; Bvo dvBpa<^ e^ec tov fJLrj KaToBvvav • 
wcrre Be /jlt) oXicr^dveiv t] vXtj koI "q yrj G-j(fj(Tei, 

12. ^AKova-acrc TavTa Toh aTpaTijyoh to (xev ev^vfirjiia 
^(apiev eBoKei elvac, to Be epyov dBvvaTOV • ri^av yap ol kco- 
XvcTovTe^ irepav ttoXXoI linreh, oi €v3^v<; Toh TrpcoToi^ ovBev 
dv eireTpeTTOv tovtcov iroielv, 13. ^EvTavBa ttjv fjbkv uaTe- 
paiav eTrave')((i)povv eh TovfjiiraXtv [^] irpo^ Ba^vXcova eh 
Td<; dKavcTTOV^ Kco/Jba^, KaTaicavaravTe<; ev^ev e^fjeaav • aJcrre 
oi TToXefjicoL ov TrpocrriXavvoVy dXXd iSecovTO Kal o/jlolol rjaav 
Sav/jbd^ecv ottov iroTe TpeyfrovTao ol '^EXXrjve^ Kal tl ev vco 
e')(piev, 14. 'EvTav^a ol fiev dXXoo c7TpaTcS)Tac dfJL(pl Ta 
i7rcT7]Beca ^crav ol Be crTpaTrjyol Kal ol Xo')(ayol irdXiv 
avvriX^oVy Kal o'vvayay6vTe<; tov^ al')(jJLaXcoTOV<; i]Xeyxov ttjv 
kvkX(o irdaav %ft)pai; Th eKdaTTj eoTj. 15. 01 S* eXeyov otl 
Ta [lev irpo^ fiecnj/i^plav Tf]<; eirl Ba^vXcova ecrj Kal MrjBiaVy 
Bl ^airep rjKOLev t] Be Trpo^ eco iirl Sovo-d re Kal ^EK/3dTava 
^epoLy ev^a ^epi^ecv Kal eapL^etv XeyeTai ^acriXev^' t) Be Bta- 
^dvTL TOV TTOTafjbbv 7rpo9 eairepav iirl AvBiav Kal ^Icovtav ^e- 
pot • ^ Be Bed tS)v opecov Kal 77/309 apKTOv T€Tpa/JbfJLevr) otc eh 

LIB. III. CAP. V. 89 

Kaphov)(pv^ ayoc. 16. Tovrou^ S* ecpaaav olfcelv ava ra oprj 
Kol TToXe/jLLKOv^ elvai /cal j^aaCkeco^ ovic aKoveiv • aXka icaX 
i/ji/SdXeLV iTore eU avrov^ (3acrtkuc7]v crrparcdv, BcoSeica (iv- 
piuoa^ • rovTcov Se ovheva aTrovoo-rrjcraL Bca rrjv BuG-')(^copLav • 
GiTore [levTOi 7rpo<; tov crarpdTTTjV rbv ev tco ireSup air^i- 
aaiVTOy KOL liriiiiyvvvai (T(j)(bv re 7r/309 iiceivov^ koX i/c€LPcov 

17. ^Afcovaavre^ Se ravra ol cTTparTjyol ifcdS^caav %<5)pl? 
Tov^ eicaaTa')(oae (jyacr/covra^ elSevat, ovBev SrjXov iroiricravTe^ 
OTTOL TTopevecr^ai efxeXkov. ^E86/cet Se toI^ aTpaT7]yol<^ dvay- 
Koiov elvai Sta rcov opicov eh Kaphov^ov<; ipi/SdXkecv • tov- 
T0U9 yap SieXMvras ecpaaav ek ^ApjuLevlav rj^euvy rj<^ 'Opovra^ 
rjp'x^ nToXXrj<^ kol evhaifJbGvo<;, 'EvrevSev Be eviropov e<^acrav 
elvai oiTGL TL^ eS-eXec Tropevea^au 18. ^Eirl tovtol^; e^v- 
aavTO, oTTco^, OTrrjvlfca fcal Boicoltj tt}^ wpa<;, rrjv iropeiav 
TTOLOLVTO ' TTjv ydp VTTep^oXrjv Tcbv opecov eBeBoL/cecrav fjurj 
irpQKaraXrj^iB^eLri • koI TrapTjyyeiXav, eTrecBr) BeiTrvrjcreLaVy 
avve(rf€evacrfievov<; irdyras dvairavea^aL, teal eireoSav rjvLFs 
av Tcs TTapayyelXy. 





CAP. I. 

1. ^^OXA fjbev Brj iv rfj dva/3da€t i^evero ixi'X^pi Tfj<i fidr 
')(r]<;, Kol ocra fjLera rrjv fJ^d'xrjv iv ra?? (nrovBal'; a? ^aaCKev^ 
Kol ol avv Kvp(p dva^dvT€<; '^EW7]ve<; iaTrelcravTOy koI oaa 
irapajSdvTG^ rd^ airovSa^ ^acrCKeco^ kol Tcao-acpepvov^; iirO' 
\efir}^'q irpo<^ rov^ ^'EXKriva<^ eiraKokov^ovvTO^ rod JJepaiKOv 
arpareviMaro^, iv rS 7rp6a3-€V Xojm BeB7]\coTac. 2. ^Eirel Be 
d(j)tKOVTO evSa 6 fjiev Tiyprj^; TroTafib^; nravrdiratTLV diropo^ rjv 
Bed TO /3dSo<; /cat fjLeye3^o<;, 7rdpoBo<; S' ovfc rjv, dXkd rd Kap- 
Bov')(jLa opt) aTTOTO/jLa virep avrov rod irora/jLOv i/cpe/jLaro, 
iSoKEt Srj TOL^ (TTpaT7jyot<; Bed Tcov opecDV iTopevreov etvac. 3. 
"Hkovov jdp TCOV akccTKOfiivcov OTL el BteX^otev Td KapBov- 
yia opr], iv ttj ^Apfievia ra? irrj^d^ tov TLyprjTO<; iroTUfJiov, 
rjv jmev ^ovKwvTai, Bia^rjCTOVTai • fjv Be /jlt} ^ovXcovTac, Trepu- 
aac, Kal tov EvippaTOV re ra? irriyd<; iXeyeTO ov irpocrco 
TOV TiyprjTO^ elvat • koI eaTiv ovtco aTevov. 4. Tr]v S' eh 
TGv^ KapBov^ov^ ifjL^oXrjv coSe iroLOvvTai, dfia jxev Xa^elv 
ireLpcofjbevoi, a/ia Be (})9^do-aL Trplv tou9 7ro\efiiov<; fcaTaXa^elv 
Ta d/cpa. 5. ^ETreiBr} 7]v djui^l ttjv TeXevTalav (pvXaKrjv Kol 
iXenreTo tt)? vvkto<; oaov crKOTaiov^ BieX^elv to ireBioVy ttjvl- 
Kama avaaTavTe^ diro TrapayyeXaeco^; iropevofievot dcfa/cvovv- 
Tat dfia Tfi rj/xepa 7rpo9 to opo9. 6. "EvSa Brj Xevplao^o^ 
fiev rjyelTO tov (TTpaTevfiaTo<^ Xa^cbv to d/jucj) avTov xal tov<: 

LIB. IV. CAP. I. 91 

fyvjJLvrjra^ iravra^ • ^evo(pcov Se avv tol^ oTrcaS^otpvXa^tv 
67r\iTaL<; eiirero ovBeva e)(^cov yvfiVTjra • ovBeU yap klvBvvo^ 
iB6fC€L elvai /ht] tl<; avco TTOpevo/jievcov eic rod OTrcaS^ev eV/- 
(TTTOLTO. 7. Kal eirl fjuev to d/cpov dva/Satvec X€LpLcro(po^ Trpiv 
TLva ala^ea^au rcov TroXe/jLicov • eireira he v^rjyelro • e<^et- 
Trero Se del to virep^dWov tov aTpaTeviiaTO<^ el^ Td<; fccofjLa<; 
ra? iv TOL<^ dyKecri re fcal jJ^v^ol^ t&v opecov, 

8. "Ev^a Bt) oi fiev KapBov^oc eK\c7r6vT€<; ra? olfcta^ 
€)(pVTe<; /cal yvvalica^ /cat 7raLBa<; ecpevyov eTrl to, oprj • tu S' 
iiriTijBeLa iroWd rjv \a/ji^dvetv, rjaav Be koX '^((xKKiniacn 
irajJiiroXkoL^ KaTeo-fcevaafiivat al ol/ccai, o)v ovBev ec^epov ol 
'^EXKrjve^' ovBe rou? dv9-pco7rov<; eBicotcov, v7ro(peLB6/jLevoL, el 
'TTco^ iSeXrjaecav ol KapBov-)(pi Buevao avT0v<; co? Bud c^tXta? 
T?}9 'X^copa^, eireiiTep ^aaCkel TroXificot rjaav* 9. Td fievTOL 
iiTLT'ijBeca 6t(0 tl<^ iirLTvy^dvoL eKafJu^avov • dvdyKTj yap rjv, 
01 Be KapBov^oc ovTe koXovvtcov vtttjkovov ovTe dWo to 
(^CKlkov ovBev eiroiovv. 10. ^Eirel Be ol TeXevTaloc tcov 'EX- 
XtJvcov KaTe^atvov eh ra? fccofjLa<; dirb tov dicpov 7]Br] gko- 
Taloi, {Bid ydp to crTevfjv elvat ttjv oBbv oXrjv ttjv rj/jbipav r} 
dvdfiao-L^ avTOL'^ eyeveTO Kal /caTa^aac^; eh Td<; KOtyfia^,) t6t6 
Br] auWeyivTe<; Tcve^ tcov KapBov')(0)v Toh Te\evTaLOC<; eVe- 
S-evTO, Kal direKTeivdv Tiva<; Kal \lSoc<^ Kal To^evfjiacrc Kore- 
rpcoo-av, oXiyoo Tcve<; ovTe^ • € J dirpoG-BoKTjTov ydp avToh 
eTreireae to 'EWrjvLKov. 11. El fievToc TOTe '7r\eiov<; awe- 
\iyr](rav, eKivBvvevaev dv Bca^d^aprjvai ttoXv tov crTpaTevfjia' 
To^. Kal TavTTjv fMev Trjv vvKTa ovtco<; iv Tah Kco/jLaL<; tjvXl- 
aBrjaav ol Be KapBov')(pL irvpd TroXkd eKacov kvkX^ iirl 
tS)V opecov Kal avvecopcov dWi]\ov^. 

12. ^'Afxa Be tj} rjfjiepcz avveXSovcn Toh (TTpaT7jyoc<; Kal \o- 
'}(ayoh TCOV ^EWijvcov eBo^e tcov re viro^vylcov Td dvayKala 
Kal BuvaTcoTaTa iropevecr^aL e)(^ovTa<;, KaTaXtirovTa^; Td dWa, 
Kal OTTocra rjv vecodTl al')(jjLd\coTa dvBpdiroBa iv ttj crTpaTia 
TrdvTa d(f>eLvat. 13. ^')(o\aLav ydp eTroiovv ttjv nropelav 
TToWd ovTa Td vrro^vyca Kal Td al')(jjid\coTa • Kal iroXKol Be 
ol iwl TOVTOi^ ovTe^ diroixa'^pL rjcrav • BcTrXdaid re ra iiTLTri' 


Beta eBei Tropl^earS-at, fcal (^epecr^at nroXkcov rcov av^panrcov 
oPTcov. Ao^av he ravra ifcrjpv'^av ovrco iroielv. 

14. ^Eirel Sa apicrTrjaavre^ eTTOpevovro, VTrocTTavre^ iv 
GTevco ol (TTpaTTjyol et rt evpicTKOLev tS)v elprjfiivcov /jltj acj^ti- 
[levov a^rjpovPTO • ol S' eTrel^ovTO, ttXtjv ec tl<^ tl e/cXeyfrev, 
olov Tj 7Taiho<^ eirL^VfJiriaa^; rj <yvvaiKo^ TOdV evTTpeirSiv. KoX 
TavT7}V fiev rrjv rj/jiepav ovtco<^ eiropevB^rjaav, ra [lev tl p^a')(Q' 
pievob ra Be koX avairavofievoi, 15. El<^ he rrjv varepaiav 
fyiyverac ^et/iwz/ 7ro\v<;, avajKatov S' rjv iropeveaS^at • ov yap 
Tjv LKava Ta iTnrrjheca. Kal rjyelro /xev XecpLao(j>o<;, oTrcaS^o- 
(^vkuKei, he 'Eevo^chv, 16. Kal ol irokefxioi la')(yp(o<; eireTt' 
S-evTOj Kal arevwv ovtcov T(hv ')(0)pL(DV iyyvs 7rpoatGvr€<; 
iro^euov fcal ea(^evh6v(ov' iocrre r)vaytcdfyvTO ol ^^EXkrjve^ 
i'7rchLcofcovT€<; Kal irakiv ava')/d^ovTe<; crxoXfj iropevecr^ai* Kal 
J^afJicvct iraprjyyeWev 6 *Bevot^(bv virofxeveiv, ore ol iTo\efiLOi 
la')(ypw eiTLKeoLVTO, 17. "EvS^a 6 Xetptao^o^ dWore [xev 
ore irapeyyvfpTO virejieve, rore he ov^(^ vTrifievev, d\X rjye 
Ta')/C(o<; Kal Traprjyyva eTrecr^ai • ccare hrjkov rjv on it pay [id 
TL elrj • a'yokr] he ovk ?}V Ihelv rrapeXS^oPTL to atTLOv ti)^ 
G7rovhri<^ • &<JTe 7] iropeia ofJLoia (j)vyf]<; iyiyveTO tol<; OTTLaSo- 
(j}vXa^L. 18. Kal ivTavBa diro^vrjaKeL dvrjp dya^b<; AaKco- 
viKo^ KX€d>vvfio<^ To^evS^el^ hLa r?}? dairiho^; Kal ttj^ <7To\dho<^ 
eh Ta^ ifKevpd<^, Kal Bacrla^; ^ApKa^ htafxirepe^; eh ttjv Kec^a- 
\rjv, 19. ^Eirel he ddiiKOVTO iirl aTaS-jJiop, ev3-v<; coairep 
el')(ev 6 ^evo^cbv ek^cbv 7rpo9 top XeLpLao(pov rjTiaTO avTov 
OTL ov')(^ vTre/jieLvev, a)OC rjvayKd^ovTO (j>evyovTe^ afxa /^a^€- 
a^aL. Kal vvv hvo KaXco re KayaS^co dvhpe Te^vaTov Kal 
ovTe dveXeaSaL ovTe ^dyjraL avTco ehvvdfjie^a* 20. ^AiroKpi" 
VcTaL 7rpo9 TavTa 6 XeLptao^o^ • BXe^oVy €<p7]y 7rpo9 Ta opTj 
Kal the 0)9 d^aTa irdvTa IgtL Mca he avTrj 6S09 tjv 6pa<; 
op^ia* Kal iirl TavTrj dv^pcowcov opav e^ecTTL <tol 6')(\ov to- 
aovTov, 00 KaT€LX7](fi6Te<; (pvXdrTOvaL ttjv eK^aaLV. 21. Tav- 
Ta eyco ecnrevoov Kal hua, tovto ae ovy viripLevov, el' 7ra)9 hv- 
vaifirjv ^"^daaL irph KaTecXrjcp^aL ttjv vTrep^oXrjV ' ol he 
i]ye/i6ve<; ov^ exop^ev ov (paacp ehaL dXXrjv ohov. 22. 'O hi 

LIB. IV. CAP. II. 93 

U^vo^cov \ey€L' ^AX>C iyco e^co hvo avhpa<;, ^Eirel yap 
rj/jLLU Trpdyfiara irapel^ov, €vr]8p€vaa/jbev, birep rj/xd^; /cat ava-^ 
TTvevaat irroLTjae, fcal aireiCTeivaiJbev TLva^ avTchv^ fcal ^Mvra^ 
'rrpov'^Vfi7]^r]fjLev Xa^elv avrov tovtov evetcev oirco^ rjyejJLoaiv 
elBoac TTjv '^copav y^prjaaiiJLe^a, 

23. Kal ev^v^ ayayovres rov^ dv^pcoirou^; ijXey^ov Sea- 
\a/36vT6^ €L TLva eiSelev aXXrjv 686v rj rrjv cj^avepdv, 'O fxlv 
ovv erepos ovic €(f)7] Kal jxaXa iroXXcov ^6j3wv 7rpoaayofxev(s)v • 
iirel he ovSev o)(f>6XtfjLov eXeyev, 6pcovTo<; rod irepov fcare- 
acpdyr], 24. O Be XoL7ro<; eXe^ev on ovro^ fiev ov (j^alrj Bia 
ravra elSivat ore avrco ^vyydveL ^vydrrjp €Ket 'rrap dvBpl 
i/cSeSoijiePTj' avTO<^ S* e^r] 7]yrj(Te(T^ai Suvarrjv fcal v7ro^vyioi<; 
TTopevea^at 686v, 25. ^EpcoTco/jLevo<; S' el e'lrj rt iv avry 
BvaTrdptTOV ^(copiov ecj)!] elvav dicpov o el fir) tc<; Trpo/caraXT]- 
'ylrocTO ddvvarov ecrea^at TrapeX^ecv. 26. ^Evrav^a iSo/ceL 
GvyKoXeGavra^ Xoyayovs Kal 7reXTacrTd<; Kal tcov ottXctcov 
Xeyetv re rd irapovra Kal ipcorav eo Tt<; avrcov earcv oart^ 
dvrjp dya^bg e^eXot dv yevea^at dv Kal vTroard^; i^eXovrrjf; 
TTOpevea^ai, 27. 'Tc^iaTavTai rwv jxev ottXct^u ^Apcarcovv^ 
fjio^^ Me'^vSpcev'^ ^ApKd<^ Kal ^Ayaala^ Srv/ncf^dXto^; ^ApKd^, 
dvTLO'Taacd^cov Be avroc^ KaXXt/jba'^O'^ Happdatos ^ApKa^ Kal 
ovTo<; e<p7] e^eXecv iropevea^aL irpoaXa^cov i^eXoPTd<; eK Trav- 
TO^ Tov crparevpLaTO^;. ^Eyay ydp^ 6(^77, olSa ort eylrovrac 
TToXXol Tccv vicov e/jLov rjyovjuievov, 28. ^Ek tovtov epcoTcoacv 
et TL<; Kal twv yvfxvrjToov Ta^iap-^cov e^eXoi avfiTropevea^ai. 
'Tcj^iaTaTac ^ApcaTea^ Xlo^^ 09 rrroXXa'^ov ttoXXov d^LO^ ttj 
GTpaTca eh Ta TocavTU eyeveTo* 

CAP. !!• 

1. Kal rjv fjuev BelXr) ^S?;, ol 8' cKeXevov avTOv^ e/i^a- 
yovTa^ iropevea^ai • Kal tov rjyeiJLova BriaavTe<; TrapaBcBoaatv 
avTols ' Kal cwTL^evTaL ttjv fiev vvKTa, rjv Xd^axn to dxpov, 
TO j(a>pLov (^vXdTTeiv ' afxa he Ty Vf^ipa t^ adXTTcyyt arjfjLai- 


V6CV • Kol Toi)^ ixev avco 6vTa<; livai iirl tov^ Karexovra^ rr)^ 
(})av6pav etc^aaiv • avrol Se av/Ji/3o7)'^7]a€LV €K^aivovTe<; o)? av 
Bvpcovrav rdxi'C^Ta. 2. Tavra avv'^i/JLevoi ol /j.ey eiropevovTO 
nrXipo^ ft)? Stax^^t^oc • fcal vScop ttoXv rjv e| ovpavov • Hei/o- 
^(hv he exf^v '7*0^? oino^Q^vKaKa^ rjyetTO irpos rrjv ^avepav 
e/c^aatVj ottco^ Tavrrj rfj oSw ol 'iroXe/JiLOC Trpoaexotev rov vovv 
Koi ft)9 fjidXiara Xa^oLev 7repu6vT€<;. 3. 'jEttcI Se rjaav irrl 
XapdSpa ol 67r(.a^o^v\aKe<; fjv ehei hca/3dvTa^ Trpo^ to op^cou 
iKJSaivecv, TrjvL/cavTa etcvXivhovv ol /3dp^apoo oXocrpoxovi 
dfia^calov^ koX jxeli^ov^ kol eXdrrov^ [Xt^ou?], ol ^epofxevoc 
7r£?o9 Ta9 7reTpa<^ irraLOVTe^; SceacpevSovcovro • Kav iraVTairaaLV 
ovBe ireXdaai olov r rjv rfj elcrohcp, 4. ^'Evlol he tcop Xox^- 
ySiv, el fJbTj Tavrrj hvvacvroj aXXj) eireipSiVTo • kul TavTa 
eTTOLovv p^^XP^ (JKOTos ejkveTO, ^ErreX he wovto d<l>avel^ eivau 
aTTLovTe^, Tore cuTrrp^ov iirl to hecTrvov iTvyx^t'Vov he koX 
dvdpio'TOL 6vTe<; avTcov ol oincr^o^vXaKrjaavTes. Ol pbevroL 
TToXep^LOL, <^ojBovp.evoi hrjXov otl qvS* iiravaavTO he 0X779 t?59 
PVKT0<; KvXLvhovvTe<; T0U9 Xi^ov^ • TeKpLaipea^ac 8' rjv tS 
yjro^cp. 5. 01 he ex^VTe^ top rjjefxova^ kvkXco Trepuovrei Ka- 
TaXapb/Sdvovac Toi;9 (j>vXaKa^ dpicj)t irvp KcC^rjpuevov^* fcal tov<; 
fiep KaraicapoPTe^ tovs he KaTahcco^apre^ avrol eprav^a e/ze- 
vop 0)9 TO a/cpop fcarixopre^, 6. 01 S* ov Karetxop, dXXa 
pLaorro^ rjp vrrep avrcop Trap op rjp t] crrepr] avrrj 6ho<; e(j> y 
i/cd^rjPTo ol ^vXaKe^, ^'Ecppho^ pLeproi avro^ep errl tov^ tto- 
XepLLov^; rjp ot iirl rfj (papepa 6ha> e/cd^7]PT0, 

7. Kal rrjp puep pvKra eprav^a hirjyayop. ^Errel he rjpLe- 
pa vrre^aipep eiropevopro crcyfj avpreraypLepoL iirl tov<^ TroXe- 
p,iov<^' Kal yap opbixXr] iyepero, axrre eXa^op iyyv<; Trpoa--. 
eX^oVre?. 'jEttcI he elhop dXXrjXov^;, y re adXiruy^ eVe^^ey- 
^aro Kal dXaXd^apre^; ol '^EXXrjpe^ lepro eirl tov<; dp^pcD- 
rrov<y • 01 h ovK ihe^apTO^ dXXa Xt7r6pre<^ rrjp ohop <f>evyopre^ 
oXiyoL CLTrd^PTjaKOP • ev^copot y^p rjcrap, 8. 01 h' dpi(f)l 
XeipLcocpop aKovaapre^ T779 ddXTTiyyo^ ev^v<i cepro dpco Kara 
T7]p ^apepap ohop* ciXXoi he tcjp aTparrjycop Kara drpL^eh 
ohov^ eiropevopro y ervxop GKaarot 6pTe<;, fcal dpa^dpT€<; w 

LIB. IV. CAP. II. 95 

iSvvavTO dvifjicov dWijXov^ rols Bopaac, 9. Kal ovrot irpco- 

TOL GVVeflL^aV Tol^ TrpOKaToXa^OVCTL TO ^((OpLOV. 'Bi€VO(pO)V Se, 

e^cov Tcju oTna^ocj^vXciKoop rov^ rjfiLa6t<i, irropevero fjirep ol 
TOP r]^eii6va e'^ovre^ • evoScoTdrrj jdp rjv rol^i vTro^uytoL^ • 
Tov^ S' rjfjiLaec^ oTTLo^ev tcov vTro^vyicov era^e. 10. Uopevo- 
fievoL S' ivTvyx^dvovcrt \6cj)(p virep Tr}<^ oSov /careLXTj/jL/jiivcp vtto 
tS)V TroXe/uLLCop, ou? 7] aTTOKoyJraL rjv dvdyKrj rj Ste^ev^^at diro 
Tcbv dWcov 'EWtjvcop, Kal avrol fieu dv i'jropev'^ijaav f)7rep 
ol aXkoc ' rd 8' VTTO^vyca ovic rjv dXKrj rj Tavrr) i/c^rjvac, 11. 
"JEz^^a 8r] irapaKekevadfievoL dXkrjXot^ Trpoa/SdWovac Trpo? 
TOP \6(^op 6p^ioc<; T0?9 X6')(^oL^j ov kv/cXg) dXXd KaraXiiroPTe^ 
d(f)oSop Tols 'TToXe/uiLOLg, el /3ovXotPTO (pevyeLP, .12. Kal rew? 
fiep avTov^ dpa/3aiP0PTa<^ ottt] iSvpavTo €/cacrTO<; ol ^dp^apoi 
iro^evop Kal e^aXXop, iyyv^ S" ov TrpocrievTOy dXXd ^vyfj 
XeLTTOvaL TO 'XwpLOP, Kal tovtop t€ irapeXriXv^eaav ol ^ EX- 
Xr}P€<; Kal erepop opcoacp e/jLTTpoa^ep X6(j)op Kar€')(^6fjb€vop^ eirl 
TOVTOP av^L<; iSoKeo Tropevea^at. 13. ^Epporjaa^ S' 6 aevo- 
(j^cop fjLTj el eprjpbop KaTaXeliroi top rjXcoKOTa X6<^oPy Kal ttoXlv 
Xa^6vTe<; ol iroXefiLOL eirt^olpTO toI^ viro^vyioc'^ TrapiovaiP^ 
{eirl TToXv 8e rjp Ta viro^vyca aTe Sid cTeprj^; tt}? oSov iropevo- 
jj^epa.^ KaTaXeiireL eirl tov Xocj^ov Xo')(ayov<; Krjcj^caoScopop 
KfjcpccocpcoPTO^ ^A^rjpjsuop Kal ^A/jL<ptKpdTr]p ^A/jLcJ^cStj/uLov ^A^t^- 
valop Kal ^Ap-^ayopap ^ApyeZop (f>vyd8a • avTO^ Be crvp toIs 
XocTTol^ eiropeveTO eVl top BevTepov X6(})0p, Kal tc3 avTa> Tpo- 

TTCp Kal TOVTOP alpOVCFLP. 1# "EtTL 8' aVTOL^ TpLTO^ fia(JTO<; 

XoiTTO'^ rjp TToXv 6p^LcoTaTO<; 6 VTTep T?}? iirl tS irvpl KaTaXr]- 
(j)^eia7j<; (pvXaKrj^ t?}9 pvkto^vtto tcjp e^eXovTcop. 15. ^Errel 
S' eyyu? iyepoPTO ol ^'EXXr}ve<;, XeiTTovcnp ol /SdpjSapoc d/JLa- 
XV^^^ '^01/ iiacTTOP • ca<7T6 ^av/jLaaTOP nrdai yevea^at Kal vTrco- 
iTTevov BeiaapTa^ avTov<^ /jltj KVKXco^ePTe<^ iroXcopKocpTo dTroXc- 
Trelv. 01 Se dpa dirb tov aKpov Ka^opcoPTe^ Ta oTTca^ev 
ytypofiepa irdpTe^ iirl tov^ oTTca^ocj^vXaKa^; i'^copovp. 

16. Kal 'Sepo^cop jxep avp TOt? V€(0TdT0L<; dpe^acpep eirl 
TO aKpoi^j TO?)? S' dXXov^ eKeXevaep vTrdyecp, ottco? ol TeXev- 
Taloo X6')(pL TTpocrfjLi^etap • Kal TrpoeX^oi/ra? kutu ttjv oSop iu 





TO) bfioXS) ^ea^ac ra oirXa elirev, 17. Kal iv rovTGf rw j^po- 
v(p r}X^€P ^Ap')(ay6pa<; 6 'Apyelo<; 'ir€(pevyco^ fcal XeyeL co? 
aTreKOTrrjaav airo rod irpcorov \6(f)0V koX oto re^vdaL Kijcj^tao- 
Bcopo'i Kal ^Afi^LKpdrr}^ fcal aXXoi oaoc /jlt) aXkofxevoL Kara 
T/)? 7rerpa<; Trpo? tov<; OTTicr^o^yXa/^a? d(f>L/covTo, 18. Tavra 
he SiaTTpa^dfJievoL ol jSdp^apoi tJkov iir avTiiropov Xo^ov tm 
fjLacTTcp' fcai 'Bi6PO(j)cov SceXeyero avroh hC €p/Ji7jvea)<; irepl 
aTTovScop fcal tou? ve/cpov^ diryrec. 19. 01 S' ecf^aaav aTToScO' 
aeiv i(j> S fjif) KaieLV rd<; Kcofia^, Swco/jioXoyec ravra 6 aevo- 
<})cov, ^Ev S 8e TO piev dXXo arpdrevpLa iraprjei^ ol he ravra 
SteXeyovro, rrdvre^; ot ifc rovrov rod roirov o-vveppvrjo-av ivrav- 
Sa 'laravro ol iroXepnot. 20. Kal enrel yp^avro Kara^acvecv 
diTo rov piaarov rrpo^ rov<; dXXov^ ep^a rd oirXa efcecpro, 
iepro Srj ol iroXepbioL 'ttoXXo) 7rX7]^€L Kal ^opv^(p' Kal iirel 
iyipopro iirl tt}? Kopv^i]^ rov piaarov d^ ov aepojiSop Kare- 
^acP€Pj eKvXipSovp rrerpa<; • koX €P0^ pL€P Karea^ap ro aKeXos^ 
Pi6P0(j)(A)pra he 6 v7rao-7narf]<; e-^cop rfjp dairiha direXiirep* 
21. luvpvXo')(o'^ he Aovcnev^ ^ApKd<; irpoaehpapiep avrat ottXl' 
T77?, Kal TTpo dpb(^olp rrpo^e^Xripbepo^ aTre^^copec, Kal ol dXXoi 
'7rpb<; rov^ G-vpreraypLepov<; aTrrjX'^op, 

22. 'JE/c he rovrov rrdp opov iyepero ro 'EXXtjplkop, Kal 
iaKTJprjaap avrov ep iToXXal<; Kal KaXal<; ocKiac^ Kal emrrjhei- 
oc<; ha'yfrtXeaL • Kal yap oIpo<; rroXv^ rjp^ op ep XdKKOt^ KOPiarol^ 
el')(op, 23. "Biepotpcop he Kal Xetplaoipo^ hieirpd^apro (oare 
Xa^6pre<; rov^ peKpov^ drreSoaap rop riyepopa* Kal rrdpra 
iTTOLTjaap rol^ diro^apovcnp etc roop hvpar aw ciaTrep popi^erav 
dphpdatp dya^ol^. 24. Trj S' varepaia dpev rjyepLOPO^ erro- 
pevopro' pa'x^opLepot S' ol rroXepLioi Kal ottt] eXrj arepop ^^copiop 
7rpoKaraXap/3dpopre^ eKCoXvop rd<; rrapohov^, 25. ^Oirore 
pep ovp rov^ Trpoorov^ KooXvocep, Sepocfycop oirta^ep eK^alpcop 
7rpo9 rd opr) eXve rrjp drroi^pa^LP rrj<; rrapohov roc9 7rpot)roi<i 
apcorepco Treipdipevo^; yiypea^at royp KcoXvoprcop • 26. oirore 
he rol^ oTTio^ep eTTi^olpro^ Xeipiaotpo^ eKjSaipcDp Kal ireipdo' 
p.epo^ apcorepco yiypea^au rcop KcoXvoprcop eXve rrjp diroclypa' 
^LV rrj^ irapohov rot^ oino^ep. Kal del ovrco^ e^orfhovv 

LIB. IV. CAP. III. 97 

dX\7]Xot^ Kol la'xypw aW'i]\o)V iirejieKovro, 27. '^Hv he koX 
oirore avroU toI'^ ava^aat iroWa tt pay [Mara irapel'^ov ol 
^dp^apot ttoXlv /cara/SaivovaLV • iXacppol yap rjcrav coare Kal 
iyyv^ev (^evyovre^ aTrocj^euyecp • ovSev yap el')(ov aXko rj ro^a 
zeal a^evhova'^. 28. "ApiarocSe To^orac rjaav el')(ov he ro^a 
iyyif^ TpiTTTJ^Tjy ra Be To^evfiara nfkeov rj hi7rrj')(r] • elXKOv he 
Ta? vevpa<^ OTrore ro^evoiev tt/oo? to /cdrco rod ro^ov tm dpi- 
arepS Trohl irpoa^aivovre^, Ta he To^evfiara i^copet hta rcov 
daTTihcov KOL hta TOiV ^copdfccov i^pcovro he avrol'^ ol '^EXXt]- 
ves eirel Xd^ocev d/covrloc^; ivayKvXtavre^* ^Ev TOVTOt<; tol^ 
'y((jdpioi<; ol Kprjre^ ')(^p7]cnfJLa)TaT0L iyevovro* VPX^ ^^ avrcov 
STparofcXr]^ Kpij^. 


1. TavTTjv S' av T7]V rj/xepav 7]vXLa^7]crav iv ral^ /ccofiac^ 
TaL<; VTrep tov irehiov tov rrapa top KevrpiTTjv TrorafMov, 
€vpo<; C09 hiirXe'^ povj o? opl^ec rrjv ^Ap/nevLav Kal rrjv tcov 
Kaphov')(^cov %cipaz/ • /cal ol '^EXX7]ve<; ivrav^a dveiravo-aVro 
aa/jievoL lh6vTe<; irehiov • direl^e he tcjv opecov 6 Trorafjub^ co? 
€^ rj eirrd o-rdhca ro^v Kaphov)((ov, 2. Tore fiev ovv rjiXi- 
a^Tjaav fidXa rjheco^ fcal ra eiriTrjheia e^ovre^ Kal iroXXa tcov 
irapeXrjXv'^oTCOv ttopcov fivr]}jLovevovTe^. ^Etttcl yap rjfiepa^ 
oaaaTrep i7ropev^7]crav hca tcov Kaphov')(^cov irdaa^ iJLa')(pfievoL 
hieTeXecrav^ Kal eira^ov KaKa oaa ovhe Ta av/jLTravTa viro 
^aaiXew^ Kal Ttcraaipepvov^. ^S2^ ovv aTTTjXXay/jLevoo tovtcov 
r]Seco<; iKOLfirj^Tjaav, 

3. ^'Afia he ttj rjfJiepa opcocnv l7nrea<; ttov Trepav tov ttotu- 
fiov i^coirXiafievov^ a)<; KcoXvcrovTa^; hca^aiveiv • ire^ov^ S' cttI 
rat? 6')^ai(; irapaTeTayfievov^ dvco tcov iTnrecov a>9 kcoXvctov- 
Ta^ ek jTjv ^Apfjieviav eK^alveiv, 4. '^Haav he ovtoc 'OpovTOV 
Kat ApTOV')(ov ^Apfievtov Kal Maphovtot Kal XaXhalot juLca^o- 
(j^opoc. EXeyovTo he ol XaXhaloc eXev^epoi re Kal dXKLfxoc 
elvac oirXa h' el^ov yeppa piaKpd Kal Xoy^ci^* 5. A I he 


ox^<^^ CLvrac i(j> mv irapareTajixevoi ovrot rjcrav rpla ^ Terra- 
pa irXe^pa airo rov Trora/uiov airelyov* oSos Be fila rj opcofievrj 
rjv dyovaa avco coairep ^(eipoiToirjTO^ • ravrrj eTrecpcovro Sea- 
/Sacvecp oi '^EWrjve^, 6. ^Eirel Se 7r6tpcofi6vot<^ to re vScop 
virep Tcbv fjLaarcov ec^alvero^ Kal rpa'^v^ r}v 6 iroraixo^ fieyd' 
XoL<; \i^0L<; Kal 6XLa^r]poL<?, Kal ovre iv tw vhari ra oifka rjv 
e')(eLV • el Be fi')], yprra^ev 6 7roTa/jL6<; • eV/ re rrj^ Ke(j>a\rj(; ra 
oirXa ei rt? ^epot, yvfivot eyiyvovro rrpo^ ra ro^ev/xara Kal 
ra aWa fieXrj' dve'^coprjaav ovv Kal avrov iarparoTreSev- 
aavro irapa rov irorafjbov. 

7. ^'Ev^a Be avrol rrjv irpoa^ev vvKra rjaav eirl rov 
opov<; ecopcov rov<; KapBov^ov; ttoXXou? avveiKey fievov^ crvv 
roi<i ottXol^. 'Eprav^a Brj rroWrj a^vfiia rjv roU ^^EXXrjaiv. 
opcjat fiev rov wora/jiov rrjv Bvairoplav, opwai Be rov<; Bia^ai' 
vetv KcoXvaovra^y opcoac Be rol^ Bia^atvovaiv iirtKecaofjievov^; 
rov<^ KapBov^ov^ OTTia^ev, 8. Tavrrjv fiev ovv rrjv rj/juepav 
Kal rrjv vvKra ejJLetvav ev TToXXfj drropCa 6vTe<^. 'Sevocf^cov Be 
ovap elBev • eBo^ev iv ireBaL^ BeBea^aL, avrau Be avroj avro- 
fiaroL rrepippvrj'vaL^ coare Xv^rjvac Kal Bua^aiveiv oitogov 
i/BovXero, 'Eirel Be op^po^ rjv €p')(eraL rrpos rov Xecpicro^ov 
Kal XeyeL ore eXTr/Sa? e^ec KaXw eaea^at' Kai BtTjyelrac 
avTM TO ovap, 9. 'O Be ijBero re Kal co? rdyj^ara eco<; vire- 
(f>atv€V i^vovro Trdvre^ irapovre^; ol arparijyoi' Kal ra lepd 
KoXd rjv ev^vs eirl rov irpcorov, Kal d7n6vre<; diro rcov lepcov 
ol arparrjyol Kal Xo')(ayol iraprjyyeXXov rfj arparia dptaro- 
TToteta^at, 10. ^Apiarcovri Be to5 'Bevo^covrc 7rpocrerpe')(ov 
Bvo veavlaKCD • fjBeaav yap 7rdvre<; on e^elrj avra> Kal apt- 
arcovn Kal Beiirvovvri rrpoaeX^ecv Kal el Ko^evBoL eireyel' 
pavra elirelv el ri<; re e^ot rwv rrpo^ rov iroXefiov, 11. Kal 
rore eXeyov on rvy^^dvotev cj^pvyava cvXXeyovre^ &)<? eVl 
TTvp, Kaireira KariBotev ev to) irepav ev irerpat^ Ka^rjKOvaat^ 
eiT avrov rov irorafiov yepovrd re Kal yvvalKa Kal rraiBicTKa^ 
oianrep fiapaiirov^ Ifiaricov Karan^e/jLevov<; iv rrerpa dvrpco- 
Bei. 12. ^IBovac Be a(f>LaL Bo^ao d(T(j)aXh elvai Bia^rjvaL 
ovBe yap rol<i rroXe/jLCoc^ lirTrevcrc 7rp6aj3arov eivac Kara rovro. 

LIB. IV. CAP. III. 99 

^EfcBvvT€<; Be e(j)acrav e%oi;T€9 ra i^')(eipiBLa yvfMvol o)^ vev- 
aovfievov Bta^alvecv • iropevofievoL Be nrpoa^ev Bia^aiveiv 
irplv ^pe^ai ra alBola* koX Bia^avre^ koI Xafiovre^ ra Ijjid- 
Tca TToXtv rjKeiv, 

13. Ev^i)^ ovv 'Bevo^odv avro^ re eairevBe /cal TOi<; 
veavi(TKOL<; ijx^^^ eKeXevcre /cal ev^ecr^aL rol^ ^rjvacTL ^eol^ 
rd re oveipara koI top Tropov /cal ra Xocira dyaS^a eiriTe\e- 
crai, XireLaa<; Be ev^v^ ^ye tou9 veavlcrKov^; irapd top Xec- 
piao(j)ov ' /cal BirjyovvraL ravrd. 14. ^A/covcra<; Be /cal 6 
XeLpL(TO(j)o<; aTTovBd^ eiroiei, XireicravTe^ Be toI^ /Mev dXKoi<; 
iraprjyyeXkov crvcr/cevd^eaS^ac, avrol Be GvyKokeaavre^ rov^ 
(7TpaTr]yov<^ e/Sovkevovro otto)? av /cdWcara Bta^alev /cal 
Tou? re epuTTpoa^ev VL/coyev /cal virb rcov oina^ev fjirjBep ird- 
cr')(OLep KaKop. 15. eBo^ep avrol^ XeipCcro^op fiep rjyet-^ 
aS^at Kal Bta^atpecp e')(0PTa to tj/jlcctv tov aTpaTevfiaTO^;, to 
Be rjiitav vTTO/jiepecp avp HepocpcoPTL • Ta Be viro^vyia Kal top 
o-^Xop ip fJieaq) tovtcop Bia/BacpeiP. 16. 'JETrel Be /ca\co'^ 
TavTa el^ep eiropevoPTO • rjyovPTO Be oi peapicrKOi ip dpicTTepa 
ej(OPTe^ TOP TTOTafiop' 6S09 Be tjp iirl ttjp Btd^acnp di? TeTTa- 
p69 crTdBioc. 

17. JJopevofiepcop K avTcop dpTiTraprjeo-ap al Td^ei<; tcop 
LTTTrecop. ^EireiBr] Be r^aap KaTcu ttjp Bcd^acnp Kal Ta9 6')(^a<^ 
TOV TTOTa/Jiov, eSepTO Ta oifKa, Kal avTO<; 7rpcoT09 XeLpiao<^o<^ 
CTe^apcoad/jiepo^ Kal a7roSu9 eXdfjL^ape Ta oTrXa Kal TOL<i 
aXXot<; irdcTL iraprjyyeXKe • Kal tou9 \o')(wyov^ eKekevep dyeip 
T0U9 \o')(pv<^ 6p3-iov<;, TOi'9 fJLep ip dpicnepa tqv^ Be ip Be^ia 
eavTOv, 18. Kal oi fiep fidpTei^ icrcf^aycd^oPTO el<; top iroTa- 
fiop* ol Be TToXe/JLLOL iTo^evop Te Kal icrcpepBopcop ' dXX ovirco 
i^CKPOvPTO. 19. 'jEttcI Be Kokd rjp tcl a^dyta, iiraidpi^op 
7rdpTe<; ol (TTpaTicoTai Kal dprfkaXa^op • avpcokoXv^op Be Kal 
al yvpaLKe<; aTraaai, IloXkal yap rjcrap iTalpai ip Ta> aTpa- 

20. Kal XeipL(TOJ>o<; /xep ipej3aipe Kal ol crvp iKeiPcp'o Be 
'Sepo(f)cop T(x)P oTnorS^ocj^vXdKoyp Xa/3a>p tou9 ev^copoTaTOV^ eSet 
dpd KpdTO^ irdXip iirl top iropop top KaTa ttjp eK^aacp ttjp 


eh Ta tS)V ^Apiievicov oprj • Trpoairoiovfievo^ ravrij 8ta/3a9 
aTTOKXeiG-etv Tov^ irapa tov irorafjiov lirTreh, 21. 01 he' 
TToXifjiLOL 6p(0VTe<; p^ev tov^ ap.(pl XetpicTocj^ov evTrerco^ to 
vBcop TTepthvTa^, opcovre^ Se tov^; dp.cj)l 'Eevocj^covra ^eovTa<; 
eh Tovp.iraXLVy helaavre^ /x?) diro/cXeLa^eiTjaav (j)evyovaiv dva 
Kpdro^; o)<i' 7rpo<; rrjv diro tov iroTapbov eK^aatv dvo). ^Eirel 
Be KaTct TTjv 68bv iyivovTO, eTetvov dvco irpo<^ to 6po<;, 22. 
AvKLO^ Be 6 Trjv Ta^iv e^xjcov tcov lirirecDV koX Ala'x^ivri^ 6 Tr)v 
Ta^LV e')((ov TCOV TreXTaaTcov tcov dpL^l Xecplao^ov eirel eco- 
pcov dvd Kpdro<^ ^evjovTa<;, evrrovTO • ol Be GTpaTiSiTai 
e/3oft)z/ ixr) dirokeiirea^ai dXkd cvve/c^atveLV iirl to opo<;» 
23. Xetpio-ocfio<; S' av eirel Bte^Tj, tov<; fiev l7r7rea<; ovk eS/o)- 
KeVy eifBv<; Be /caTa Ta^ irpoaTjfcovaa^ o)(3^a<; eirl tov iroTapbov 
i^e^aivev eirl tov^ dvco 7roXe/>ttoi;9. 01 Be dvco, 6pcovTe<; fiev 
Tov<; eavTcov linrea<i (j)evyovTa<;, 6pcovTe<; Be oirXiTa^; ac^iacv 
imovTa^, e/cXeLTrovcrt Ta virep tov iroTapjOv d/cpa, 

24:. 'Sevo^cbv Be iirel Ta irepav ecopa fca\co(; jtyvofieva, 
dTre'xcopei t7]v Ta')(^icTr]v irpo^ to Biafialvov CTpaTevjua • Kal 
yap ol KapBov^oi (pavepol rjBr} rjaav eh to ireBlov KaTa^ai- 
vovTe<; ct)9 eTTL^rjaofjuevoi tol^ Te\evTaLOL<;. 25. Kal Xetplao- 
^09 piev Ta dvco KaTel^e, Av/cto^ Be avv 6\iyoL<^ e7n')(eLprjaa^ 
eTriBico^ai eXa^e tcov af€evo(p6pcov Ta viroXeiiropbeva Kal pLeTa 
TovTcov eaS-r^Td re fcaXrjv fcal i/CTTcop^aTa. 26. Kal Ta puev 
a/cevo^opa tcov ^EXKtjvcov Kal 6 o')(Xo<; dKpirjv Bce^acve* 
aevo(j)cov Be aTpe'>^a^ irpo^ tov<; KapBov^ov^ dvTia Ta oifka 
e^eTo • Kal Trapijyyetke Toh \o')(ayoh KaT evcopbOTia^ ttolyj' 
craorSac eKacrrov tov eavTov \6^0Vy Trap d(77riBa<; irapaya- 
yovTa^ TTjv evcopbOTiav eirl (^d\ayyo<^ • Kal tov^ pbev \o')(ayov<^ 
Kal T0U9 evcopbOTdp')(a<; irpo<^ t&v KapBov')(cov levai, ovpayoif<; 
Be KaTacTTrjaacr^aL 7rpb<; tov TroTapuov, 

27. 01 Be KapBov-yoL 6)<; ecopcov tov<; oTrca^ocfyvXaKa^ tov 
o-^Xov yJn\ovp.evov<; Kal 6\iyov<^ rjBrj cj>acvopLevov<;y ^aTTOV Bt). 
eiTTieaav (pBd<^ TLva^ aBovTe^. 'O Be Xeipi(To^o<;, iirel Ta 
Trap avTM da^a\co<; el;)^e, TrepureL irapa Bevccj^covTa tov<^ 
7re\TaaTd<; Kal a^evBovriTa^ Kal T0^6Ta<^ Kal KeXevet Troielv o 

LIB. lY. CAP. III. 101 

TL av irapayyeWrj. 28. ^IScov Be avTov<; Sca^aivovra^ 6 
'S€VO(f)a)V 7r€/jLylra<; djyekov Kekevei avrov fieivai eirl rod tto- 
rajjLOV firj Bca/Savra^ • orav S* ap^covrau avrol BcajSaivecv, 
ivavTLOv^ ev^ev kol ev^ev a^cov eiM^aiveiv co? Boa/Srjo-ofjLevou^y 
Bcr}j/€v\c(7fMivov<^ Tov^ aKOVT terras kol i7rc/36fi\r]fjLevov<; tov^ 
TO^ora^ ' fir] Trpoaco Be rod Trorafiov irpo^alvetv* 29. Tol<^ 
Be Trap eavrco iraprjyyeLkev, eireiBav crcf^evBovrj i^CKvfjrac koX 
d(77rl<; yJro(j)fj, 7raLavLaavTa<; Secv del €69 tov<; 7ro\efiLov<; ' 
eTrecBav Be dvacrTpe-y^rcoaiv ol irdKefiLOL koX etc rov Trora/jLGv 6 
aaXTrtyfcrrj^ G-TjfjiyvT} to TrdXejULCfcov, dvaaTpe'y\ravTa^ iirl Bopv 
rjyela^ai fiev rov^ ovpayov^, ^elv Be Trdvrm kol Bca^acvecv 
OTL TayiGTa y efcaaro^ rrjv rd^cv el')(ev, o)<; fir) ifnToBl^ecv 
dW')]\ov<; • ore ovto^ dpLaTO<; ecrocTO 09 dv Trp&ro^ ev tc5 ire- 
pav yevTfTai. 

30. 01 Be KapBov')(OL opcovre^ oXlyov^ rfBrf tov<; Xolttov^, 
TToWol yap /cal rcov jieveiv rerayfiepcov ^^(ovto eTrtfieXrjao- 
fievoL ol fiev vTro^vytcov, ol Be a/cevcbv, ol Be eraipcov, evrav^a 
Br] iTreKecvTO Bpaaeco^ /cal r]p')(0VT0 (K^evBovav Kal To^eveLV. 
31. 01 Be ^'EXKr]ve<^ TracavLcravTe^ cop/i7](rav Bpofio) eir av- 
Tov^ • ol S' ovfc eBe^avTO • Kal yap rjaav SifXccrfievoc, 0)9 fiev 
ev Tot9 opeaiVy iKavd^ irpo^ to eiriBpafielv Kal (f)evyecv, 7r/}09 
Be TO €t9 %6?pa9 Be')(ea^ab ov^ licavm. 32. ^Ev tovtco ctt;- 
fiaivei 6 aaXinytcTr]'^ • Kal ol fiev iroXificoc e^evyov iroXv eTC 
BoLTTOV • ol K ^'EXkrfve^ tcl ivavTca (TTpe'\JravTe<; ec^evyov Bed 
Tov iroTafiov otl Td^ccTTa, 33. Tcov Be TroXefiicov ol fiev 
Tive^ alaSofievoL irdXcv eBpafiov iirl tov nroTafiov Kal To^ev- 
ovTe<; oXCyov^ eTpcoaav • ol Be ttoXXoI Kal irepav ovrcov tcov 
^EXkrfvcov eTL ^avepol rfcrav (})evyovTe^. 34. 01 Be viravTi]' 
aavTe^ dvBpi^ofievot Kal irpoacoTepco tov Kaipov TrpoiovTe^; 
vcTTepov TCOV fieTa Hez/o^(Sz/T09 Bte/3r]aav irdXcv* Kal eTpcoS^- 
cdv T(,ve^ Kal tovtcov. 



1. ^Eirel Be hLe^7](Tav, crvvra^dfJievoL dficfyl fiecrov r][iepa<^ 
iTTopevS^rjaav Bed ri)^ ^Apixevia^ ireBlov dirav teal \eiov<^ 777- 
\6(pov^ ov fjL6L0V Tj TTevTe iTapa(jd^^a% • ov ^dp rjaav €771)9 
Tov TTora/JLOV fccbfjiac Sid tou9 Trokefiovg tov^; 7rpo<; tov<; Kap- 
Bov^ov^, 2. Ek Be Tjv d^LKOvro Ka)fjL7)v /JiejdXrj re r}V koX 
^aaLXeiov el^e tcd aarpaTrrj, fcal eTrl ral^ TrXeicrraL^ olfclai^ 
Tvpo'et<; iTTijcrav, eiTLTrjBeia S' rjv BayjnX'l], 3. ^Evrev^ev K 
eiropev^rjaav araB-fiov^ Bvo irapaad^^a^ BeKa p^eyjpi<^ virep- 
rfk'^ov rd^ 7r7]yd<; tov Ttyp7]T0<; 'jrorafiov. ^EvrevB^ev 8' 
eTTopev^rjarav (Tra^iiov^ rpel^ 'jrapaadyya^; irevreKaiBeKa eiTl 
TOV TTJXefioav TroTafiov. Ovto^ B' rjv fiija^; jxev ov, fcoKo^ 
Be • fCMfJuai Be TroXXal irepl tov iroTafiov rjcrav, 4. ^O Be to- 
iTO^ ouTO<; ^Apfievia eKaXelTo t] nTpo<; eairepav, ^^ T7rap')(^o^ 8' 
rjv avTT]'^ T7]pi/3a^o<;, 6 fcal jBacTiXel ^lXo<^ jevofievo^; • kclI 
OTTOT^ Trapeirfy ovBel<; dXXo<; /SaacXea eVl tov 'lttttov dvej3aX- 
Xev, 5. OvTo<^ TTpoorrfKacrev LTrirea^ ^X^^^ ^^'^ TrpoTre/JiyJra^; 
epjJLTjvea elirev oti ^ovXolto BiaXex^rjvai toI'^ dp^ovcn. Tol<^ 
Be aTpaTTjyoh eBo^ev dKovaat • koX 7rpocreXB6vTe<; eh eTrrj- 
Koov rjpdyTWV Ti MXoo, 6. ^O Be elirev oti cnreiaaa^aL ySou- 
XoLTO ecj) (p fJLrjTe avTo^ tou? ^^EXXrjva^ dBiKelv fJirjTe i/celvov^ 
Kaletv Td<; oLKia^;, Xa/jb/Sdvetv re ra einTrjBeLa oacov BeoivTO. 
"EBo^e TavTa tol^ aTpaT7]jot^ fcal icrireiaavTO eirl tovtoc^. 

T. ^EvTevS^ev S' eTropevS^jjaav (7TaS-fiov<; Tpel^ Bed ireBlov 
irapaadyya^ nrevTeKalBefca • /cal TrjpL^a^o^ nraprjKoXov^ei 
e^oov TTjv eavTOv BvvafMtv aTre^cov ox; Be/ca aTaBlov^ • koI 
d(j)L/covTO €19 jSacTLXeia koX fccofjba^ irept^ 7roXXd<; ttoXX&v t&v 
e7nT7]BeiO)v fjueaTa^;, 8. ^TparoTreBevofjiivcov S' avTcov jlyve- 
Tat T7}9 vv/cTo<; Xtoav TroXXy • /cal ecoBev eBo^e BcaaKrjvrjcrao 
Td<; Ta^e69 KoX T0v<^ aTpaTTjyov^; /caTd Td<; Ko^fia^* ov ydp 
ecopcov TToXe/jiLov ovBeva ical dacj)aXe<; eBofcet elvac Bid to irXri- 
r9o9 T?}9 x^ovo^. 9. 'EvravS^a el^pv TrdvTa Td iircTTjBeta oca 
eaTlv dya^dy lepela, acTov, olvov^ iraXatov^ evcoBei^;, daTa(^L' 

LIB. lY. CAP. IV. 103 

Ba^y oaiTpLa TravroBaTrd. Tcov Be aTrocr/ceBavvv/Juivcov rcvh 
diro Tov (TTparoTreBov eXeyov ore /cariBocev crrpdreviia koX 
vvKTCop iToKka TTvpa (^aivoiTo. 10. ^EBofcec Brj rol^ crrpaTT]- 
7069 ov/c dcr^oXe<; elvat BiaaKrivovv, dXKa avvayayelv to 
arpdrevfia irdXtv. ^EvrevBev crvvrjX^ov /cal yap eBoicev 
BcatSpLd^etv, 11. Nvfcrepevovrcov S' avrcov ivravSa iirc- 
iriiTTeb %6cbz/ dTrkero^, cocTTe direKpyy^re /cal ra oifXa fcal tou9 
dvS^pcoTTOv^ /carafcet/JLevov; • /cal ra viro^vyta G-vveiroBiaev rj 
X^^^ * ^^^ 7roXu9 o/ci/09 yv dvLaraa^au • /cara/cecfjievcov yap 
dXeeivov rjv r] yicov eirLireTTTcoKvla otg) fjirj TrapappvetTj, 12. 
^Eirel Be '3evocj)cov iroXfjUTjcTe yvjivo^ o)v dvaara^ cr^^/fe^z/ 
fuXa, rd^ ^v dvacrTd<; tc^ /cal dWo<; e/ceivov d<f)e\6/JLevo<; 
€crx(^aev, 13. ^E/c Be rovrov Kal ol dXKoi dvaardyTe^ irvp 
e/caiov /cal i^p^ovro • iroXv yap evrav^a evptaKero ;)^p6(7/i<x, 
cS e^pcovTO dvT ekaioVy crvetov Kal aTjcrdfjLLvov Kal d/jLvyBdXc- 
vov eK TO)v TTCKpcop Kal repe^lv^cvov, ^Ek Be rcov avrcov 
TOVTcov Kal fjivpov evpicTKero, 

14. Mera ravra iBoKec irakiv Bcao-KTjvrjreov elvac eh Ta<; 
Kciyjia^ eh crreya^, ''EvSa By ol G-Tparcoyrai avv iroXkfj 
Kpavyfj Kal iqBovfj yeaav eirl Ta<^ crreya^ Kal ra eiriTrjBeia • 
ocrou Be ore to irporepov dirrjeaav Td<^ oiKia^ eveirprjcrav vtto 
T7}9 al^pia^ BIk7]v eBlBoaav KaKOi^ GKr}vovvTe<;, 15. ^EvTev- 
S^eu eirejM'y^av Tri<^ vvkto^ Ar]/jL0KpdT7]v Te/jLevLT7]v avBpa^ Bov- 
Te9 eirl Ta oprj, evBa e^aaav ol diroaKeBavvvfJbevoL Ka^opav 
rd TTvpd • o5to9 yap eBoKet Kal irporepov iroXkd rjBr] dXrj^ev' 
aac Tocavra, rd ovra re a)<; ovra Kal rd fir) ovra ft)9 ovk 
ovra, 16. IIopevBeh Be rd fiev irvpd ovk ecpr] IBelv, dvBpa 
Be (rvXXa/3(ov rJKev dycov e^ovra ro^ov JJepacKov Kal ^ape- 
rpav Kal adyapcv oXavirep Kal al ^A/jLa^6ve<^ e^pvcTLv, 17. 
Epcorcofjbevo<; Be iroBaTrb^ ecTj, Ueparj^^ fjuev e(f)7j elvac, iropeve- 
aS^ac Be diro rov Trjpt^d^ov (TTparevfJbaro<^, o7rco<^ iTTcr^jBeia 
Xd/Soi, 01 8' r^pcorcov avrov rb (rrpdrevjia orroGOV re elr} 
Kal eirl rivi crvveCKeyiievov. 18. ^O Be elirev ore Trjpt^a^o^ 
ecTj e^oov rriv re eavrov Bvpa/icv Kal fiC(T3^o(j>6pov<; Xd\vj3a<; 
Kal Tao^pv^; • rrapea-Kevaa^av Be avrov e(}>7j ft)9 iirl ry virep^ 


^o\fi Tov opov^ iv Toh crevol^ V'^^P f^ovaxv ^ctj Tropeia, 
evrav^a iTriS-rjao/jbevov TOt? ^^EXkrjatv. 

19. ^A/cov(ra(TL toI^ arparri^ol'^ ravra eSofe to OTpdreV' 
fia (rvvajajelv • kol evBv^, <^vkaKa<^ KaraXLTrovref; teal arpa- 
TTjjbv eVl T069 fievovo'c Xo^alverov ^rvfi^dXiov, iiropevovTO, 
e^ovre^; rf^eiibva tov oKovTa dv^pcoTTOv. 20. ^ETreiSf) Se 
virepk^aXKov Ta oprj, ol irekTaaTal TrpolovTe^ koX KaTtB6vTe<; 
TO (TTpaTOTrehov ovk e/Jb€tvav tou9 bifkiTa^;, aXX avaKpajov- 
re? €^6ov iirl to (TTpaTOTreSov. 21. 01 Be fidp/3apoc dfcov- 
cavTe<; tov Sopv^ov ouj^ virifjietvav, aXX €(j>6vjov • ofico<; Be 
/cat dire^avov Ttve<; tcov ^ap^dpcov • real Ilttttol rfKcoaav eU 
eiKOCTLy fcal rj oricrjvr) rj Trjpc^d^ov idXco koX iv avTrj ickivai 
dpyvpoTToBe^; teal i/CTrco/naTa koX ol dpTOKoiroL koX ol olvo')(oob 
(j)do-K0VT6<; elvau 22. ^EireiBr] Be iirv^ovTO TavTa ol tcov 
OTrXtTcbv aTpaT7]yoL, iBo/cet avTol<^ dinevai ttjv TayidT'qv iirl 
TO aTpaToireBov, /jltj tl^ e7rl^eai<^ yevocTo roZ? KaToXeXei/nfMe- 
voL^, Kal euf&u? dva/caXea-ajjbevoL tjj adXTrijyo dirrjeaav KaX 
d(f){/covTO av^rjfjLepov iirl to aTpaToireBov. 

CAP. V. 

1. Trj S' vcTTepala iBofcev iropevTeov elvat oirrj BvvaiVTO 
Ta^^crra, 7rp\v rj avXKeyrjvai to crTpaTevfjia irdXiv /cat tcaTa- 
Xa^etv Ta crTevd, ^vaicevacrdixevoi S* eUfSu? iiropevovTO Bca 
^(Lovo^^ TToWrj^; rjye/ji6va<; e^oz^re? iroWov^* fcdl av^fxepov 
virep^aXovTe^ to d/cpov i(j) m ejneWev iircTLS^ea^ac T7]pi^(u 
^09 KaTecTTpaTOTreBevcravTO, 2. ^EvTevBev eTropev^crav aTa- 
5^/Lfcou9 €pi]fjLov<; Tp6fc9 7rapaG-djya<; irevTe/cacBeKa iirl tov Ev- 
(})pdT7]v TTOTafjboVy /COL Btifiacvov avTov ^pej(piJbevoi irpo^ tov 
ofMcpaXov, ^EXejovTO Be avTOv al TrrjyaX ov irpoaco elvac. 3. 
EvTevSev eiropevovTo Bid ^(^covof; 7roW^9 Koi TreBtov crTa- 
^/xov<; TpeL<i nrapaadyya^ TrevTefcalBeKU. 'O Be TpiTO^ eye- 
veTO 'xaXeiTo^ koX dveixo^ ^oppa^ evavTio<^ eirvet, TravrdTracnv 
aTTOKaLcov irdvTa koX irriyvv^ tov^ dv'ii pdoirov^;. 4. "Ev'^a Br) 

LIB. IV. CAP. V. 105 

tS)v fidvT€cov TL^ elire acpaycd^eaBao tm ave^fo • koX ^(^a^Ld- 
^erac • /cat iraai Srj 7r€pL(j>avco<^ eSo^e Xfj^ai ro 'XJ^Xeirov rod 
TTvevfiaro^. ^Hv he rfj^; ^^61^09 to /3a^09 opjvcd ' &aTe koX 
Tcov VTTO^vyicov KoX tS)v dvBpaTToScov TToXKd aTrcokerOy kol 
Tcov aTpartcoTcov co? Tpcd/covra. 5. Aueyevovro he Tr]v vvKra 
TTvp Kaiovre^ • ^liXa S* rjv ev tc5 araS/jia) iroXkd • ol Be o-v^e 
irpocnovTe^ ^vXa ovk et^ov. 01 ovv irdXao ^/coz/re? kol irvp 
Kaiovre^ ov Trpoaieaav irpo^ to irvp tou9 6'y^i^ovTa<;, el /^if] 
fzeTaBolev avTol^ 7rvpov<; 7) aXko tl &>v e')(OLev ^pcoTov, 6. 
''Ev^a Brj /MeTeBiBoaav dXk7]\oc<; o)v el')(pv e/caaTOC. "Ev^a 
Be TO TTvp e/caleTO, BLaT7]K0fJLevr]<; t7]<; ')(^l6vo^ ^oS-poo iylyvovTO 
fieydXoc ecrTe eirl to BdireBov • ov Brj Trqprjv ^eTpelv to fid^o<; 
Tri<; ')(^i6vo^, 

7. ^EvTev^ev Be ttjv eiTLovaav r/fjiepav oXrjv eiropevovTO 
Bca j(^L6vo<^y /cat ttoXXoI tcov avS^pcoircov e^ovXtfilacrav. 'Eevo- 
(pcbv Be oTTcaS^ocpvXafccbv fcal KaTaXafi^dvcov tov<; iriTTTOVTa^^ 
TO)V dvBpcoTTcov Tjyvoei 6 TO t5 Trd^o^ elrj, 8. ^EireLBf] Be 
elire tl<; avT(p tcov ifiTreipcov otl crac^w? fiovXtficcoo-t /cat edv 
TL ^dycoatv dvaaTrjaovTaiy Trepucbv irepl tcl viro^vyia, el irov 
TV opayj] fipcoToVy BceBlBov fcal BLeirefjure BiBovTa^ tov<; Bwa/jLe- 
vov<; irapaTpe')(eLv toI<^ fiovXi/jLccocrtv. ^EireiBr] Be tl e/jL^d- 
joLeVy dviaTavTO koX eiropevovTo, 9. Ilopevofjievcov Be XecpL- 
ao^o<; fiev d/JL(pl Kvecpa^ ttjOo? fccofxrjv d^LKvelTaLy fcal vBpocpo- 
poriaa^; etc tt]^ kco/xt]^ tt/oo? ttj Kprjvrj yvvaiKa^ koX Kopa^ 
KaTcCkaji^dveL efMirpoaS^ev tov epvfiaTO^, 10. AvTaL rjpcoTcov 
avToi)^ TLve^ elev, 'O Be epiirjvei)^ elire TJepaLaTl otl irapa 
^aaCXeco^ iropevoLVTO irpo^ tov aaTpdir7]V, Al Be direKpi- 
vavTO OTL ovK ivTavS^a etn], dXX^ dire')(OL oaov TrapaG-dyyrjv, 
01 B\ eirel oy^re rjVy 7rpo<; tov KC0iJidp')(7]v avveLaep')(ovTaL eh 
TO epvfia <7vv Toi^ vBpo(j)6poL<;. 11. XeLpL(TO(j)o^ fjuev ovv koI 
oaoL eBvvri^r](Tav tov (TTpaTevfiaTO^ evTavS^a eaTpaToireBev- 
aavTO • tG)V S' dXXcov CTpaTKOT&v oi fir] BvvdfievoL BiaTeXe- 
aaL Tr}v oBov evvKTepevcrav daiTOL zeal dvev Trvpo^ • Kol ev- 
TavBd TLve<; dircoXovTo tS)V G-TpaTKOT&v, 12. ^E^eiTrovTO Be 
TCOV iroXefiicov avveLXey/juevoL TLve^ koX tcl fir] Bvvdfieva tcov 


vTro^vjLcov rjpTra^ov fcal dXkri\oL<^ ifidxovro irepl avrSyv. 
''EXeiTTOVTO Se fcal t&v arparLcorwv oX re Scecp^ap/jLevot vtto 
Tri<; %t6z/09 Toi)^ 6^9^a\fJiov<; ol re vtto rod ^^rvxov^ tov<; Sa- 
KTvKov^ Tcov TToScov a7ro(je(Tr}7r6Te<;. 13. 'Hv he toI<; fcev 
o^l^aXfjLol^ iirticovprj/JLa Tr]<; %toi;o9 ei n^ fMeXav tl e^^v Trpb 
TCOV 6(})S^a\ficov TTopevoiTO ' TO)V Se Trohcov, d Tt<; klvoIto koX 
pbi]heiTOTe Tidvxiav e%06 kcli el rrjv vvKra VTroXvoLTo. 14. 
'^0(TOL Se virohehefievob eKoo/JLcovTO, elaeSvovro ek tov<; 7r68a9 
ol l/xdvre^ fcal ra virohrnjbara TrepieTryyvvvro • kol yap rjcrav, 
eireihr) eTrekiire ra dpxaia viTohr]yi.aTa, Kap^aTivai avTOi<; 
ireiroiriiievat ifc tcov veoSdpTcov ^ocov, 15. Aca Ta? Totavra^ 
ovv dvdy/ca^ vireXetTrovTo Ttve<; tcov crTpaTLcoTcov koX IhovTe^ 
fiiXav TL x^P^^^ ^^^ '^^ eKKeXoLirevai avTO^L ttjv x^ova, ecfca- 
^ov TeTrjfcevai • /cal TeTijfcet, Sea /cprjvTjv tlvcl rj itXtjctlov tjv 
dr/Jii^ovcra iv vdirrj. ^EvTavBa i/CTpairofievoc iKdS^rjVTO Kol 
ov/c e(^acrav iropevea^at. 16. 'O he 'Bevo^cov, ej^coz/ oTncrS^o- 
^vXafca^ C09 fjcrBeTOj ihelro avTcov irdcrrj Tex^J) fcal fJiTjxcivfj 
/jlt) d'jToXeiireorS^aL, Xiycov otc eirovTai ttoXXoI TroXefjuLot avvei- 
Xeyfjiivoc • fcal TeXevTcov exaXeiraivev, 01 he a^dTTecv erce- 
Xevov ov yap av hvvacrBao nropevBrivai. 17. ^EvTavS^a 
eho^e KpdncTTOv elvai tov^; eiroi^evov^ iroXe/jLcov^ (l)ol3f](raCy et 
Tt<; hvvaiTO, [jlt] eTTLotev tol<; fcd/jLvovorc, Kal rjv fjuev (tkoto^ 
rjhr}y ol he irpoarjeaav 'ttoXXm ^opvjBco, dfi^l S)V elxov hia^e- 
po/juevoL, 18. "EvS^a hrj ol fiev 67ri(T^o^vXaice<; aTe vyiai- 
vovTe<; i^avacTTdvTe^ ehpa/jLov eh tov<; TroXe/jbtov^ • ol he Kd- 
jxvovTe'^y dvaicpay6vTe<^ oaov 7]hvvavT0 [xeyicrTOv, tcl^ dcnrlha^; 
7rpo9 TCL hopaTa e/cpovcrav. 01 he TToXeficoo heiaavTe^; rjKav 
eavTov^ /cuTa T7}9 %66z/09 eh ttjv vaTrrjv /cal ovheh gtv ovha- 
fjLov e^^iy^aTO, 

19. Kal 'Bievo(f>cov fxev Kal ol avv avTw, elirovTe^; Toh 
aaS^evovacv otl rfj vaTepatcc ri^ovcrC Ttve^ eir avTOV^, iropevo- 
fievoty irpiv TeTTapa crTdhca hceX^^ecVy evTvyxdvovacv ev ttj 
oocp avaTTavofievoi^; eiri tt]^ %toi/09 tol<; crTpaTLcoTac<; eyKetca- 
XviifievoL^, Kal ovhe (jivXaKr) ovhe/jbia KaS^etcTT'^Kec^ Kal dvc- 
o-Taaav avTov^. 20. 01 S' eXeyov otc ol efjUirpocrS^ev ovx 

LIB. IV. CAP. V. 107 

vTToxcopocep. 'O Be irapmv koX irapaireinrcov r&v irekra- 
(TTcov T0U9 la-yvpOTdrov^ ixiXeve a/ce^lraaSao rl ecij to kco- 
Xvov, 01 Se a7n]jyeWov ore oKov ovTa)<^ avairavoLTo to 
(TTpaTev/jia. 21. ^EvTav^a /cat ol irepl ^evoc^covTa ijvKiaBr]' 
aav auTOv avev nrvpo^ koX dBecTrvoc, <pvXaKa^ ota9 iSvpavTo 
KaTa(7T7]crd/jL€voL. 'ETrel Be 7r/?09 r^fMepav rjv, 6 fiev Sevocj^coVy 
Trifiylra^ 7rpo9 tgv^ daSevovvTa^ tou9 vecoTaTOv;, dvaaTTJ- 
(7avTa<; etceKevarev dvajfcd^ecp irpoUvat. 22. ^Ev Be tovtco 
XetpicTO^o^ Trifiireo tcov etc t?}9 /cco/ji7]<; G-Ke'\JrofjLevov<; irw 
e')(OLev ol TekevTotoi, 01 Be dariievot, IBovTe^ tov<^ fiev da^^e- 
vovPTa^ T0VT0L<; TrapeBoaav /cofJUL^ecv eirl to aTpaToireBov, 
avTol Be iiropevovTO • koI irplv elKoai aTdBia BLeXrjXvMvao 
rjaav 7r/309 Ty /cco/jlt], evSa XecpLcro^o^; TjvXi^eTO, 23. 'JETrel 
Be avveyevovTO dXkrj\oL<;, eBo^e /card Ta9 fccofjLa<; dcr^aXe<; 
elvao Ta9 Td^et^ aKTjvovv. Kal Xecpi(T0(j)0<; fxev avTOv efie- 
vevy OL Be dXkoc, BioXa'XpvTe^; a9 ecopcov K(OfJLa<^ eiropevovTO, 
e/caaTOL tov<; eavTCJV e')(pvTe<;, 

24. "Ev^a Bt) IIo\vfcpdT7]<; ^ABrjvalof; A,o^a709 eKeKevaev 
d^civao avTQV • koX \a^(bv tov^ ev^covou^;, ^ecov eirl ttjv kco- 
fjurjv fjv elXrj')(et 'Bevocj^cov fcaToXa/jL^dveo nrdvTa^ evBov tov<; 
KcofJbrjTa^ Kol TOP K(0[idp')(r]v ' Kol 7rco\ov<; eh Bacrfiov ^acrCKel 
Tpe(f)OfjLevov(; eTTTaKalBe/ca • Kal ttjv BvyaTepa tov K(oixdp')(pv, 
ivvdTTjv rjfiepav yeyafjirj/xevrjv' 6 Be dvrjp avTrj^ \ajoi)<; ai^^ero 
Srjpdacov, Kal ov^ tJjXco ev Tal^ KOjfJLat^;. 25. Ac S' olKiao 
rjaav KaTdyeioi, to piev aTopba axrirep (j>peaT0<^, KdTO) S' eu- 
pelac • at S* eicroBoL toI^ p,ev VTro^vyiov^y opvKTai, ol Be dv^pco* 
TTOi KaTe/3acvov irrl K\lp^aKO<^. ^Ev Be Tac<; olKLac<; f^aav 
alye^y ole^;, /S669, 6pvL^e<^, Kal Ta eKyova tovtohv* tcu Be ktyi- 
VT] irdvTa xt\S evBov iTpe(j)OVTO. 26. '^Haav Be Kal irvpol 
Kal KpiS^al Kal oairpia Kal olvo^ KpiB^ivo<; ev KpaTrjpcrcv • evy)' 
crav Be Kal avTal al Kpt^al lao)(^ec\el^ * Kal KoKap^oi eve- 
KeiVTO, ol p^ev p.el^ou<; ol Be e\dTTOv<;, yovaTa ovk e^ovTe^. 
27. TovTOv^ S' eBei, oiroTe tl^ Bcylrayrj, Xa^ovTa eh to aTop^a 
/iv^ecv • Kal nrdvv dKpaTO<; rjv, el pn] tc<; vBcop ein')(eoL • Kal 
Travv rjBv avpLpLa^ovTi to iropia rjv. 


28. ^O Se ^€VO(})cov tov /Jiev dp^ovra ttj^ fCcofjLr}<; ravrr}^ 
crvvSeiTTVOV iirocrjcraTO fcal ^appelv avrov e/ceXcue, \eycov ore 
0VT6 Tcov reKVcov (TTeprjaoLTO Trjv re oliciav avrov avTepmXr]' 
GavTe<; rcov iinTTjBelcov airiacnVy rjv ayaS^ov tl t(x> arparev' 
fiart i^TjyTjadfievo^; ^alvTjrac ear av iv dWq) e^vei yevcovTai, 
29. 'O 8e ravra v7na')(yelro, koI ^Cko^povovpievo^ olvov 
ecfypacrev ev^a rjv Karopcopvy/Jievof;, T,avT7]v fxev ovv rrjv 
vvfcra BLa(7K7]V7]aavT€(; ovtco<; eicoLfirj^rjaav iv Traaiv a(j)B6' 
voi<; TTavre^ oi arparccoTaL, iv ^vXaKy e')(pvTe^ tov Kcofjidp- 
')(rjv KoX ra reKva avrov ofiov iv 6(f)3^aXjiiGl<;. 30. Ty 8' 
iTTLOvarj rj/jiipa ^evot^&v Xa^cov rov /cci)fjLdp')(r)v Trpb^ Xetpi- 
cro^ov iiropevero* oirov heirapiob fcd)fJL7]v, irpeirero iTpo<^ rov<; 
iv raU Kco/Jiac<; Kal Karekdfji^ave 7ravra')(pv evco')(pv/JL€vov<; 
Kol €vBvfjiovfjLevov<;, Kal ovBa/JLo^ev d^lecrav nrplv irapa^etvai 
avrol^ dptarov 31. ovfc rjv S' ottov ov iraperi^eaav iirl 
rrjv avrr]v rpdire^av Kpea apveia, ipl^eia, ')(p[peLa, fJi6a')(eLa, 
6pvi^€La, axrv rroWol<; dprot^;, roL<; puev irvpivoi^ roc^ Se Kpc- 
S^LVOL^. 32. ^OiTore he n^ (f)t\o(f>povovfjL€v6<; r& j^ovKoiro 
rrpoiTLelVy etXicev iirl rov Kparrjpa* ev^ev iTrt/cvyJravra eSet 
po^ovvra irivecv coarTrep ^ovv. Kal r& Kcofidp')(ri iBlBoaav 
"kafi^dveiv o n /3ov\oLro. ^O Be dWo fJLev ovBev iBe')(ero • 
OTTOV he rcva rcov avyyevcov ihoi, tt/jo? eavrov del iXd/uL- 

33. ^Eirel he rfK^ov irpo^ Xeipicro^ov, Karekdfjb^avov Ka- 
KeCvov^ <TK7]vovvra<^, iare^avco/jLevov<; rov ^rjpov 'X^lKov are- 
<pdvoi<;, Kal hcaKovovvra<; ^Apfieviov<; iralha^ avv ral<; jSap" 
^apLKal<; (Tro\al<; • tp69 he Traccrlv iheiKwaav ojo-irep iveol^ 6 
ru heoi iroielv* 34. 'jEttgI he dXkrfKov^ i<^iko<^povrjG-avTO 
XeLpiao^o^ Kal Uevo^cov, Koivy hrj dvrjpcorcov rov K(Ofidp')(7}v 
hid rov irepcTii^ovro^ €pfJb7]veQ)<; t/? ecTj 97 %c6pa, ^O 8' eXejev 
on ^Apfjbevia. Kal rrdXiv rjpcorcov rivc oi lttttol rpe(f>oLvro. 
'O S' eXeyev on ^aaCKel hacrfjLo^* rf]v he ifXrjaiov %<w/7az; 
€^ elvac XaXvySa?, Kal rrjv ohbv ecj^pa^ev § ecTj. 35. Kal 
avrov rore fiev (p')(ero dycov 6 Uevo^&v 7rpo9 rov'^ eavrov 
olKera^, Kal ittttov ov eCKrj^ei ircCKairepov hihcoai r<p kco- 

LIB. IV. CAP. VI. 109 

f^^PXV cLva^pk'y^avTb Kara^vaac, on rjKovcrev^ avrov lepov 
elvau Tov ^HXiov^ SeStco^ fir] airdisdvrj* iKeKa/ccoro yap viro 
tr]<; iropeLa<; • avros Se rcov ircoXcop XafxjSdveL, koX to)v aXkcov 
(TTpaTTjywv Kol Xo'^aycbv eScofcev eKaarM ircokov, 36. ^Haav 
8' oi ravrrj lttttoo fxeiove^; [xev rcov UepcrcKcoVj ^vjuLoecSiaTepoc 
Se TToXv. ^Evrav^a St] kol ScSdcrfceL 6 KWjxdpj^r]^ Trepl tov<; 
TToSa? Tcov LTTTrcov Kot Tcov vTTO^vyLcov auKca TrepieCkelVy orav 
hia Tr]<; ^(lovo^ ayaxriv • avev yap tcov aa/cicov /careSvovro fxe- 
'^pt ttJ? yacTTpo^. 


1. 'JETrel he rj/iipa rjv oyhorj, tov fiep rjyefjbovct Trapahihcocrc 
Xecptaocf^q), tou? S' olK6Ta<^ /caTaXeLTrec roJ /cco/jbdp-^^rjj ttXtjv 
TOV vlov apTt rj^dafcovTO^. Tovtov S* ^ETrtcr^evei ^A/jbtptTroXi' 
TT] TrapaSiScoai (j)v\dTT€LV, otto)? el KaXw rjyrjoroLTO e^cov /cal 
tovtov aTTLOt, Kal eh tjjv oifccav avTov ela'e(f)6prjaav co? iSv- 
vavTO irXelaTa^ Kal dva^ev^avTe^ iiropevovTO, 2. 'HyeiTo S' 
avToh o /cco/jLdp')(7]<; XeXv/jiivo^ Bia yiovo^;, Kal 7]Srj t rjv ev 
tS TpLT(p aTa^fjiO) Kal XecpLao<po<^ avT& i'^aXeTrdv'^r] otl ovk 
eh Koofias rjyev, O S' eXeyev otl ovk elev ev tco tottg) tovtco, 
^O he XeipL(To^o<; avTov eiraiae jjbev, ehrjae S' ov. 3. 'jE/c he 
tovtov iKeXvo^ tt}? vvkto^ dirohpa^ VX^'^^ KaTaXiTTcbv tov vlov. 
TovTO ye hf] Xecpccrocj^q) Kal aevo^o)VTi, fiovov hcd(popov ev ttj 
TTopeia eyiveTO, rj tov r]yefJi6vo^ KdKcocTc^ Kal dfieXeia. ^Ettc- 
G-^evr]<; he rjpda^r] re tov iraiho^; Kal ocKahe KOfxiaa'^ iriaTOTa- 
T(p exprjTO. 

4. MeTci TOVTO iiropev^rja-av iiTTa <7Ta^fjLov<^ dvd irevTe 
irapaadyyas t% rj/jbipa^ 'jrapa tov ^dacv nroTafJuoVj evpos 
irXe^pLalov. 5. ^EvTev^ev eTropev^rjo-av aTa^/jbov^ huo irapa- 
adyyaf; heKa* eirl he Tjj eh to Trehiov vTrep/SoXfj dirrjVTrjaav 
avToh XdXv^e^ Kal Tdo')(Oi Kal ^aacavoL 6. XecpLo-o(f)o<^ 
he eirel KaTelhe tov^ iroXefjuiov^ eirl Ty vTrep^oXfj^ eirava-aTo 
7ropev6/xevo<;, dTr€)(cov o)9 TpiaKovTa aTahiov<;, tva fjurj KaTa 


Kepa<; dycov irXrjaLdcTrj toI^ iroXefjiLOC^; • irapriyjeike he koX toIs 
aWoLS Trapdyecv tou? \6^ov^^ ottco? eirl (f)d\ayyo^ jevoiTo to 
GTpdrevfia. 7. 'Eirel Se rjX^ov ol OTTca^ocj^vXa/ce^^ cvveKd- 
\eae rov^ o-rpaTTjyov^ koX \o'^ayov<;, koI eke^ev wSe • 

01 pLev iroXifiLoCj a)9 Spare, /carexovac Td<; V7rep/3oXa<; rod 
6pov<^ • oypa he ^ovXevea^at ottcos co? /caXXtcrra dycovcovpie^a, 
8. ^Efiol pLep ovp So/cel irapayyeCXai piev dpLa-TOTroiela^at rol^ 
arpaTLcoTai,^, rjpLa'; he ^ovXevea^ac ecre Trjpbepov eXre avpiov 
hoKel virep/SdXXeLV to opo<;. 9. 'EpLol he ye, e^rj 6 KXedvcop, 
ho/ceCi eirav Td^LcrTa dpiCTTrjcroypLev, e^oTrXtaapbevovs coj rd- 
'^iGTa levai eirl tov^ avhpa<^. El yap htaTpi^jropiev ttjp Tijpbe- 
pov ypiipav, ol Te vvv 6p(hvTe<^ rjpid<; TroXepicot ^appaXecorepoo 
eaovrai Kal dXXov<; el/co^; rovtoov ^appovvTcop iTXeiov<; irpoa- 

10. Mera tovtop ^epo^wp elirep' ^Eyco S' ovtco yiypdi- 
cnc(o • e^ piep apdyKH) ecrrl pbdj^ea^ai, tovto hel Trapaa/cevd- 
aaa^at ottcos ct)9 KpdTiCTTa pba'^ovpue^a' el he ^ovXopbe^a o)? 
paaTu virep^dXXecp, tovto pbov hoKel afceTTTeop elpai ottco^ co? 
iXd'^^cara puep TpavpuaTa Xd/3copLePj co? eXd')(L(TTa he acopbara 
^dvhpcop aTTO^dXcopLep, 11. To piep ovp opo<^ eaTL to opcopuepop 
TvXeop rj icf) e^rjicopTa crTdhia^ dphp€<; S' ovhapuov ^vXdrTOPTe^ 
rjpLo,^ (papepoL elaip dXX rj Kara Tavrrjp ttjp ohop • ttoXv ovp 
Kpelrrop tov eprjixov opov<; koI KXeyjrac to Trecpda^ai XaSoz/ra? 
fcal dpTrdaat (f>^daaPTa^ rjp hvpcopue^a pidXXop rj 7rpo<; lo")(vpd 
Xo^pia Kal dphpa<; rrapeo-fcevaapiepov^ pLd')(ea^aL. 12. TJoXv 
yap paop op^top dpLa')(el lepai rj 6pLaXe<; ep^ep /cal ep^ep vroXe- 
pb/xop oPTcop' Kal vvKTCop dpLa')(el pidXXop dp tcl irpo wohcop 
opcpT] Tt9 ij pie^' r]pLepap pba')(p piepos ' Kal rj Tpa')(ela T0Z9 ttooIp 
dpa')(el lover LP evpLepecrrepa rj opiaXrj ra? Ke^aXd<i fiaXXopbepoc^* 
13. Kal KXey^rat ovk dhvparop puot hoKel elpac, i^op puep vvkto^ 
lepat, o)? pLT] opda^at • i^op he aTreX^etp Toaovrop co? pLtj at- 
(T^rjacp Trapi'x^eLP. AoKovpieP h' dp pboi Tavrjj nrpoairoLovpLepoi 
iTpoajBdXkeiv iprjfjiOTepcp dp t(5 dXX(p opet '^(^prja^ac ' pbipocep 
yap avTOv p^dXXop d'bpooL ol iroXepaoi, 14. ''ATap rC iyco 
irepl KXoirrj^; 'Tpid<i yap eycoye, & XeLpc- 

LIB. IV. CAP. YI. lj[]^ 

o-oc^e, cLKOvoy rov^ AaKeSaL/iopiov; octol icrri r&u o/jlolcov ev^v<; 
ifc iralScov KkeTrreiv (xekerav • koX ov/c ala')(^pov elvai aXka 
KoXov KkeiTTeLV oaa firj KcoXvet vofjio^;, 15. ^ Ottco^; Se a><; Kpa- 
rca-ra KXeTrrrjre /cal ireipda^e Xav^dvetv, vofxtfiov apa vjjlIv 
ianv eav X7](j)^r]T€ KXeirTovre^ fMaarLjova^au Nvu ovv fid- 
Xa aoL Kaipo^ icrrcv iircSeL^aa^aL rrjv iraiheiav, /cal ^vXd^a- 
a^ac fievTOC fir] Xrjcj^^cofJLev KXeTrrovre^ tov opov^^ &)? fir] iroX- 
Xd^ TrXrj^d'^ Xd^oofjuev. 

16. ^AXXd fievTOL^ €(j)7} 6 Xeipicrocpo^;, fcdjoo vfia<; tov<; 
'A^Tjvaiov^ dfcovco Beivov^; elvat KXeTrretv rd SrjfjLoaLa, fcal 
fidXa OPTO^ heivov tov kivSvvov tgS /cXeTrrovrt, /cal tov<; /cpa- 
Ttarov^ fjL6PToc fxdXiaTa. elirep vfxtv ol /cpdrcarot, dp'^eiv d^c- 
ovvrai • coare copa /cal aol eTnheiKvva^aL rrjv iraiheiav. 17. 
^Eycb fiev TOivvVj e(pr] 6 'Bi€vocj)cov • eT0ifx6<; elfiu tovs OTna^o- 
(})vXaKa<; e^oyv eTrethdv SeiTrvijacofjLev ievai KaTaX7]yfr6fX€Vo<; to 
opo^, "E')(^co Se Kol rjjefjLova^ • ol yap jvfjLvr]T€9 tcov e<^eTTOfie' 
vcov rffuv kXcottcov eXaj36v TLva<^ evehpevaavTe^ • Ka\ tovtcov 
iTVv^dvofiai otl ovk d^aTov icTTC to opo^, dXXd vifjieTa, 
al^l /cal /3ov(TLV' a>aT6 idvTrep dira^ Xd/Scofjuev tc tov opov^^ 
/SaTa Kal toIs v7ro^vyLOL<; eaTat, 18. ^EXttl^o) Se ovSe tov<; 
TToXefjiiovi fjievelv €to iirecSdv Ihcocrtv r]fxd<^ ev tq) ofiotcp iirl 
TO)P d/cpcov • ovSe yap vvv i^iXovac /caTa/3aiv€cv rjfuv eh to 
Lcrov. 19. ^O Se Xetpicro(po<; elire • Kal tl Set ae levau Kal 
XelireLV ttjv oTrLa^ocpvXafccav ; dXX dXXov^ 7refi'\lroVj dv fir] 
Tive^ i^eXovaioo ^aivcovTac, 20. 'JS/c tovtov ^AptaTcovvfio^ 
M6^vSpcev<; ep^eTat oirXiTa^ ^X^^ ^^"^ ^ApcaT6a<; Xlos yvfivi]- 
Ta^ Kal NiKO/iia'x^o^ OlTalo<; yvfivrJTa^' Kal avv^r]fia eTronf]- 
aavTo OTTOTS e'xpiev Ta aKpa irvpd Kaletv TroXXd. TavTa aw- 
^6fi€Voc r]picrT(ov. 21. 'jE/c he tov dpiaTOv Tvpoiqyayev o 
XeLpi(ro(f>o<; to aTpdTevfia irdv a)9 heKa aTahiov^ irpo^ tou9 
TToXefiLov^^ 07rct)9 co? fidXicTTa hoKoir] TavTj] irpoad^eiv, 

22. ^Eireihr] he eheiTrvrfcrav Kal vv^ eyeveTo^ ol fxev Ta')^^ 
^eVre? S-^ovto, Kal KaTaXafi/Sdvovcrt to 6po<; • ol S' dXXoL 
avTov dveiravovTo. 01 he TroXe/icoc o)? fja^ovTO i'^ofievov to 
opo^j iyprjyopeaav Kal eKacov irvpd TroXXd htd vi^ov. 23. 


^EireL^ Be fjfxepa ijivero Xeipiao^o^ fjuev ^vaafievo^ rjje 
Kara rrjv ohov, oi he to opo^ Kardka^ovres Kara tcl aKpa 

24. To)V S' av TToXe/jiLCov to jjlIv ttoXv e/ievev iirl Tjj virep- 
^oXfj Tov opovs, /Jbepo^ S* avToyv airrjVTa toIs KaTa tcl aKpa, 
JJplv 8e 6/Jbov elvau tou? ttoXXou? dXKr)\oi<; crvinii^vvovcnv oi 
KaTa Ta aKpa, Kal VLKCoaiV ol ^'EXKrjve^ Kal SicoKovaov. 25. 
^Ep tovtco he Kal ol €k tov TreSlov ol fiev TrekTaaTal tcop ^EX- 
Xrjvcjdv 8p6/ji<p e^eov Trpo? tov<^ TrapaTeTayfievovg^ Xecplaocj^o^ 
Se ^dSrjv Ta^^v et^eiTreTo avv tov^ oTrXiTaL^* 26. 01 he iroXe- 
/jLtoc ol iirl Ty ohco eTrethfj to avco icopoov rjTTcopbevoVj (pevjovac 
Kal aire^avov jjbev ov ttoWoI avTcov, jeppa he TrdfiTToWa 
€X'i](f>^7] • a ol ^^EXX7]ve^ Tals /JLa^^alpai^ KoiTTOVTe'^ d')(^pela 
iTTOtovp. 27. 'if2<; S* dvi^rjaav, ^vaavTe^ Kal Tpoiraiov crTrj- 
G-djuLepoc KaTe^rjcrav eh to Trehiov^ Kal eh Kco/jua^ ttoXXcov Kal 
dya^cov je/xovaa^ ^X^ov, 


1. ^Ek he TOVTCOV eiropev^rjo-av eh Tao^ov^; (rra^yctou? 
TrevT6 Trapaadyya^ TptdKOPTa* Kal Ta eTriTrjheca eireXiTre* 
X^typici yap Skovv lo-'xypd ol Tdo'x^oc, ep oh Kal Ta eTrcTTJheca 
TvdpTa el^op dpaKeKojJLicrfJiepoL. 2. 'JEttcI he dcpucoPTO eh 
')((opiop htoXlv fzep ovk el')(ev ovh' OLKta^, o-ypeXrjXv^oTe^; S' 
r/aap avToae Kal dphpe<; Kal yvpalKe<; Kal kttjpt] TroXXd, Xecpt^ 
ao(f)o^ fjLep 7rpo9 tovto Trpoae/SaXXep ev^v<; rjKWP ' iTrechrj he 77 
TrpcoTTj Td^c^ aTreKa/jipePj dXXr] Trpocrrjeu Kal aif^i^ dXXrj • ov 
yap Tjp d^p6ot<^ TrepLaTTJpac, dXXd 7roTa/JLb<; r)p kvkXw, 3. 
ETrethrj he Bepocpcop rjX^e avv Toh OTTia^ocpvXa^i Kal ireXTa- 
GTah Kal oifXiTai'^^ ePTav^a ht) Xeyec XetpLcrocpo^ • Eh KaXov 
TjKeTe* TO yap j(wp[op alpeTeop'Tj} yap crTpaTca ovk eaTC Ta 
iTTLTijSeia, el /jlt] Xrjylrofjie'^a to ')(wpLOP, 

4. hpTav^a hrj Kotpf) e/SovXevoPTo * Kal tov aepo(f>coPTO<; 
ipcoTWPTos TL TO KcoXvop €irj eldeX'^elp, eliTev 6 XeLpi<Toj>o<: • 

LIB. IV. CAP. VII. 113 

^AWa fxia avTTj 7rdpoS6<; eariv rjv 6 pas • orav he tl<; ravrr] 
ireipaTau irapievai, KvkivhovaL Xl^ovs virep Tavrrj^ T779 virep- 
€^ova7]<; nrirpas • 09 S' av fcaTa\r](p'iifj, ovrco Stari^eTac, 
^' Afia S* eSec^e avvreTpcjufievovs av^pooirovs koX a/ceXrj Kal 
7r\€upd<;. 5. 'Hv Se rov^ Xt^ou? dvaXcocrooaLP, ecfyrj 6 Sei/o- 
(j)(i)Vj aXXo TC Tj ovhev /cooXvec irapcivac ; ov yap Srj i/c rov 
evavTiov opwjiev el /ifj dXijovs tovtovs dv^pd)TTOV<; • Kal rov- 
T(ov hvo Tj TpeL<; (hTrXccrfievov^. 6. To Be ')((opiov, w<; Kal av 
6pa<^j o-'^eSbv rpia rj/jLiTrXe^pd eanv o hel /SaXXo/Jiivov^; BceX- 
^€LV, TovTou Be oaov nrXe^pov Baav irirvcTL SiaXetTrovcraLS 
fieydXaL<;^ dv^^ &v e(TT7]K6Te<; av8pe<; tl dv irdc'^ocev rj vivo 
Twv (pepofjLevcov Xl^cov rj vtto tcop KvXLvBovfievcov ; to Xolttov 
ovv TjBri yijveTai 009 rjjubLTrXe'^poPj b Bel orav Xoo(f>7]acoacv ol 
Xl^ob TrapaSpa/jLelv. 7. ^AXX^ eu^u?, e^r] 6 Xetpiao(pos, eirei- 
Bdv dp^cofjLe^a eh to Baav irpo<nevai^ (bepovTac ol Xl^ot ttoX- 
XoL AvTo dv, e(j)7]y TO Beov elrj* ^aTTov jdp dvaXcoaovcro 
T0U9 Xl^ov^. ^AXXd TTopevcofJie^a ev^ev tjilllv fxiKpov to irapa- 
Bpafxelv ecTTat rjv Bvv(i>/jLe^a, Kal direX^eLV paBcov rjv /SovXco- 

8. ^EvTev^ev enropevovTO XecpLG'0(})0<; Kal ^evocj^cov Kal 
KaXXiiia')(o^ TIappdaio<^ Xo'^ayos • {tovtov <ydp rj riyepLovia rjv 
Tcov 67rLa^o(j}vXdKcov Xoj(ay(hv eKeivrj Ty rjfJ^epa •) ol Be dXXoc 
Xo^ayol ejnevov ev tS dcr^aXel. MeTa tovto ovv dirfjX^ov 
VTTO TCL BevBpa dv^pcoiroc d}<; e^BojurJKOVTa, ovk d^pooi dXXd 
Ka^' evay €Kao-To<; <^vXaTT6fJLevo<s a)9 eBvvaTO, 9. ^Ayaaia^^ Be 
6 XTViJbj)dXio^ Kal ^ApcaTcovvfJio^; Me'^vBptev^ Kal ovtoc tcov 
67na^o(j)vXdKQ)V Xo)(^ajol ovTes^ koI oXXol Be, e^eaTacrav e^co 
TCOV BevBpcov ov yap rjv da^aXes ev toc<; BevBpoL<; eaTdvai 
irXelov rj tov eva X6')(pv. 10. "Ev'^a Brj Kai KaXXlpLa')(o<^ 
fi7]')(avdTao to • nrpoeTpe')(ev dirb tov BivBpov vcf> & rjv avTo<^ 
Bvo rj Tpia /3rjfJLaTa • eVel Be ol Xl^oc ^epotvTO, dve^d^eTo ev- 
7r6TW9 • €(}> eKd<TT7]<; Be irpoBpopbrj^ rrXeov rj BeKa dfia^at Tre- 
Tpcov dvrjXicTKOVTO. 11. ^O Be ^ Ayaaias w? opa tov KaXXi- 
piaj(ov a eTTOieij Kal to (TTpaTevfia irdv ^ecofievov, Belaa^ fxr] 
ov TTpwTo^ irapaBpdfjLoc eh to '^(copcoVj ovTe tov ^ApLo-Tcovvfiov 


TrXTjalov opra irapaKoXeaa^; ovre EvpvKo')(pv rov Aovatea 
eralpov^ ovra^ ovt oXkov ovheva X^iypel avro^, koI 7rapep')(e' 
rat irdvra^. 12. 'O he KaXKi[Jia')(p<^ 0)9 edypa avrov irapt- 
ovray iTrtXa/jL^dverat avrov tt]^ Xtvo^ • ev he toutw irape^et 
avTov^ 'Apiarcovv/JLOf; MeS^vhpteiK;, koX fiera rovrov EvpiiXo- 
')(0'^ Aovatev^' TrdvTe^ ^yap ovrou dvreTTOiovvTO dpeTri<; /cat 
hcrjrycovl^opTO 7rpo9 dXK')]\ov^ • Kol ovrco^ ipL^ovTe<; alpovcn to 
')((opiov. 'f2<; jap dira^ elaehpafjLov, ovheU irerpo^ dvco^ev 
r)ve')(^rj. 13. ^EvravSa hrj hecvbv rjv Mafia' at jdp yvvalKe^ 
piTTTovaaL rd iraihia elra KaX eavrd^; eTrt/careppiiTTOVV ' fcal 
ol dvhpe^ d)aavT(o<;. "Ev^a hrj Kal Alvea^ SrvfM(})d\to^ Xo;)^a- 
709 Ihcov Tiva S^iovra 0)9 pi^ovra iavrov crrdXrjv e')(pvTa 
Ka\r]v iTTcXafi^dveraA 0)9 KcoXvacov. 14. ^O 8' avrov i'Trc- 
(TTrdraiy Kal dfK^orepoL M')(ovro Kara rcov rrerpcov (})€p6/jLevoo 
Kal direB^avov, ^EvrevS^ev dv^pcoirot [lev nrdvv oXiyoc eKrj- 
(p^craVj /96e9 he Kal ovoi iroXkol Kal rrpo^ara. 

15. ^EvrevBev erropev^rjaav hid XaXv^cov craB/jLOv^; 
errrd irapaordjja<; i^evrriKovra. Ovroi rjaav S)v hirjX^ov d\- 
KCficoraroL, Kal eh x^^P^^ yecrav. el^pv he ^copaKa^; Xcvov<; 
j^expf' rod rjTpov, dvrl he rcov irrepvycov crirdpra irvKvd 
iarpa/Jifjueva, 16. El^pv he Kal Kvrjfiiha^; Kal Kpdvrj Kal rra- 
pa rrjv ^(ov7]v jjia^ciipiov oaov ^vrfKrjv AaKcoviKrjv, S eacpar- 
rov &v Kparelv hvvaivro • Kal drrorefivovre^ dv rd<; Ke(j)a\d<; 
e^pvre^ iiropevovro ' Kal yhov Kal e^ppevov oirore ol rrdXe- 
fiiOL avrov<^ o-^ea^ai efieXXov • el^pv he Kal hopv 0)9 irevre- 
KaiheKa irrj^f^v filav Xoy^V^ ^X^^' Ovroo evefxevov iv rol<; 
TToXiafiao-iv IT. irrel herrapek^oievofEXKr}ve^y€^L7rovro 
del iiaxpfievoL • mkovv he iv roc^ o^vpoL^ • Kal rd emrrjheLa 
iv rovroL<; dvaKeKOfivcrfievoL fjcrav ware fjLrjhev Xa/jL^dvetv 
avroS^ev rov<; '^EWrjva^;, dXkd hcerpdcprjaav T0Z9 Krrjveaiv d 
iK rcov Tao^cov eXa^ov. 18. ^Ek rovrov ol ^^EXXrjve^ dcj^t- 
Kovrc iirl rov ''Apiraaov rrorafjiov, evpo^ rerrdpcov rrXe^pcov. 
'EvrevS-ev iTropevBrjcrav hid ^kvS^lvcov crra^fiov^ rerrapa^ 
7rapao-dyya<; eUoau hid rrehiov et9 KcofMa^* iv ah efieLvav 
rifjLepa<; rpel^ Kal iTreatrLcravro. 

LIB. IV. CAP. VII. 115 

19. 'Evr€v3-6V Be rjXSov araS^fJiov^ rerrapa^ irapa(jwy^a<^ 
eUocn 7rpo<; iroXiv fie^aXriv koX evBaijxova /cal 0LK0v/jLev7]v • fj 
eKoXelro Fv/xvia^. 'E/c ravTT]^ 6 tt)? %a>p«'9 cip'x^cov toi<^ 
''EXKr]cnv r^^ejJLova irk^iirei, oirco^; Bta Trj<; eavrcov TTokepbla^ 
X^p^^ ^yo^ ayTov'^, 20. ^EX^o)V S' 6/c€LV0^ Xiyeo ore d^ec 
avTOV^ Trevre rjfjbepcbv etV ')(copLOV o^ev oyjrovrac ^akarrav • el 
Be fiTj, re^vdvav iTrrjyyeWero. Kal '^yovfjLevo<; eireihr) eve^a- 
Xep el<i T7]v eavrol^ Trdke/jLiav, Trape/ceXevero allS-etv /cat (jbrjet- 
pecv rrjv '^((opav' S fcal BrjXov eyevero on tovtov eve/ca eXSoo, 
ov T?}9 Tcov ^EXXrjvcov evvoia^. 21. Kal dcpCKVOvvrau eirl to 
opo^ rfi Tre/jLTTTy r]iiepa* ovofia Be t& opeo rjv @rj')(r}^, ^ETreL- 
Br] Be ol TrpcoTOL eyevovro eirl rod 6pov<; /cal /carelBov rrjv 
^dXarrav, /cpavyrj ttoXXt) eyevero. 22. ^AKOvaa^ Be 6 Hez^o- 
^(hv Kal oi oina^oc^vXaKe^ a>i]3^aav epurpocr^ev dXXov<; 
eTnTL^ea^au iroXefJuiov^ • eXirovTO yap Kal oircaBev ol eK rfj^ 
Kaiofievri^ X^P^^ ' '^^^ auroiz/ ol oincr^o^vXaKe^ direKTeLvdv 
re Tcpa<; Kal e^coyprjaav eveBpav irotTjad/jievoc • Kal yeppa eXa- 
jSoz/ Baaeioyv ^ocov wfio^oeia d/jL(j)l rd eiKoaiv, 

23. ^ETrecBf) Be ^cfj irXeicDV re eyiyvero Kal iyyvrepov Kal 
ol del eiTLovre^ eBeov Bpo/XG) eirl tov<; del ^ocovra^; Kal ttoXXo) 
[Mec^cov eyiyvero t] ^ot] oao) Brj TrXeiov^; eylyvovro, eBoKei Brj 
fMel^ov rt elvai rS 'Sevo^covrc. 24. Kal dva/3d<; ecj^ tinrov 
Kal AvKLov Kal rov<^ tTTTrea? dvaXa^oov irape^orj^eb • Kal 
rd^a Brj dKOVOvat ^ocovrcov ro)v arparicorS)V QdXarra Sd- 
Xarra Kal irapeyyvcovrcov. "EvSa Brj eBeov diravre^ Kal ol 
67na^o(l>vXaKe<;, Kal rd vTro^vyia rjXavvero Kal ol Xitttol, 
25. ^Eirel Be dcf^cKovro irdvr€<; errl ro aKpov, evrav^a By 
Trepce/SaXXov dXX7]Xov<; Kal o-rparrjyov^ Kal Xo^cf/yov^ BaKpv- 
ovre^. Kal e^arrlvT]^ orov Br) Trapeyyvijaavro^ ol crrpartco' 
rat (pepovcTL Xl9^ov<; Kal rroiovaL koXcovov fieyav.^ 26. ^Ev- 
rav^a dveri^ecrav Bepfidrcov ttXtj^o^; oo/jLo^oeicov Kal ^aKri]- 
pia<; Kal rd al^J^dXcora yeppa, Kal 6 rjyefjLcbv avro^ re 
Karerejxve rd yeppa Kal rol<; dXXoi^ BceKeXevero. 27. Merd 
ravra rov rjyefjiova ol ^^EXX7]ve(; drroTre/jLTTOvac, Bcopa Bovre^; 
airb KOLVov lttttov Kal ^tdXrjv dpyvpdv Kal crKevrjv UepcLKrjv 


Kol Sap€LKOV<^ Bifca' yrec Se fiaKiG-ra tov<; haiCTvkiov^;^ fcal 
eka^e iroXkovs nrapa rcov G-rparicoTcov. Kcofirjv Be Bei^a^ 
avTol<; ov (TKrjvrjcrovG'L fcal rrjv oBov rjv iropevaovTai eU Md- 
/cpcovas, eVel eairepa iyeveTO, (px^ro Tr]<^ vvfcrbs aTTCcov. 


1. ^EvTevS-ev 8' iTropevBTjaav ol ^^EXKif]ve^ Blcl Mafcpcovcov 
G-ra^fjiov<; rpel^ 7rapaadjja<; BeKU, Trj Trpcory Be V/^epa 
d(pifcovTO eirl rbv Trorafiov 09 SypL^e rrjv twv MaKpcovcov %c6- 
pav KOI rrjv r&v SfcvBivcov, 2. El^pv S' virepBe^cov ^l^piov 
olov x^XeTTcorarov fcal e^ dptcTTepd^; dXkov irorafjiov eh ov 
epe/3aWev 6 opi^cov Be ov eBec BcafirjvaL. ^Hv Be ovro^ Ba- 
crL'9 BevBpeaL irax^cn fjuev ov, irvKvoh Be. Tavra iTrel nrpod' 
ijXBov ol ^^EW7]ve<; e/coTrrov, airevBovre^ e/c rod ^^plov co? 
Td^f-aTa e^eXS^elv. 3. 01 Be Mdfcpcovef; e%oi^T69 yep pa koI 
^^7%a9 /cat TpLx^vov^ 'X.^rSyva^ KaravTiiTepa^ rrj^; Bca^daeco^ 
iraparerayiMevoL rjaav KoX dXKrfKoL^ BtetceXevovTO koX Xl^ov^ 
eh TOP irorafiov eppiiTTovv • e^LKVovvro Be ov ovS* e^airrov 

4. "Ev^a Br) Trpoaepx^rat to3 Hevo(f>(ovTL tcov ireKraG-T&v 
TL9 dvr)p ^AS^vrjac ^daKcov BeBovXevKevai, "Xeycov on, yLyvot)- 
(TKOi rfjv (j^covrjv tcov dvSpcoircov, Kal olfiac, et^r], e/xrjv rav- 
rrjv irarpiBa elvai • Kai, el fjurj tl KcoXveu e^ekco avroh Bca- 
Xex^l^cii, 5. 'AX)C ovBev KcoXvec, e(j)7) • dWd Bcdkeyov /cal 
jid^e irpMTov avrcov Tlve<^ elcriv. 01 8' elirov epcorrjaavTO^ 
OTL Md/cpcove^, J'Epcora TOivvv, e(j)r], avrov^ tl avTCTeTd^ci' 
Taiy KoX xpV^ovatv r/fxlv iroXepbcot elvat • 6. 01 S* dire/cpi- 
vavTo • ^^Otl Kal vpueh eirl ttjv '^pueTepav 'X^pav ep^^aBe. 
Aeyeiv eKekevov ol cTTpaTTjyol oto ov KaKco<; ye 7roc7]aovTe<^y 
aXKa ^acTikel 7ro\efJL7](7avTe<; direp^pp^^^ct eh Trjv ^EWdBa, 
Kal iirl SdXaTTav ^ovXofjieBa d^CKea^ac. 7. ^HpdoTcov eKel- 
VOL el Bolev av tovtcov tcl incrTd, 01 S' ecj^acrav Kal Bovvav 
Kal Xa^elv eS^eXecv. ""EvTev^ev BiBoao-LV ol MdKpcove^ ^ap- 



/3apLfcf}V Xoyxv^ '^^^^ '^EWrjcrcv, ol he '^EXkrjve^; eKeivot^ 'EX- 
X7]VLfC7]V ' ravra yap €(j)aaav TTiara elvai • B€ov<; S' iTre/jLapTv- 
pavTO afKporepoL. 

8. Mera Be ra Tncrra ev3^v<; ol Md/cpcove<; tcl BevSpa 
Gwe^efCOTTTOV Tii]V re oSbv ooBottolovv w? SLafit/3do'0VTe<; ev 
fjLeaoi^ dvapLejiiypievoi Tot<^ ^'EXKrjdLV • KaX dyopav oiav iSv- 
vavTO Trapel^ov • koX Birjyayov ev rpcalv yjJiepai^ €co<; eVt ra 
K6\')((i)v opia /careaTTjaav tou9 '^EW7]va<;. 9. 'EvravSa rjv 
opo^ ybkya, irpoa^arov Be • fcal iirl rovrov ol K6\')(oi nrapa- 
rerajfjievoi r](jav, Kal to fiev irpcorov ol '^EXkTjve^ avTiira- 
perd^avTO Kara (pdXayja co? ovrco^; a^ovre^ Trpo? to opo<;* 
eireuTa Be eBo^e Toh G-TpaTrjyoL<^ ^ovXevaaa^ai avWeyeccnp 
OTTCO^ cd^ KoXKiGTa dycoviovvTat* 10. ^'EXe^ev ovv aevocpcov 
OTC Bofcel 7rav(TavTa<; t7]v (j^dXajya \6')(ov^ 6p3^Lov<; irotfjcraf 
7] [lev yap (j)d\ay^ BiaaTraG'^rjO'eTai €vBv<; • ttj [lev yap avo- 
Bov T/7 Be evoBov evpijaofiev to 6po<; • Kal ev3^v<; tovto d^vfiiav 
iroiTjaev oTav TeTayfievoL e^? f^dXayya TavTTjv Bteo-Tracr/JLevrjv 
opdxTtv. 11. ''EirecTa rjv filv eirl ttoWou? TeTayfievoi irpoad- 
ycofievy irepLTTevcrovG-iv rj/jucov ol iroXe/Jitoc Kal T0t9 TrepcTTOc^ 
')(p7]crovTai o tl av ^ovXcovTac • iav S' iirl oXtycov TeTay/jbivot 
cco/jiev, ovBev av e'crj ^av/iaaTov el BiaKoireirj 97/xcoi/ r) (j)d\ay^ 
VTTO dSpocov Kal /3e\(ov Kal avS^pcoircov av/JbiTeaovTCOV ' el Be 
ITT] TOVTO ecTTai, Trj oKrj (j)d\ayyL KaKov eaTac, 12. ^AWd 
fioc BoKel 6p3'LOV<; tov<; \6')(pv<; TroLrjcafievovf; ToaovTov ')((optov 
KaTa(T')(elv BcaXcTTOVTa^; toI^ \6')^ot'; oaov e^co tou9 ea')(jdTOV<^ 
\6')(ov<^ yevea^ai tcov iroXe/JLLcov KepdTCov • Kal ovtco<^ eaofie^a 
Tri<^ Te T(ov iroXefjLLcov <^dkayyo<^ e^co ol €crj(^aTOL X6)(ol, Kal 
6p^L0v<^ ayovTe^ ol Kp^TiaTOL rjfJLcov irpcoTOL irpocrLacrLV, y Te 
av evoBov § TavTy eKacTTO'^ a^^L o \6')(o^, 13. elV Te to 
BiaXelirov ov paBtov^ eaTac toc<^ nrdXeixloL^ elaeXSecv ev^ev 
Kal ev^ev \6')((ov ovtcov, BiaKo^^rai Te ov paBcov eo-Tac \6')(ov 
op^Lov TrpoacovTa. ^Edv Te tl^ Tne^rjTac tcov Xo^o^v, 6 ttXt]- 
cTiov fio7]B7]<Tef 7]V Te eh itt] Bwij^fj tcov \6')(cov iirl to ccKpov 
dva^rjvai, ovBeh /jirjKeTL iieivrj tcov TroXefilcov. 14. TavTa 
eBo^e, Kal eiroiovv op^iov^; tov<^ Xo^ov^. Bevo^&v Be aTnoov 


eVl TO evcovvjJLOV airo rov Se^cov eXeye roh G-Tparidyrai^* 
^'AvZpe^y ovTOL eldiv ov^ opare p^ovoi en rjpfiv ep^irohcov to pbT] 
Y)hrj ehai ev^a irakaL eairevhop^ev tovtov<; rfv irco^ Swcop^e^a 
KoX d^iiov<i hel KaTa^ayelv. 

15. 'Eirel S' ev tol^ ')(copaL<^ eicacTTOL eyevovTo fcal tou9 

Xo'Xpv^ 6p3-LOv<; eTTOLTjaavTO, eyevovTO p^ev "XoyoL tcov ottXctcov 

ap.^1 TOV<; oyhorjKOVTa, 6 he X6')(^o<; efcacrTO<; a')(ehov ek tov^ 

efcaTOV • Tov^ Be TreXTacrTa^ koX tov^ TO^oTa^ '^P^XV ^'^^^"h' 

(javTOy Tov<; puev tov evcovvpiov e^co, tov^ 8e tov Be^cov, tov<; 

Be /caTCL p^eaov, ^^(eBov e^aKocTLOV^ e/cdaTov^, 16, ^Efc tov- 

TOV Trap7]yyvr]G-av ol crTpaTTjyol ev')(eG^ai • ev^dpuevoL Be koX 

7ratavLaavTe<; eTTopevovTO, Kal XecpLao(})o^ pLev koX aevocpcov 

Kol ol (Tvv avTol<; TrekTacTTaX tt}? Toyv iroXepLLCOv (^dXayyo^ 

e^co yevopievob iiropevovTO • 17. o I Be iroXepnoL 0)9 elBov av- 

Tov<^, dvTLTrapa^eovre^ ol puev eirl to Be^tov ol Be iirl rb evco- 

vvfiov Bieairda^riGrav, Kal ttoXv ttj^ eavTwv (j)dXayyo<; ev tm 

pLearp /cevov enroiriaav, 18. ^IBovTe^ Be avTov^ BLa')(d^ovTa^ 

ol KaTcb TO ^ ApKaBiKov TreXTacTTaiy &v rjp')(ev Ala')(^ivrj<; 6 

^AKapvdv, vopiiaavTe^ ^evyetv dva KpdTO^ e^eov koI ovtol 

TTpcoTOL enrl to 6po<; dva^aivovcn • cvvecj^eiTreTo Be avTol^ /cat 

TO ^ApicaBiKov OTrXiTLKoVy a)v ^px^ KXedvcop 6 ^Op')(opbevLo<;. 

19. 01 Be TToXepLiOL co? rjp^avTo Selv, ov/cerc ecTTTjaav, dXXa 

(})vyfj dXXo^ dXXrj eTpdireTO. 01 Be ^^EXX7]ve<; dvaj3dvTe<; 

icTpaTOTreBevovTO ev iroXXal^; fccopiaL^; fcal TaTnTriBeia iroXXa 

e')(ov(7ai^, 20. K.aX tcl puev dXXa ovBev rjv 6 tl koX iSavpia- 

aav TO, Be apL^VTj TroXXd rjv avToS^t, /cat tcov fcrjplcov oaob 

e(f)ayov tcov crTpaTtcoTcov TrdvTe<^ d(f)pove<; re eylyvovTO koX 

7]iiovv Kal KdTco Bie')((i)pei avTol<; Kal 6pS^o<; ovBeh rjBvvaTO 

LCTTaa^ac • aW' ol puev oXiyov eBrjBoKOTe^ a(j)6Bpa pie^vovcnv 

ecpKecrav • ol Be ttoXv piaLVopLevoL<; • ol Be Kal diro^vrjorKovaiv. 

21. 'EKetVTO Be ovtco ttoXXoI ioo-irep Tpoirrj^; yeyevr}pLevr]<;y Kal 

ttoXXt) Tjv d%pLia. Tfj B' varepala dire^ave piev ovBek, 

ap.(^i Be TTjv avTrjv ttov copav dvecf^povovv • TpiTrj Be Kal re- 

TapTj) uvlaTavTo cocrTrep eV ^appbaKOTToaia^. 

22. EvTev^ev B' eTropev^r^aav Bvo dTa^pbov^; irapaadyya<^ 

LIB. IV. CAP. VIII. 119 

eTrrdj /cat rj\Sov iirl S^aXarrav eh Tpaire^ovvra itoXlv 'EX- 
\7]viha oiKov/JiivTjv, iv tm Ev^eivcp TLovrcp ScvcoTricov airoi- 
Kiav iv rfi K6\')(cov X^P^' ^EvravBa efjieivav r^fxepa^ cl/jl^I 
Ta9 TptaKovra iv rah rcov KoX^^v /ccofjuac^;. 23. Kavrev^ev 
6p/jLco/jLevoL iXTj'l^ovTO rr]v KoX^^Ba, ^Ayopav Be Trapel^pv tco 
(7TpaTonTeh(p TpaTre^ovvrioCy koI iSe^avro re tov<; ^^EXX7]va<; 
KOI ^evia ehocrav ySoi)? Kol aX^Lra koX olvov. 24. ^vvSce- 
TrpdrrovTO Be fcal virep tcov irXrja-lov KoX^cdv twv iv tm 
ireBicp iidXiara oIkovvtcov • koX ^evca kol Trap* ixeivcov 
rjXSov yS6€9. 25. Mera Be tovto ttjv ^valav rjv ev^avro 
TrapecTKevd^ovTO. "^HX^ov Be avroh iKavoX ySoe? dird^vcrai 
TO) All TO) Scorrjpc koX tS> 'Hpa/cXel rjyejJLOcTvva Kol roh dX- 
Xot'^ Be ^eoh a ev^avro. ^ETrocrjaav Be /cat djcova yv/ivcKov 
iv Tft) Spec ev^airep icr/ajvovv • elXovro Be ApaKovrcov Xirap- 
TidrriVy (o9 €(j)vye irah en &v o'c/co^ev, iralBa ukcov KaraKra- 
vcov ^vrjXrj irard^a^;,) Bpo/jLOV re iTrcfjLeXrjSTJvaL fcal rod djco' 
vo<; irpoG-rarriaaL, 

26. ^EireiBr} Be y S^vcrca iyevero, rd Bepfiara irapeBoaav 
Tft) ApaKOVTLCpy fcal rjyelorSai iKeXevov ottov tov Bpofiov ire- 
iT0L7]Kdi^ eirj, ^O Be Bei^a^ ovTrep ecrrrjKore^; iTvy')(avov, 
OvTO<; 6 X6^09, e(f)r], fcdXXiaTO<; Tpej(eiv ottov dv tl<; ^ovXtj- 
rac, ITw9 ovv, e^acrav, Bwijo-ovrat TraXaiecv iv <T/cX7]po} fcal 
Baael ovrco ; ^O Be elire • MaXXov n dvcdaeraL 6 Karaire- 
acov. 27. ^Hycovi^ovTO Be 7rat8e9 /Jiev ardBcov tcov alxf^ciXco- 
TCOV ol TrXeiCTTOC, BoXt^pv Be Kpr]Te<; irXecov^ rj e^rjKOVTa 
e^eov • TrdXijv Be kol Trvyfjuriv /cat iray/cpdTiov eTepoc, Kal 
/caXr) S^ea iyeveTO • iroXXol yap KaTej^rjaav kol uTe S^eco/ievcov 
TCOV eTaipcov ttoXXtj (^CXoveLfcla iyeveTO. 28. ^'ES-eov Be /cal 
LTTTTOC •* Kol cBei avTOV^ KaTa TOV TTpavov^ iXdcravTa<; iv ttj 
S^aXdTTT) dva(TTpe'y^avTa<; irdXcv dvco 7r/509 tov ^cofiov dyeiv. 
Kal fcdTCo fjbev ol iroXXol i/cvXcvBovvTO • dvco Be irpo<^ to Icryy- 
pco<^ opBcov fJLoXi^ fidBrjv irropevovTO ol Xttttol, ''Ev^a iroXXr) 
fcpavyrj Kal yeXco<i Kal irapaKeXevcn^; iyiyveTo avTcov. 



CAP. I. 

^'OXA fiev Br] iv TTj dva^daeo ry /jLera Kvpov eirpa^av ol 
^'EXK7]ve<; • koX oaa iv rfj iropela ry fJi6')(pi^ eirl J^aXarrav rrjv 
iv Tc3 Ev^ecvG) UovToyy koX 0)9 ^U Tpaire^ovvra irokiv ^EWt]- 
viSa d(j>L/covTo, Kol 009 dire^vaav a ev^avro (TcoTTJpca ^vcreiv 
evS^a TTpcoTOV eh ^tXiav <yr]V d^iKOLvro, iv to) irpoa^ev 'K6^(p 
hehrfKcorai. 2. 'jEa: Se tovtov avvek^ovre^ i^ovXevovro irepl 
Tri<; XoLirrjf; 7ropeia<;. ^AvearTj Be TTpcoro^ ^AvrcXicov Oovpco^, 
KoX eke^ev 0)Be * ^Eyob fiev rocvvVy e^r], o) dvBpe^, dTrelprj/ca 
7]B7j GvaKeva^ofievo^ koI ^aBl^cov fcal Tpe')((DV KaX ra oifka 
^epcov KoX iv rd^ec Icov kol <pv\aKa<; (puKdrrcov kol fJLa')(6/jL€' 
vo<; • iiTL^vp^co Be yBrj Travcrdfievo^; tovtov tcov itovcov, iirel 
S^dXaTTav ej(ojJiev, irXelv to Xoottov koX i/cTaSel<; &(7irep 
^OBvcrcrev<; fca^evBcov d^LKea^ai eU ttjv 'EXkdBa, 3. TavTU 
d/covcravTe<; ol crTpaTLcoTav dveS^opvjSrjcrav co? ev \eyot • /cat 
aXXo9 TavTCb eXeye, /cat irdvTe^; ol irap6vTe<;. ^'EireiTa Be 
Xecpicrocj^o^ dvecTTT] /cat elirev &Be, 4. $/Xo9 /xot iaTCV^ & 
dvBpe<;, ^Ava^ij3io<;, vavap')(S)V Be /cal Tvy')(dveL. *IIv ovv 
irefx-y^Te /le, oXofxau dv iXS^elv kol TpLr}peL^ ^X^^ '^^^ irkola 
TCL 7}/jLd<^ d^ovTa. 'T/ieh B' eiirep ifKelv ^ovXeaS^e, irepijjii- 
veTe eaT dv ijco eX^co • 7]^co Be Ta'xeco^* ^ AKOvaavTe^ TavTU 
ol aTpaTLcoTac 7]or!^r)0'dv t€ kol i^}rrj^io'avTO irXelv avTOV a)9 


LIB. Y. CAP. I. 121 

5. Mera tovtov ^evoj)(ov avearT] kol eke^ev &he • Xecpi- 
(TO(f>o^ fjiev Br) GTrl nfkolci areXKerai, 'rj/jLel^ Se dvafjuevov/jiev. 
^'Oaa fJbOL ovv Bo/cel KaLpo<^ elvau iroielv ev rfj [lovfi, ravra 
ipcb. 6. TIpooTov fiev ra eirLTrjBeLa Bel iropi^eaB^av etc Tri<^ 
7r6\e/jLLa^ • ovre jap dyopd icTTiv i/cavr) ovre otgv wvrjaofie^a 
evTTopia el fjbrj oKijQL<^ tculv i) Be ')(0)pa irdXefiia' klvBvvo^ 
ovv TToXKov'^ diroKKvor^aL, rjV ajJueXw^ re koX d(^vKdicT(D^ 
iropevi^aBe eVl ra eTririijBeLa, 7. ^AXkd (jlol Bo/cel avv irpo- 
vojJLaL^ Xa/i^dvecv rd e7riT7]BeLa, dXk(o<; Be fir) ifXavdcr^aL, o)? 
aco^r)(T3^e • '^/id^; Be tovtcdv iTrtfJLeXetcrSaL. 8. ''EBo^e ravra, 
"Etc roLvvv dKOvaare koX rdBe. ^Errl \eiav jdp v/jLa)v i/ciro- 
pevcrovrai rive<^, Otofzav ovv ^ekriov elvac r]fuv elirelv rov 
[leKXovra e^civai, (j)pd^eiv Be /cal ottol, iva /cal rb 7r\rjSo<^ 
elBojjiev rcbv e^iovrcov kol tcov fxevovrcov fcal avfiirapacncevd- 
^(ojjLev idv rt Bey • /cdv ^or)3-rjo'aL rcat fcaLpo<; y, elBoj/jbev ottol 
Berjcrei ^or)Betv • /cat idv rc^ rcov dTrecporepcov ej')(eLpf) n 
rrotelv, av/j./3ov\evco/jiev TreLpayjJLevob elBevat rrjv BvvajJLiv ec^' 
o&? dv tcocTiv. "EBo^e fcal ravra. 9. ^Evvoelre Be /cal roBe, 
e(j)r), ^')(o\r) rol^ iroXefiLoi^ \7]t^e(7^aL' Kal Bi/caLco<; i^fitv 
iiri/SovXevovcTiv * exojjiev <ydp rd e/ceivcov* v7rep/cdS^r)vraL S' 
r)fjL(ov, ^v\aKa<; Bq fioL Bo/cet Becv ire pi rb crrparoTreBov 
elvai. ^Edv ovv /card [lepo^ /JLepia^evre^; (j)v\drrco/jLev /cal 
a/coTTCo/Jbev, rjrrov dv Bvvatvro rj/jLd<^ S^pav ol TToXifitot, "Ere 
roivvv rdBe 6 pare, 10. El fjuev r)7norrdiie^a cra<jf)W9 on rj^eu 
TrXoca X.eLpiao(^o<; djcov l/cavd, ovBev dv eBec &v /jbeWco \e- 
jecv ' vvv S' iirel rovr dBr)XQV, BoKel fioi Treipdcr'^av rrXola 
avjiTrapaa-Kevd^eLV /cal avro^ev, '^Hv fiev jdp eX^y, virap- 
"Xpvrcov iv^dBe ev d(^^ovoirepOL<^ rrrXevaovfie^a' idv Be fir) 
dyr)3 rol^ iv^dBe ')(^p7)cr6fjLe^a. 11. ^Opco S* iyco rfkola ttoX- 
Xd/CL^ irapaifkeovra * el ovv alrr)ordfJbevoL irapd TpaTre^ovv- 
rccov fia')(^pd TrXota Kardyoifiev Kal (f)v\drroifJbev avrd rd 
TTTjBdXia irapaXvofievoL eo)? dv l/cavd rd d^ovra yevyrat, 
ccrco<; dv ov/c dTToprjo-aifiev KOfiiBrj^ oXa^ Beofie^a, "EBo^e Kal 
ravra, 12. ^Evvorjcrare B\ e(pr), el eUb^; Kal rpecjyetv dm 
KOLvov 0V9 dv Karaydyayfiev oaov dv ^(^povov r]fiS>v eveKev 


fievcoaiy KoL vauKov avv^icr^aL, o7rco<; o)(})€\ovvt€<; /cat ix^e- 
Xcovrac. "ESo^e /cat ravra. 13. jdo/cel tolvvv [xol, e^rj, rjv 
dpa fcal ravra rj/jLcv fjur] etcTrepaivrjrai ware dpfcelv rrrXola, ra<; 
6Sou9 a9 hvcTTTopov^; aKovofiev elvai ral<; rrapa ^akarrav 
olKOVfJL€vat<; nroXecnv evreCXaa^aj, ohoiroielv • Treicrovrac yap 
Kal hta ro (^o^ela^ai fcal Bta ro fiovXea^aL rjfjLcbv arraXKa- 

14. ^Evrav^a Br) dve/cpayov o)^ ov BeoL oBotiropelv. 'O 
8e 0)9 eyvco rrjv d^poorvvrjv avrcov, €7reylr7](f>icr€ fiev ovSev, ra^ 
he 'TTokei^ eKovcra<^ eireKxev oBoTrocelp Xeya)v ore ^drrov aTraX- 
Xa^ovrai rjv evrropov yevcovrat al ohoL 15. ^'EXa^ov Be Kal 
rrevrrjfcovropov irapd rcov TpaTre^ovvrlcov, rj iTrecrrrjaav Ae- 
^imrov Adfccova irepioiKOV. Ovro^ d/^eX7]cra^ rod ^vXXeyeiv 
irXola diroBpa<; w')(€ro e^co rod Uovrov, €')(cov rrjv vavv, 
Ovro<; fiev ovv BUaia erra^ev varepov • ev QpaKrj yap rrapd 
Xev^rj TToXvirpayiJiovcov n dire^avev vrro Nc/cdvBpov rov 
AdiKcovo^* 16. "EXa^ov Be fcal rpcafcovropov, f) eireard^r) 
IIoXvicpdrri<; ^A^7}valo<; • 09 orrocra Xajx/Sdvoc irXola Karrjyev 
iirl rb (rrparoireBov, Kal rd [lev dydyyifxa el re rjyov i^at- 
povjjbevoi ^vXafca<^ Ko^icrraaav ottco^ crcoa ecT] • to?9 Be ttXol- 
0^9 e')(^prj(Tavro eU Trapayayyrjv, 17. ^Ev & Be ravra rjV iirl 
Xelav e^yeaav ol ^^EXX7]ve<; • Kal ol [xev evervyyavov ol Be Kal 
ov, KXeaCvero^ S* i^ayaycbv Kal rov eavrov Kal dXXov X6- 
'Xpv rrpo^ ^((opiov 'X^aXeirov avr6<^ re dire^ave Kal dXXoe rroX- 
Xol rcov avv avrco. 

CAP. ir, 

1. Eirel Be rd eTTLryBeta ovKert rjv Xapb^dveiv cocrre 
djrav'^rifiepL^eLV eirl ro crrparoireBov, eK rovrov Xa/3cbv Uevo- 
(f^cov 7]yeix6va<^ rcov TpaTre^ovvrccov e^dyei eh ApiXa^; ro 
7]/iLcrv rov crrparevpLaro^, ro Be ijfjucrv KareXiire ^vXdrreiv 
ro crparoTreBov • ol yhp K.6X')(pi, &re eKTreTrrcoKore^; r&v 
OLKtcoVy TToXXol Yjaav a^pooL Kal virepeKd^rjvro eirl rcov 

LIB. Y. CAP. II. 123 

d/cp(ov» 2. 01 Se Tpaire^ovvTiOi oiro^ev fJbev ra eTTLTrjheia 
paSiov rjv XajSelv ov/c rjyov* (fytXoi yap avTol<^ rjaav eh roij^; 
ApCXa'^ he Trpo^vfiQ)^ r}yov, v(^ S)v KaKO)<; e7raa")(ov, eh yjj^pici 
re opecva /cat hvcr^ara fcal dv^pco7rov<; TrdXefLLfccoTdrov^i tcov 

ev T(0 UoVTO), 

3. ^ETrel Be rjaav ev rfj dvco %copa ol ^^EXk7]ve<;, oiroia 
T(hv ')(0}pL(cv Toh ApLXai^ oXa^aLfia elvac e^ofcet ejjbinirpdvTe^i 
dirrjecrav • Koi ovSev rjv Xafi^dvecv el /irj v<; rj /3oi)9 tj aXKo re 
KTTjvo^ TO TTvp 8ca7re^evy6<;. ''^Ev S* rjv ')(copLov firjTpoirdXi^; 
avTcbv, Eh TOVTO irdvre^ crvveppvrjKecrav • TrepX he tovto rjv 
'X^apdSpa la^vpo}^ ^a^ela, fcal irpocroBoc 'x^aXeiral 7rpo9 to 
')((i}pLov. 4. 01 he ireXTacTTaX irpohpafiovTe^; aTdhta irivTe rj 
e^ Toov ottXltmv hca/SdvTe^; ttjv ')(apdhpav 6p(bvTe<; 7rp6/3aTa 
TToWd fcal dXka ^pT^/zara 'Trpoae/SaWov 7rpo9 to ')(^cop[ov. 
^vveiTTOVTO he fcal hopv^opoc ttoWoI ol iirl tcl eiTLTrjheLa 
i^cop/jLTj/jLevoc ' SycTTe eykvovTO ol hia^dvTe<^ ifkeiov^ r\ eh hca- 
y^bkiov^; dv^pa)iTOV<;. 5, ^Eirel he iJLa')(oiievoi ovic ehvvavTO 
\a^elv TO ')(copLOV, {/cat yap Td(^po^ rjv irepl avTo evpeca dva- 
fie/SXrj/iievT] /cal crKoKoire^ eirl t?}? dval3o\r]<; /cal Tvpcet'^ 
iTVKval ^vXtvac TreTrocrj/JLevac,) dirievat hrj e7re')(elpovv • ol he 
eireKeiVTO avTot^. 6. '/29 S' ov/c ehvvavTO diroTpe^eiv, (rjv 
yap ecf) evo<; rj KaTdjSaaL<^ i/c tov ycopiov eh ttjv ')(apdhpav,) 
TrejjLTrovG-L 7rpo9 'Bevocf^covTa, 09 rjyelTO Toh OTrXiTac';. 7. 'O 
S' eX^cbv \eyev otl eaTi ')(copiov ')(^p7]/xdTcov iroWcov fieaTov • 
TOVTO ovTe XajSelv hvvd/ie^a • l(j')(ypov yap ecTTiv • ovTe 
direX^ecv pahcov /id^ovTao yap i'7re^e\r]XvJ^6Te<i koL 7) d^o- 
S09 yaKeirr], 

8. ^AKOvGa^ TavTa 6 Uevocj^oyv Trpoaajaycov 7rpo9 Trjv 
')(apdhpav Toi)^ fiev oirXiTa^; ^ecr^ac e/ceXevae tcl oifXa • av- 
T09 he hia^d<; avv tol^ \o')(ayoh eatcoirelTO iroTepov ecrj 
KpetTTov dirdyeiv teal tov<; hia^e^rjKOTa^ rj Kal tov^ oirXcTa^ 
hca/3i/3d^ecv 0)9 d\GVTO<; av tov ')(^copiov. 9. ^Ehotcet yap to 
fjiev drrdyeiv ovk eivai dvev TroKXoyv veKpojVj eXelv S' dv g)ovto 
Kal ol \o')(ayol to ')(^copLov • Kal 6 'Bevocpcov avve')(0)prjae Toh 
lepoh TTtaTevcra^ * ol yap fjidvTet^ aTrohehetyfjuevot rjaav otl 


fjidxv /^^^ ea-TUL to Be reXo? koXov tt}? i^oSov. 10. Kal rov^ 
fjLev Xoxayom eVe/xTre B La/St fidaovra^; rov^ oifKira^;, avTO<^ 
S' cfievev dvaxcopiaa^ airavTa^ tou9 irekraaTa^y fcal ovheva 
ela dfcpofioXtt^aS^^c. 11. 'Eirel S' rjfcov ol oirXlrac, i/ceXevae 
TGV Xoxov eKaarov Troirjaav to}V Xoxctycov co? av KpdrtcrTa 
ol7]Tai dycovLelcrS^ao • -^crav jdp ol XoxG^yol ttXtjctlov dXKrjKccv 
ol iravra rov XP^^^'^ dWrjXoL^; irepl dvBpayaS-La^; avreiTOL' 
ovvTO. 12. Kal ol jiev Tavra eiroiovv* 6 Be toI^ ireXraa-rah 
iTo^ai TraprjjjeXXe BtTjyfcvXco/jbivov^ ievat, a)9 oirorav crrjiMrjvy 
d/covTL^eLV Berjcrov • Kol tov<; ro^ora^ eTnjSe/SXrjcr^ac iirl ral^ 
vevpal^y 0)9 oirorav crTj/JLijvrj ro^evecv Berjcrov Kai rov^ yv/jcvi]' 
Ta<; Xl3-cov e%e^z^ fieard^; ra? Btcj^S-epa^; • Koi tou9 e'jrtT7}BeL0V<; 
eire/jL-^e tovt(dv eTTi/jieXrjS-rjvai. 13. ^Eirel Be irdvra irape- 
a/cevacTTO Kal ol Xox^jol /cal ol vTToXoxayol Kal ol d^iovvre^ 
TovTcov iJb7] ^e/poi;9 elvai, Trdvre^ irapareTayiievoL rjaav, Kal 
dXKrjXov^ jjbev Brj crvvecDpcov • iii7]voetBr]<; yap Bed to %wptbz/ r/ 
Td'^iS '^V' 14. eirel S' eTraidviaav Kal 7] adXTrty^ i(j)3^iy^aT0, 
djia Te T(p ^EvvaXl(p rjXdXa^av Kal eS-eov BpojjLM ol oirXtTai, 
Kal Ta /3eXrj ofiov icj^epeTO, Xoyx^^i^y To^evfiaTa, a^evBovai Kal 
TrXetaTOt S' e/c tcov ^etpcoi^ XlSol • rjaap Be oc Kal irvp Trpocr- 
ej>epov, 15. 'Ttto Be tov itXtj^ov^ tcov /SeXcov eXcTTOv ol 
TToXefiLOi Td Te (jTavpcofiaTa Kal Ta9 Tvpaei^' cocrTe ^ Ayaaia^ 
^TV/jL(l)dXto<; Kal ^cXo^evo^ IIeXX7]vev^ KaTaMjxevoL Ta oirXa 
iv ^^T(J)z/6 fjiovov dve^rjcrav, Kal dXXo<; dXXov elXKe, Kal dXXo^ 
dva/3e^7]KeL, Kal rjXooKei to ^a)p/oi^, a)9 iBoKei, 16. Kal ol 
fjiev ireXTaaTal Kal ol 'yJrtXol elaBpajjj6vTe<; rjpira^ov 6 tl eKa- 
CTo^ iBvvaTO " 6 Be aevocpoov CTa^^ KaTa Ta^ TrvXa^ oiroaovf; 
iBvvaTO KaTeKcoXve to)V ottXltcov e^co • TroXefitoL yap dXXoc 
e^aivovTO eir dKpoL<; tlctIv laxvpoh, 17. Ov ttoXXov Be 
XpovGV /jieTa^v yevop^evov Kpavyrj t eyiyveTO evBov Kal ecfyev- 
yov ol fjL6v Kal exovTe<^ a eXa/3ov, Tdxa Be tl<; Kal TeTpcofie- 
vo<; • Kai TToXv^ rjv coS^kt/jlo^; d/Kpl Ta ^vpeTpa. Kal epcoTCO' 
fievoL OL eKTrLTTToi'Te^ i^Xeyov on uKpa Te icTTCV evBov Kal ol 
iroXe^LOL 'rdXKal, i/? -fraiovcnv ifcBeBpa/jbrjKOTe^^ toz;9 evBov dv- 

LIB. V. CAP. II. 125 

18. ^EvravS^a aveviretv i/ciXevae ToXfilhriv rov KrjpvKa 
levai ei(7(D rov fiovXo/JbevGv tl Xa/ji^dvecv, Kal cevro iroWol 
ecaco, Kal VLtccoat tov<; eiCTTLTTTOVTa^; ol eoaco o)Sov/jL6vol Kal 
KaraKkeLOvaL tov<; TroXefilov^ ttoXlv el<^ rrjv dfcpav, 19. Kal 
ra fjiev e^co tt]^ aKpa^ nravra ScrjpTrda^T] Kal i^eKo/jLLcravTo ol 
''EW7]V6f;* ol S' oirXiraL e^evro ra oifka, ol jjukv irepl rd 
crravpcoiJiaTa, ol Se Kara rfjv oBbv rrjv eirl rfjv aKpav (f)epov- 
aav, 20. 'O Be 'Bt6vo(j)cbv Kal ol \o')(ayol iaKoirovv el olov r 
ecrj TTjv ciKpav Xa/Secv* fjv jdp ovtcj crcoTTjpla da(j)a\7]<;' 
aXXo)? 8e irdvv ')(aKeirov iSoKet elvav direX^elv • aKOTrov/Jbe- 
voL<; S* avTol^ eSo^e Travrdiracrtv dvakcorov elvac to ')(ccpLov. 
21. ^EvravS-a irapeaKevd^ovro rrjv d^oBoVy Kal tov<; fiev 
aravpov^ eKacrrot tov<; KaS-^ avTOv<; htrjpovv, Kal rom d'x^pei- 
ov^ Kal ^opria e')(ovTa<^ e^eirefiirovTO Kal tcou oTrXirchv to 
7r\7]3-o(; • KaTekiTTov he ol Xo'X^ajol oh eKacTTO^ eTrlcrTevev, 

22. ^Eirel Se rjp^avTO aTTO^copecv, eTre^iS^eov evBoS-ev ttoX- 
Xol yeppa Kal Xo7;^a9 e')(pVTe<; Kal KV7]iuBa^ Kal Kpdvrj Ha- 
(j)\ayovcKd' Kal aXkoo eirl Td<; olKia^ dve/Sacvov Ta9 €v!^ep 
Kal ev^ev ttj^ eh ttjv aKpav (})epovarj^ oSov • 23. cjctt ovSe 
BccoKecv acr^aA,69 yv KaTa Ta^ irvXa^ ra? €69 ttjv aKpav ^e- 
povaas' Kal yap ^vXa pueydXa eireppiTTTovv dvcoS^ev, axTTe 
')(ake7rov rjv Kal fievecv Kal aTnevat • Kal y vv^ (j)o/3epd rjv 
eTTLOvcra, 24. Ma')(0fievQ)V S' avTcov Kal diropovpievcov S^ecov 
TL^ avToh fjir)')(avr]v acoT7]pia<^ BlBcoctlv. ^E^airivr}^ yap dve- 
Xa/jL-ylrev OLKia tcov iv Be^ta otov Brj ivd-yfravTO^;, ^12^ S' avTrj 
(jweTrcTTTev, e(j>evyov ol diro t&v iv Be^ca oIklcov. 25. 'I2<; 
S' efjLoSev 6 *aevo^wv tovto nrapd t7]<; TV')(r]<^y ivdiTTecv e'/ce- 
Xeve Kal Ta^ iv dptxTTepa oiKia^ • al Be ^vXcvat rjcrav • coaTe 
Kal Ta')(p iKaiovTO, ^'E(^evyov ovv Kal ol diro tovtcov tcov 
oiKLcbv. 26. 01 Be KaTa to aTOfia Brj eTi fiovoL iXvTrovv Kal 
BrjXoi rjaav otl iiTLKeicrovTaL iv Trj i^oBcp re Kal KaTa/3daeL. 
^EvTavS^a TrapayyeXXec ^opelv ^vXa ocroc iTvy^^avov e^co 
ovTe^ Tcov ^eX&v eh to fieaov eavTcov Kal tcov TroXeficcov. 
'jEttcI Be Uavd tjBt] rjv, ivrj-ylrav ivrjiTTOV Bk Kal Ta9 Trap" 
avTo TO ')(apdK(oiia oiKLa^, ottco<^ ol TroXe/jLcoc dfi^l TavTa 


e')(piev, 27. OvTco fjL6\L<; dTrijX^ov airo rod 'x^^pcoVj irvp ev 
fjbeao) eavTOJV Kol ro^v iroKefJbiwv TroLrjcrd/jLevoc, Kal /care/cav- 
^7) irdaa r] iroki^; /cat at oi/ciac koX at rvpcret^ Kal rd aravpco- 
fiara koI raXXa iravra ttXtju tt]^ d/cpa^. 

28. T^ S' varepaia dirrjeaav oi ^'EXkrjve'^ 6')(0VTe^ rd 
iircTrjSeca. ^Eirel he T7]V fcard/Saatv i(po/3ovpTo ttjp eh Tpa- 
Tre^ovpra, Trpavr]^ jdp rjv koI arevrj^ '\JrevSeveSpav iiroLijaavro, 
29. Kal dvrjp Mvao^ to jevo^ Kal rovvo/jia tovto e')(Oi)v tcov 
KprjTcop Xa/3cbp Sexa efiepep ip Xaaicp '^copiq) Kal TrpoaeTroLelro 
Toi)^ TToXefJiiov^ Trecpda^ac Xap^dpetp • al 8e TreXrat avToop 
dXXore Kal dXXore Ste(f)alpopTo ^aXKao ovaaL 30. 01 fxep 
ovp TToXefiLOL ravra 8copcoPTe<; i^oj3ovpro o)<; ipeSpap ovcrap • 
?7 Se arparcd ep rovrcp Kare/Saipep, 'Eirel Se eSoKec r}hr] 
LKapop v7reX7]Xv^epac tc3 MvaS earjfxrjpe (pevyecp dpd Kpdros ' 
Kal o? e^apaards (j^evjec Kal ol avp avro). 31. Kal ol /nep 
dXXoc Kpr}Te<;, dXlaKea^at yap ecf)aaap rco Spofio), iKireaopre^ 
eK tt}? oSoO el<; vXrjp Kard ra? pd7ra<; KvXipSovfiepoL iaco^Tj- 
aap' 32. 6 ikfucro? he Kard ttjp ohop (pevjoyp e/Soa jSorf^etP* 
Kai i/Soij^rjaap avrS), Kal dpeXajSop TerpcofMepop, Kal avrol 
eirl TToSa dpe'^^copovp ^aXXofiepot ol /3o7]^7]aaPTe^ Kal dpTcro- 
^evoPTes TLPe<; tcop Kprjrcbp. Ovrco^ dcj^LKOPTo cVl to arpaTO- 
TreSop irdpTe^ crcoot opre^. 


1, ^Errel he ovre Xecplaocj^o'^ rJKep ovre rrrXota l/capd rjp 
ovre rd eirLrrjheia rjp Xa/x^dpeiP ertj ehoKet, dirireop ehac. 
Kal el^ jxep rd irXola tou? tc da^epovpras epe^ijSaaap Kal 
Tov^ virep rerrapaKOPTa errj Kal 7ralha<; Kal yvpalKa^ Kal to)p 
aK€vcbv oaa firj dpdjKT] rjp e^etp • Kal ^cXtjcnop Kal Xo^aiperop 
Tov^ Trpea/SvrdTovs tcop (JTparrjywp ela^i^daapre^ tovtcop 
eKeXevop e7Ti{xeXda^aL • ol he dXXoi eTropevoPTO • rj he 6hb<; 
a)ho7roLovp.€vrj 7]v, 2. Kal dcpLKPOvprat iropevofiepoi eh Ke- 
paaovPTa rpiraloi ttoXcp 'EXXrjplha eirl ^aXdrry ^cpo)7reo)P 

LIB. V. CAP. III. 127 

airoLKOV ev rfj Ko\')(^lSi X^P^' ^* ^^^'^^^^^ e^eLvav rjfxipa^; 
Se/ca • Kol l^iraai^ ev roc^ ottXoc^ eyiyvero Kal apdisfMo^, koX 
iyevovTO o/cra/ctcrx^Xcoc kol e^atcoaiot, Ovroo iaco^rjcrav etc 
Tcjv a/jL(f)l Tot^ jjLvpiov^ • ol he dXXoo clttcoXovto vtto re rdov 
TToXefiicov Kal tt}? x^6vo<; koI et T69 vocrcp. 

4. ^Evrav^a /cat BidkafjblSdvovac to airo rcov alx/^aXcorcov 

apyupcov jevofxevov /cat rrjv SeKarrjv rjv tc3 ^AttoXXcovl i^elXov 

Kal rfj ^E^eaia'' AprefMiht SceXa/3op ol crrparTjyol to fjLepo<; 

€KaaTO^ (pyXaTTei'/ tol<^ ^eoc^' clvtI 8e XetpLcr6<pov Necov 6 

^A<TLvaL09 €Xa/3e. 5. ^evo<j)Sv $vv to fiev tov [AttoXXcovo^;^ 

avd^Tj/jLa 'iroLrjo-d/jLeio'; dvaTL^7](TLV et? tov ev AeX^ols toov 

^A^rjvaicov ^rjaavpov Kal lireypd'y^e to re avTov ovojuLa Kal to 

Ilpo^ivov 09 avv KX^p'^o) dire^ave* ^evo<; yap rjv avTOV, 

6. To Be Trj<? ^ApTefJbiho; rry? ^E^eala^; OTe dirrjeL avv ^Ayrjac- 

Xdcp eK Trj<^ ^Aaia^ ttjv eh Bolcotov^ oSov, KaTaXelireL rrrapa 

Meya^v^^ tco tt)^ ^ApT(ucSo<; vecoKopw, otl avTo^ KLvSwevacov 

ehoKeu iivac, Kal eiriaTeCt^Vj rjv [xev avTo<^ aco^fj^ eavTcp diro- 

Sovvao • el Se tc Trd^oc, ava^elvau 7rocr]crdfievov Trj ^ApTeficSo 

TC oloiTo xP'piela^ai tj) ^ew, 7. ^Eirel S' e(pvyev 6 Hero- 

(})c!)v, KaTOLKOvvTo^ 7]Sr] avTo) ev XklXXqvvtl viro tcov AaKeSat- 

fjLovLcov olKLG^evTL TTapa TTJV ^OXv/HTTiav d^LKveLTac Meyd^V' 

^09 eh ^OXvjxiriav ^ecoprjacoi Kal aTroSiScoac ttjv irapaKaTa- 

'is7]fC7]v avT(p. *Bevo(po)V he Vaficov ^^piov covecTav ttj ^ea> 

oTTov dvelXev 6 5re69. 8. "ET7^e he hca fjueaov picov tov yco- 

pLov TTOTa/jLo^ SeXtvov^, Kai ev ^Ecj^eao) Se irapa tov tt)? 

'ApTefjLcho^ ve^v X^Xlvov^ ttotcuo^ Trapappelj Kal l^ve<; he ev 

dijLcf)otepoc^ eve Lac Kal Koyyai • ^v he tS ev XklXXovvtl ^^P^V 

Kal ^'npaL TrdvTcov oiroaa eaTiv iypevo/JLeva ^rjpia. 9. 'Ettol- 

rjae he Kal ^co/jlov Kal vaov avo tov lepov dpyvpiov Kal to 

XoiTTov he del heKaTevcov to, ^c tov dypov wpala ^vaiav 

eiroiei ttj ^eco ' Kai irdvTe^ oi TroXlTai Kal ol Trpoaycopot 

dvhpe<^ Kal yvvaiKe^ fxeTel^ov ttj eopTTj^. Tlapel'^'^ he rj ^eo9 

T069 aK7]Vovaiv dX(f>LTaj dpTov<^, olvov, TpayrjfiaTa, Kal tcov 

"hvofxevwv diro Trj<^ iepa<^ vofjbr]<; K^d^o^, Kal tcov ^rjpevofievcov 

hi. 10. Kal yap ^rjpav eiroiovvo eh ttjv eopTrjv ol re Uevo- 


(bcbvro^ TratSe? kol ol rcov dXXcov ttoXctcov • ol Se ^ovkojievot, 
fcal avhpe^ avve^ypcov* koX rfKio-Kero ra [xev i^ avrov rov 
lepov x^^pov, ra Se Kol i/c t?}? #0X677?, ave^ koX hopKdhe<^ koX 
eka^oi. 11. "Ean Be rj %a>pa y i/c AafcehaifJboros eh 'OXv/jl- 
TTtav TTopevovTai C09 et/coao ardStoo diro Toi ev ^OXvyinria 
Ac6<; lepov. "Evi S' ev ro) iepS) X^PV ^'^^ oKctt] fial oprj hev- 
Spcov /JLeardf l/cava koX av<; /cal alya^ fcal /^ov9 rpecj^ecv koI 
tTTTTOi;?. &a-Te koX ra tcop eh ttjv eoprrjv lovtcov viro^vyca 
evcaxeia^ai, 12. Uepl S' avrov tov vaov iiXao^ '^/Jiipcov Bev- 
SpcDV i([)VTev^rj oca earl rpcotra (hpaca. y he vao<; &)9 f^L/cpb^ 
[lejdXcp Tcp ev ^Ecfyicra) etfcaaraf fcal fo ^oavov eocKev w? 
KVTrapLTTLVOv %pfcr&) OVTL rS ev ^JE^er^. 13. Kal arrjXrj 
ecrrrjfce irapa rov vaov ypdfjb^ara e)(pvaa • lEPOS O 

CAP. /v. 

!♦ ^E/c KepaaovvTO^ he Ka"^ ^dXa\^av fxev i/cojubi^ovro 
oXnrep Kal 'irpoa^ev, ol S' dXXk Kara jrjv eiropevovTo, 2. 
^Eirel 8' Tjorav eirl roh MoaafvoLKcov opcoc^j 7refjL7rov(nv eh 
avTov^ Tifju^ai^eov tov Tpair.^ovvTLov irpo^eimv ovra tcov 
MoaavvoL/ccoVy epcoTcovre^ 'jrorlpov o)^ Scd ^cXLa<; 7) w? Zca 
rfToXe/jbla^ iropevaovraL ttj^ X^P^^' ^^ ^' elirov on 0^ Blt]' 
(Tocev • eTTLarevov jdp tgI<; x ^P^ot^, 3. ^Evrev^ev Aeyet 6 
TLiJLrjG-i^eo<^ ore iroXeixiol elau avroh ol etc rov eTre/ceiva* 
/cal eSoKec KaXeaai eKeivov<^, e /3ovX(itvTo avfi/Jbax^ct^ iroirj^a- 
(T^^at* Kal 7re/jL(])^el<; 6 Ttfjurjci^eo^ rjKev ajcov rov^ dpxovra^. 
4. 'Eirel he d(j>i/covTo, avviK^ov ol re rcov MvaavvoUcov 
dpxovTe<^ Kal ol GrTpaTTjyoljTcov ^EXXt^vcov Kal eXe^e fx^ 
aevo6(!)v, rjpfjL7]veve 8e TciJL7jf^e(p!;. 

LIB. Y. CAP. IV. 129 

6. ^ifl dvSpe^ MoacTvvoLKOi, r}(Jiel'^ ^ovkofxe^a Scaaco^rjvao 
7r/509 Tr]v 'EWdSa ire^fj • nrXola jap ov/c e^o/juep • fccoXvovat 
Se ovroc rj/jid'^ oy? ciKovofMev Vjuv 7ro\€/j.Lov<; elvat. 6. El ovv 
fiovXea^e, e^earcv vfilu rjfid<^ Xafielv av/jL/Jbd^ov^; koI TLfX(oprj' 
aaa^ac ec re ttcotto^^ vfid^ outoc rjSiKrjaav^ koI to Xqlitov 
v/jLcov vit7]k6ov<; elvai tovtov^. 1. El 8e rjfids d^rjcrere^ aKe- 
-xlraa^e TTO^ev av^c<; av rocravrrjv Svpafitv Xd/3otT6 avpLiJLa')(ov, 
8. ITpo? ravra direKpivaro 6 ap'^cov tcov MooravvocKcov otl 
KoX /SovXocvTO ravra fcal he')(OLvro rfjv av/jufia'^iap. 9. '^Ajere 
Srjj €<j)7] 6 ^€VO(pc!}Vf rl tj/jlcov Be'ijaecr^e ')(^prjaaa^aL^ av av/JL- 
fJiCi^oo vfiwv <y€va)fjL6^a ; kgX vfiel^ rl olol re eaea^e 7}fuv 
av/jLTTpd^ai, rrepl tt}? hioiov ; 10. 01 S' elrrov on ifcavol 
ecTfxev eh rrjv X^P^^ ela^dXXeiv etc rov eVl ^drepa rrjv rcbv 
vfuv re Kol rjiilv rroXefilcov. ical Sevpo vfjuv rrefJi'y^aL vavs re 
Kal avhpa^ oXrive<; vjjZv aviifxaxpyvrai re fcal rr]P oSov rjjT]' 

11. ^EttI rovroc<; mar a S6vre<; /cal Xa/36vre<; oj^ovro* /cal 
rjKOV rfi varepaia ayovre^ rptaKGcrca irXota fiovo^vXa /cal iv 
ixdarcp rpeh avSpa^ • S)V ol fiev Svo i/c/3dvre^ eh rd^iv 
e^evro ra oirXa* 6 Se eh efxeve. 12. Kal oi fiev XajSovre^ 
ra rrXola direrrXevaav • ol he fxevovres e^erd^avro &Se. 
'^Earrjafiv dva e/carov fidXtara coaTrep ol ^Ppol dvrtarof.- 
Xpvvres aXXr]XoL<;y e^ovres jippa rrdvres Xev/ccov ^ocov Saaia, 
el/cacr/jbiva Ktrrov rrerdX(p* ev he rfj Se^ca rraXrov o)s e^dirTj' 
yy^ efjirrpoa^ev fxev XoyyV^ ^X^^' oina^ev he avrov rov ^vXov 
a(f)aLpoeche<;, 13. XcrcovLcr/cov<; he ivehehv/ceaav vjrep jovd- 
rcoVj 7ra^09 co? Xlvov o-rpcofiarohea/JLOv iirl rfj Ke^aXfj he 
fcpdvij GKvrivay olairep ra Ua^Xajovi/cd, Kpw^vXov eyovra 
Kara fiecrov, eyyvrdra rcapoec^rj • elyov he Kal aaydpet<; achr]- 
pd<;. 14. 'Evrev^ev i^ijpx^ /^^^ avrcov el^ or S' aXXot rrdvre^ 
eiTopevovro ahovre^ ev pv^fxcpfKal hieX^ovre^; hia roov rd^ecov 
Kal hca rcov oirXcav rcov 'EXXrjVwv eiropevovro ev^v^ Trpo? rov<; 
rroXe/jblov^ eirl ^ojp/oi/ o ehoKei eTrcfjiaxcorarov elvai, 15. 
'SliKecro he rovro irf^ t^9 vroXeft)? rrjs fir]rpo7r6X€co<; KaXovp.e- 
V7]<^ avrol<; Kal ixovarj^; ro aKporarov r&v MoaavvoiKCov. Kal 


Trepl TovTov c 7r6X€iJL0<; tjv • ol yap del tovt 6')(0VTe^ iSoKOVv 
iyfcpaT€L<;' elvau Kal Trdvrcov MoacrvvoLKCov, Kal e^aaav 
TOVTOV^ ov huKam'^ ^%^^^ toOto, dXkd kolvov ov KaraXa^ovra^ 


16. E'lttovto S' avTol^ Kal r&v 'EXkrjvcov Tivh^ ov ra- 
Y^ 6^769 VTTO Tcop aTpaTTj^thv dXX! dp7rajrj<i eveKev. 01 he 
iroXifJitoL irpoaLovTwv reco^ iiev ^^a-y^a^ov • iirel S' iyyv<; eye- 
vovTO Tov ')(coptov, eKSpa/JLOPTe'^ rpeTTovrai avrov^ ' Kal dire- 
KTeivav av)(yovs tcop fiap^dpcov Kal tcov avvava^avTcov 'JEX- 
\rjvociV Tivd<^j Kal eSlcoKov /^6;^pt9 ov elSov rov^ ''EXKrjva^ ^or]- 
^ovvTa<^y elra Se diroTpaTrofjuevov m^ovto' 17. Kal aTrore- 
fjLovre^j ra? Ke^aXd^ to)v veKpcov eTreSeiKwaav tol<; re ^^EX- 
XrjdL Kal Tol<^ eavTcop 7roXefiloL<^ ' Kal dfia e)(ppevov vo/jlg) tcvI 
d8ovTe<;, 18. 01 B' ^'EXXrjve^ fidXa rj^ovro on tou9 Te 
TToXe/Jiiov^ eTreiTOLrjKecTav ^paavrepovs Kal on ol i^eX^ovre^; 
'^EXX7]V€<; avv avrols eTrecj^evyeaav (id'X! ovre<^ o-vyvol' o ovttco 
iTpoG^ev eireiroirjKeorav iv ttj crrpareia. 19. 'Eevo(j)c!)V he 
avyKaXeaa^ tou9 ^^EXX7]va<; elirev • "AvSpeg crrpancorai, fjurj- 
hev d^vfjLijarjre eveKa tcov yeyevrj/jLevcov • Lare yap on Kal 
dya^ov ov fielov rod KaKov yeyevrjTai, 20. Upcorov fxlv yap 
eTricTTaa-^e on ol fjLeXXovTe<; rjfjbtv rjyel^aL tc3 ovn TroXefiLoi 
elaiv olcTTrep Kal rj/jbd^ dvdyKrj • eirecra he Kal rcop ^EXXtjvoov 
ol d(j)povn(Trrj(javTe^ ttj'^ crvv rj/uLcv rd^eco^ Kal iKavoi rjyrjcrd- 
fjuevoc elvai avv Tot9 /3ap/3dpot<; ravrd Trpdrrecv direp avv 
7]fuv hiKTjv heSojKaacv • ciare av^L<^ tjttov rrj^ rjfieTepa<^ rd^eco^ 
dTToXeiyfrovTac. 21. '-4XV vfim Sec irapaaKevd^ea^ai 67rco<; 
Kai To?9 ^lXol^ ovac tcov /3ap/3dpcov So^ere Kpelrrov^ avrcov 
ecvac Kal rots 7roXe/JLLOL<; SrjXcoaere ore ou^ o/jboiot^ dvhpdac 
fjLa')(ovvTaL vvv re Kal ore to?9 drdKTOi^ eiJbd')(pvTO. 

22. TavTTjv fiQf ovv Trjv rjfiepav ovtco<; efietvav • rfj S* 
varepaia ^vaavre^ eVel eKaXX^prjaavro dptarTJaavre^, ftp^t- 
ovs T0U9 X6')(ov^ TTocTjadfievoL^ Kal tov<; jSapjBdpov^ iirl to evco- 
vvfiov KaTa TavTa Ta^dfxevoL inropevovTo tovs TO^oTa^ fieTa^v 
T(A)v Xo')(wv op^icov ovTcov e^ovTESy V7roXi§L7ro/jievov<; he fiCKpbv 
TOV aTOfxaTo^; tcov ottXctcov. " 23. '^Haav yap tojv iroXefiCwv 

LIB. Y. CAP. IV. 131 

dt €v^(ovoc KaTaTpe')(ovT€<; roh X/&O69 e^aXKov, Tovtov<; ovv 
aviareXkov oi TO^orac fcal oi TreKraaTal • ot S' aXKot fidSrjv 
eirop€vovTO irpcoTOV fiev eVt to ')(copLov d(j> ov rf} nrporepaia oi 
^dp^apoL irpdirrjaav koI oi avv avTol<;, ^Evrav^a yap oi 
iToXefiLOL rjaav avTirerayfjiivoc, 24. Tov^ jmev ovv TreKracrTd^ 
iSi^avTO oi fidp^apoL fcal ifid')(^0VTO • iirel S' ijjv<; rjaav oi 
oTrXlrac, irpdirovro. Kal oi fxev TreXrao'Tal ev^v^ eiTTovro 
BtcoKOVTe^ dvco irpo<; ryv ixr^rpoiroXtv • oi he OTrXlrat, ev rd^eo 
CLTTOVTO. 25. ^Eirel S' avco rjaav 7rpo<i ral^ tt}? ixrjrpoirokeo)^ 
oifctai<;, ivrav^a Brj oi irdKepaot, ofiov Srj Trdvre^ yevofxevoo 
ifid'XpvTO Kal i^TjKovTC^ov Tol<; iTdkTol<i • Kal aXKa hopara 
e^ovre^ ira')(6a fiaKpdj oaa dvfjp av (f>€poL /jloXc^;, tovtoc^ eVe^- 
pcovTO dfivvea^at ck ')(etp6<;, 

26. ^Eirel Se ov^ v^ievro oi ^^EXXrjve^, dXX o/jLoae ix'^' 
povPj €(puyov oi ^dp^apot Kal ivrev^ev diravre^ Xi7r6vTe<; to 
ycopiov. ^O he ^aauXev^ avTcav 6 ev tS fjLoaavvL tw eV 
CLKpov (pKohofJL7]fievcp ov Tpe(j)ovaL TrdvTe^ Koivfj avTov fxevovTa 
Kal ^vXdTTovaiv ovk ij^eXev e^eX^elv, ovSe oi ev Tcp irpoTepov 
aipe^evTL x^piM, aXV avTov avv rot? pLoaavvoi^ KaTeKav^rj- 
aav, 27. Oi S' ^^EXX7]ve<^ ScapTrd^ovTe^i Ta X(opia evpcaKov 
^7]aavpov<; ev Tal<^ ol/ciat^; apTcov vevTjfJievcov iraTpiovs, C09 e^a- 
aav oi MoaavvocKOO • tov he veov alrov avv Ty KaXdfjLjj diro- 
Keifjuevov • rjaav he ^etal ai TrXelaTai, 28. Kal heXcj)LVcov 
Te/uidxv ^^ dfjL^opevacv evpiaKeTO TeTapix^vp^^va Kal aTeap ev 
Tevx^<^^ Twz^ heX(j)LVcoVj S e^pcovTO oi MoaavvoiKoc Ka^direp 
oi ^^EXXr]ve<; tco eXaUo, 29. Kdpva 8' iirl tcov dvcoyaicov rjv 
TToXXd Ta TrXaTea ovk e^ovTa hca^vrjv ovhepulav. Tovtco Kal 
TrXeiaTcp aiTCo e^pcovTO e^^rovTe^ Kal apTov^ 07rTc3z/T69. Otvo<^ 
S* evpiaKeTO 09 dKpaTO<; fiev o^vs iipaiveTO elvac viro Trj<; av- 
aTTjpoTTjTO^^ • Kepaa^els he ev(ohfj<^ Te Kal rjhv'^, 

30. Oi fiev hy '^EXXrjve^ dpcaTrjaavTe^ ivTav^a iiropev- 
ovTo eU TO Trpoacoj irapahovTe^ to ;)^a)p/oi' to?9 avfifiax^o-ciai 
TCOV MoaavvoLKcov, ^Oiroaa he Kal aXXa Traprjeaav %ft)/o/(X 
TOdv avv TO 69 TToXe/jLiocf; ovTcoVj Ta evTrpoaohcoTaTa oi fiev eXet- 
TTov, OL he eKovTe^; irpoaex^^povv, 31. Td he irXecaTa TOidS 



TjV T&v ')((opLG)V' cvTTeiypv ai TT6Xet<; air aXKrjkoDV ardSca 
6y8o7]/covTa, ai he ifkelov al he /juelov • dva/3ocovTcov he oXKr}- 
Xcov o'VV7]Kovov eh rrjv erepav etc rrj^ eTepa<; 7r6\eci)<;. Ovtco^ 
v-^rfkr} re koX kolXtj t] %c6pa r]v. 32. 'BttcJ he nropevofievoi iv 
ToU <jjc\oL<; rjaaVj eireheiKwaav avToh iralha^ roov evhatfiovcov 
airevTOv^, re^ pa/Jifievov^ /capvot^ e^^ot?, diraXov^ Kal XevKov^ 
a(p6hpa Kal ov ttoXXov heovTa<; Xaov^ to TrXdro^ Kal to fMr/fco^ 
elvao ' ttolklXov^ he tcl vdoTa Kal tcl efiTrpoa^ev nrdvTa eaTi- 
j/jbivov^ dv^e/JLLOV. 33. ^E^tjtovv he Kal Tah eTaipai^ ah 
^jyov ol ''EXXrjves ificj^avw avyylvea^ao • v6/jlo<; yap rjv ovto<; 
acplac. AevKol he irdvTe<; oi dvhpes Kal ai yvvalice<^. 34. 
TovTOV^ eXeyov oi crTpaTeva-dfievoL ^apj3ap(OTdTovs hteX^ecp 
Kal irXelaTOV t&v 'EXXrjviKoiv vo/jLcov K€')(^copc<Tfievov<;. "Ev 
re yap o)(X(p ovTes eiroLOvv direp dv dv^pwTToi iv iprjfiia Trotr}- 
a-ecav, dXXco<; he ovk dp ToXpuwev ' piovob re oWe? Ofioca eirpaT- 
TOP direp dv fieT dXXcov 6vt€<; • hceXeyovTO re eavToh Kal 
iyeXcov icj) eavToh Kal d)p')(ovvTo icj)taTdfievoL oirov TV'XpLev 
coairep dXXot^ eTriheiKVVfievoL. 

CAP. T. 

1. Aid TavTr]<; Trj<^ %^pct9 oi ^^EXX7]ve<;, hcd re t?}9 TToXe- 
pia^ Kal Trj<; ^tXca^;, iTropevBrjaav oktco aTaBfjiov^;, Kal d(f>C' 
KVOvvTai eh XdXvfia^. Ovtoc oXiyoc rjcrav Kal vtttikool tcov 
MoavvoLKCDV ' Kal 6 ^lo^ rjv tol^ TrXeLaT0i<; avTcov dirb (Tthr]' 
peia^. ^EvTev^ev dc^iKVOvvTau eh Til3apr]vov<;, 2. ^H he 
TCOV Tc^aprjvcov %c6pa TroXif rjv irehivcoTepa Kal xcopia et^^ez/ 
€7rl BaXdTTTj rJTTOv ipvfivd, Kal oi aTpaTTjyol e')(^prj^ov 'irpo^ 
Ta %ct)p/a irpoa^dXXecv Kal ttjv cTpaTcdv ovTj^fjvai to* Kal 
Ta ^evia a rJKe Trapd Ti^aprjv5)V ovk ehe')(pVT03 dXX^ eTrcjiiec' 
vat KeXevaavTe^ eVre ^ovXevaaLVTO e^vovTO. 3. Kal iroXXd 
KaTa^vcrdvTcov reXo? direhei^avTo oi pbdvTeL<; irdvTe^; yvoofirjv 
OTL ovhajxri irpocrioiVTO oi B^eol tov TroXejjiov. ^EvTev^ev hrj 
Ta ^evca ihe^avTO, Kal a)9 hid (j)cXia<i iropevopbevoL hvo 7jpbepa<; 

LIB. V. CAP. y. 133 

a(f>LfcovTO eh Korvcopa, ttoXcv "EWrjviSa, Hivcoiricov airoi- 
Kov<;, ovTa<; 8' iv rfj Tc^aprjvcbv %c6p?. 

4. Mi')(^pc<; evrav^a eTri^evaev ^ arparid. UX^^o? t?)9 
KaTa^d<Teco<; Tr]<; oSov diro ri]^ iv Ba/SvXcovL jJ^d^V^ ^XP^ ^^'^ 
Korvcopa araSfJLol i/carbv eltcocrv Bvo, Trapacrdyyat i^a/cocrcoc 
fcal ecKocri, crdScoo [xvpioi fcal oKraiacrxl'^f^oL koX e^aKoaioi • 
')(^p6vov 7r\r]9^o<; oktod fjbrjve^. 5. ^Evrav^a efietvav rj/jiepa^; 
TerrapdKOvra Trevre. 'jEz/ ^ Tavrat^ TrpioTov [juev tol^ f&eot? 
e^vcrav^ /cat irofiTra^ eiroLr]crav Kara e^vo^ efcao-Toc tojv 'EX- 
\i]vcoVy KoX dyo}va<; yviivticov^. 6. Ta S' eTnrrjheLa iXd/n^a- 
vov ra fi€V i/c ttj^ IIa(jiKayovLa<;, ra S' ifc rcov xp^picov t&v 
KoTVcopcTMV * ov yap irapelxpv dyopdv, ovK €69 to Telxp's 
Tov^ da^evovvra^ ehe^ovTO, 

7. ^Ev TovTco epxpvrac i/c ^cvcotttj^; Trpia^ec^, ^o^ovjievot, 
irepX Tcbv KoTVcopLTcov rrj^ re iroXeco^y (rjv yap iiceivcov, zeal 
(popov^ eKelvoL<^ €(f>€pov,) Kal irepl Tri<; ^^P^^y ^'t6 rjKovov 
Brjovfiiv7]v • /cal iX3^6vT€<; eh to crTpaTOireBov eXeyov • irpor]- 
yopec Se ^EKaTcovvfJL0<; SeLvb<; vopji^opbevo^ elvai Xeyeiv, 8. 
^'Eire/jLyfrev r]}Ma<;, S) avSpe<; aTpaTCcoTac, r) rcov ^tvcoTricov 
ttoXl^; eiraiveaovrd^ t€ u/z-a? ore evLKare ^^EXXrjve^; ovre'^ /Sap- 
^dpov^, eireiTa he Kal o-vv7]0'3'7](TOfJLevov^ ore Bca ttoXXmv t€ 
Kal BeLVcov, w? ^J/xeZ? aKOVo/JbeVy Trpay/judrcoy aecrcoafiivoL ird- 
pecTTe, 9. ^A^tovfiev Be, '^EXX7]ve<^ ovre^ Kal avTol, v(j> 
vjjLOiv ovTcov ^EXXrjVcov dyaS^bv fiev tl irdaxeiv, KaKov Se fiT]- 
hev ovhe yap rj/jbei^ vfjud^; ovSev TrwiroSt virrjp^afJLev KaKW 
TToiovvTe<^, 10. KoTVcoplrao Se ovrol elat [xev rjjjueTepoL diroc' 
KOL • Kal TTjv '^copav 7][iel^ avToh TavTyv irapahehooKafiev 
^ap^dpov^ d(f)eX6fievoi • Scb Kal Bacfibv r]fuv (pepovaiv ovtol 
Teraypbevov Kal Kepaaovvrioi Kal TpaTre^ovvTCot tha-avrco^* 
coaS^ o TL av tovtov^ KaKbv iroLrjG'r}Te rj Xivcoirecov ttoXl^; 
vofjLL^et TrdG"^eiv. 11. Nvv Be dKovofiev vfxa^ el? re Tr]v iro- 
Xlv /Sea 7rapeX7]XvS^6Ta<; eviov^ (tktjvovv ev rah olKiat^ Kal eK 
Tcov ')(^copLcov XafJb^dvetv o)V av her^a^e ov Trei^ovra^;. 12. 
TavT ovv ovK d^tovfjuev • €6 Be Tavra irotrjo-eTe, dvdr^Kt] rjiuv 


Kal KopvXav koX IIa(f)\aj6va<; koX aXKov ovrcva av Swco/jLe- 

13. ITpo? ravra dvaara^; "Bievo^cov virep rcov arparcco- 
Tcov euTrev • ^H/i€l<; Si, w avhpe^ Xtvcoirei^;, TjKo/juev wyaTTwvre^ 
ore ra acofiara Bieacoa'dfJieBa koX tcl oifka • ov yap rjv hvva- 
Tov d/jLa T6 ')(^pr]iiaTa dyeiv Kal ^epeiv Kal toI<; TrdkefMLOL^ 
/Lca^ecTrJa^. 14. Kal vvv iirel eh rd'^ ^EWrjvlBa^; iroXet^ 
rfK^ofieVy ev Tpaire^ovvTL fjiiv, TTapeL')(pv jdp rj/xlv dyopdv, 
cDVOVfjuevot el')(piJbev rd eTTLrrjBeLa^ Kal dvS-^ &v irl/JbTjaav rjfjid'^ 
Kal ^evia eBcoKav rfj arpaTia, avTeTifiSyfiev avTov<; • Kal el 
TL<; avTol<; (f>iXo<; rjv tcov fiap^dpcov, tovtcov dTrei'XPiMeBa' 
Tov<; Be 7ro\efjiLov<; avrcov ecj) oif^ avrol rjyotvro KaKW eiroLov- 
jjuev oaov eBvvdfJbeBa, 15. ^Epcordre Be avrov^; ottoicdv tcvcop 
rjfjLcov eTV')(pv' nrdpeicTL ydp evBdBe ou9 rjiuv rjyefiova^ Bed 
(j)L\lav r] iToki^ avve7refjL'\lrev. 16. ^'Ottol S' av ek^ovre^; dyo- 
pdv pJi] e^ayjiev, dv re eh ^dp^apov yriv dv re eh 'EXkrjvlBa, 
ov')(^ v^pev dX>C dvdyKrj 'XajJbjSdvofiev rd eTTtr'jjBeca. 17. Kal 
KapBov')(ov^ Kal Ta6')(ov<; Kal XdkBaiov^, Kalirep ^aaCkeco^ 
ov')(^ vtt7]k6ov<^ ovra^;, ojjlco^;, Kal pbdXa (f>o/3epov^ ovra^, Troke- 
[liov^ eKTrjadpue^a Bid to dvdjKTjv elvac ka/jbfidvetv rd eTrtTTJ" 
Beta, eirel dyopdv ov m'apel')(pv, 18. MaKpcova^; Be Kalirep 
fiap/3dpov^ ovra^y iirel dyopdv oiav eBvvavro 7rapeL')(ov, ^i- 
Xou9 re evopbi^ofjuev elvac Kal ^la ovBev eka/JL^dvofiev rcov 
eKetvcov. 19. Korvcopira^ Be, ov<; vfierepov^; ^are elvac, et rt 
avTcov elkrj(j)afiev, avrol dcnoi elacv • ov yap 0)9 ^ikoc irpocr- 
e^epovro rj/julv, dWd Kkeiaavre^ rd<; nrvka<; ovr eiaco eBi- 
'X^ovTo ovr e^co dyopdv eirefiirov • ynchvro Be rov Trap* vficov 
dp/JLOcrrfjv rovrcov alriov elvac, 20. ^O Be keyec^ fica ira- 
pekB6vra<; aKrjvovv, rjfjbeh rj^cov/jcev tou9 Kdfjcv0vra<; eh Ta9 
o-Teya<; Be^aaBac • eirel Be ovk dvecoyov rd^ 7rvka<;, fj rjfia^ 
eBi'^ero avro to ')(copiov ravry elaek^ovre^ dkko jxev ovBev 
/3iacov eiToir^aajjiev' crKrjvovac S' ev rah crreyac^ ol KdjJbvovre<; 
rd eavTMV BaTTav&vre<^ • Kal rd<; 7rvka<; (f)povpov/Jbev, 07rft)9 fjcv 
iirl TM vfierepq) dpfJuoG-rfj S)acv ol Kd/JiVOvre<; '^/jlmv, dkk €(j> 
rjfjuv 77 KOfjuiaao-^ac orav ^ovkwfJceS^a, 21. 01 S* dkkoc, 0)9 

LIB. V. CAP. VI. 135 

opdre, G-K7]vov^ev virai^pioL iv rfj rd^ec, irapeo-fcevacrfjLevot, 
av [lev TC<^ €v iroifj, avreviroLelv * av he KaKco^, ake^aa^ai, 
22. "^-4 he 'qiTeLKrj(Ta<; o)? tjv vjuv BoKr} KopvXav koX Uacp^a- 
ry6va<; o-f/^/xa^ou? TrocijorecrS^e e(j> ^^/xa?, ^/xei? Be tjv fiev dvdj- 
fCT} y TToXefjiTJaofjLev koX dfi(j)OTepot^ • i]hr} yap /cat dX\oc<; ttoX- 
XaifkaaioL^ v/jlcov i'7ro\efjL7]a'afJL€v ' av Be Bo/cfj r]fxivy fcal ^tkov 
iroLrjcroiiev tov IIa(f)\ay6va, 23. ^A/covofJiev Be avrov Kal 
iirt^vfJLelv rrj^ vjaerepa^ 7r6Xe6)9 fcal ')(o)pL(ov t&v iTrtSaXar- 
Ticov. HeipacTOjjLe^a ovv avjJLirpdTTOvre^^ avT(p &v eiTL^vfiel 
(})i\oc yiyveaS-ac. 

24. 'JG/c TOVTOV /JidXa fiev BrjXoc rjcrav ol avixirpeGr^ei^; ray 
'EfcarcovvfKp ')(aXeiTaLV0VTe<i rot? €lp7]fjLevoL<^, UapeXBcov S' 
avTcov dXXo<; elirev on ov iroXejiov TroLrjao/jievoi ijKocev, dXX* 
eTnBei^ovTe^ on cj>lXol elal. Kal ^eviOi<;, rjv fiev eXBTjre 
7rpo9 rrjv ^cvcoTricov iroXiv, eKel Be^ofieS^a • vvv Be rov^ iv- 
SdBe KeXevaofJuev BtBovao a Bvvavrac • opihfiev jdp irdvra 
dXrj^ri ovra a Xeyere, 25. 'jE/c tovtov ^evtd re eTrefiirov ol 
KoTvcopcTac fcal ol ar parity ol tcov ^EXXtjvcov i^evL^ov tov<; 
Tcov Scvcoirecov TrpeajSeL^; • fcal Trpb^ dXXTjXov^ iroXXd re Kal 
eTnrrjBeia BceXeyovro rd re dXXa Kal irepl ttj^ Xoc7r7]<; iro- 
peta'^ eirvv^dvovTo Kal &v eKdrepoc iBeovro. 


1. Tavrrj fjuev rfj V/Ji^ipa tovto to reXo? ijevero, Tfj S' 
varepaia crvveXe^av ol arparTjyol tov<; dTpancoTa^, Kal eBo- 
Kei avTol^ irepl T7]<; Xo^ttt}? iropeta^ irapaKaXeaavTa<; tov^ 
Xivayirea^ fiovXeveor^ac, Etre yap Tre^jj Beoo Tropevea^at, 
'X^pTjcnfJLOL dv eBoKovv elvac ol Xivo)irel<^ r^yovfjuevoi • efjureipoi 
yap rjcrav rrj^ TIa(^XayovLa<^ • etre Kara ^dXarraVy irpoaBelv 
eBoKei ^LvcoTrecov • jiovoi yap dv iBoKovv iKavol elvac irXola 
7rapaa')(elv dpKOvvra rfj crrpana. 2. KaXecravre^ ovv tou9 
7rpe<T/3eL<; G-vve/3ovXevovTO, Kal rj^lovv ^ EXXr]va<; ovra^ ^^EX- 


Xrja-L TOVTco Trpcbrov KcCko)^ he^ea^ai tq> evvov^ tl elvao koi 
TCb fieXrcara avfifiovkeveLV. 

3. ^Avaa-ra<; Be 'EfcaT(ovvfio<; Trpoorov [lev aTreXoyijcraTO 
Trepl ov elirev a)9 tov IIa(})'\aj6va (j^lXov Trocijaocvro, otl ov')(^ 
&>9 Tol^ '^EWtjctl TToXe/Jii^o-ovTcov atpcop eiTTOLi akX otl e^ov 
ToU fiap^dpoL<; (j)i\ov^ elvau tov<; '^EXkrjva^ alprjcrovTaL. 
'"Eirel he crv/JL/3ov\eveLV iiceKevov, eTrev^d/Jievo^ wSe elirev • 4. 
El fjiev avfi^ovXevotfit, a fieXrcard fioc hofcel elvai, irdXXd 
fioL Kaya^a yevoiro • el he pbrjy rdvavria • avrrj yap 77 lepa 
avjii^ovXrj Xeyo/JLevr] elvai So/cel fjLoc Trapelvau • vvv yap Brj av 
fjLev ev avix^ovKevaa<; (^avo), iroXKol ecrecrS^e ol eiraivovvrh 
ixe ' av Be f€a/ccj!)<;, ttoWoI eaeaS^e ol Karapdo/Jbevoc. 6. Upd- 
yjiara fiev ovv oIS' on iro'Xv TrXeico e^o/jbev, eav Kara SdXaT" 
rav /coiJii^Tja^e • ^/xa9 yap Berjcreu ra nrXola Tropc^ecv • '^v Be 
Kara 77)9 aTeWrjaS^e, vfia^ Berjaet, tov<; [xa')(p[Jbevov^ elvai. 
^^Ofico^ Be Xe/crea a yiyvcoaKco' 6. efjuretpo^ ydp elfic /cal 
Tr]<; %c6pa9 rcov IIa(f>Xay6vcov /cal ttj^ Bwdjieo)^ • e^ev yap 
\r} X^P^ d/jL(l)6Tepa, Kal ireBia KdXkcara Kal oprj vyjrrjXo- 
rara, 7. Kal irpSyrov jJbev olBa ev^i)^ fj rrjv elcr^dXrjv dvd- 
yKTj TTOLela^av • ov yap ecrrtv dWrj 7) y ra Kepara rod opov^ 
Trj<; 6B0V /caS-^ e/cdrepd iartv v'yfrrfkd • a Kparelv Kare^ovre^ 
Kal Trdvv oXlyoi BvvatvT av • rovrtov Be Kare^op^evccv ovB^ 
av ol irdvre'^ av^pcoirot Bvvacvr av BceXS^etv. Tavra Be Kal 
Bel^atfLL av, et fioi riva fiovXotaSe av/jLTre/jL'yjrat. 8. ''EireLra 
Be olBa Kal ireBia ovra Kal liTTreiav 7]v avrol ol fidp^apot 
vo/j^L^ova-L KpeLTTco elvat d7rda7]<; T779 ^ao-iXeco^; liT7reia<;. Kal 
vvv ovToi ov TrapeyevovTo ^acnXel KaXovvrt* dXXa fiell^ov 
^povel 6 dpxcov avTcov. 9. El Be Kal Bvv7]!^elTe rd re oprj 
KXeyJrai rj ^Sdaao Xa^ovre^ Kal ev tS> TreBloy Kparrjaac fJ^a^o- 
fievoL T0U9 re l7nre2<^ tovtcov Kal irel^wv fivpLdBa<^ irXelov 7} 
BcooeKa, rj^ere eirl roif^ Trora/jiov^;, irpSyrov fiev tov ©ep/jLco- 
Bovra, e5po9 Tptojv irXeBpcov, ov j(aXeiTov olfMai Bta^alvetv 
aXXco^ re Kau iroXe/jbicov ttoXXcov /mev e/JbirpooSev ovtcov iroX- 
XS)v Be oTTia^ev eirofjievoov ' Bevrepov S' '^IpLv, TplirXe^pov 
a)c7avT©9 • TpLTOv S' "AXvVy ov fxelov Bvolv aTaBloiVy ov ovk 

LIB. Y. CAP. YI. 137 

av BvpacaBe avev irkoLcov StajSrjvat • TrXoca Be tl^ ear at 6 
7rape')(^cov ; co? S' avrco^ teal 6 TIap^evio<; d/3aTG<^ • e^' ot/ 
eX^otre dv, el tov ^^Akvv Bia^ai7]T€, 10. ^Eyco [lev ovv ov 
'ya\€7rr]v viuv elvai vofii^co rrjv Tropetav aXXd TravrdTraacv 
dBvvarov, '^Av Be TrKerjre, earcv iv^^evBe fiev ek Slvcotttjv 
irapaifXevcraiy i/c Scvcoin^f; Be ek 'Hpdfckeiav • e^ 'HpaKketa^; 
Be 0VT6 Tre^fj ovre Kara S^dXarrav diropla TToWd • jdp koX 
ifKold ecrrcv ev 'HpaKkela, 

11. ^Eirel Be ravra eXe^ev, oi fxev vTrcoTrrevov (^iXia^ 
eve/ca T779 KopvXa Xeyecv • koL jdp rjv 7rp6^evo<; avrS • ot Be 
KoX 0)9 BSypa XTj-y^opievov Bid Tr]v avfjL^ovXrjv ravTTjv ol S' 
v7rd)7TTevov /cat tovtov eveKa Xeyecv 0)9 firj Tre^rj lovre^ rrjv 
Xivcoirecov rt ')(d)pav Kaicov ipyd^ocvro, 01 S' ovv ^^EXXrjve^; 
i'\fr7]cj)L(7avT0 Kara ^dXarrav rrjv iropelav nroLela^ai, 12. 
Merd ravra 'aevo(})(bv etirev '^fl StvcoTrec^, ol fiev dvBpe<; 
r}pr}vrai rropeiav tjv ifxec^ crv/jifiovXevere' ovrco S' e)(^£i* el 
fiev TrXoca ecreaS^ac pbeXXet l/cavd dpcS^fjuS 0)9 eva jxt} KaraXeC- 
ireaB^ai ev^dBe, '})/JLel<^ av TrXeoc/Jiev • el Be fieXXoijxev oi [lev 
fcaraXei'yIrecrSao ol Be TrXevcreaBaCy ov/c dv ifji^aiTj/jLev els rd 
nrXola, 13. rcyvcoa/cofjiev jdp ore ottov fiev av /cparcofiev, 
BvvalfieS-^ dv fcal aco^ea^^at Kal rd eTTLrrjBeia e')(eLV • el Be rrov 
Tjrrovs rcov nroXepbicov XTjcj^^Tjao/JbeS^a, evBrfkov Br] on ev dv- 
BpaTToBcov xo^pci eaofieS^a. 14. ^ AKovcravre^; ravra ol rrpe- 
(r/Secs eKeXevov irefjurecv rrpea^eis • Kal TrefMirovG-b KaXXL/jLa- 
')^ov ^ApKaBa Kal ^ApCcrro)va ^A^-qvalov fcal ^a/xoXav ^A'^^cllov, 
Kal ol /xev S-)(ovro, 

15. ''Ev Be rovrtp to Xpovcp 'Bevo^wvrty opcovrt fxev orrXi- 
Ta9 rroXXovs rcov ^EXXrjvcov, opcovrc Be Kal ireXraard<^ iroX- 
Xovs Kal ro^6ra<; Kal cr^evBovr}ra<s Kal l7nrea<; Be Kal fidXa 
ijBi] Bed rrjv rpLJBi^v iKavovs, ovras B' ev ra> Tlovro), {evS-a ovk 
dv drr oXuycov xPVf^^'^^^ roaavrrj BvvafJbL^; rrapecTKevda^^ 
KaXov avra> eBoKec elvai Kal ^^pav Kal BvvafJbcv rf) 'EXXdBo 
rrpoc7Kr7](Taa3^ai rroXtv KaroLKLcravra<;, 16. Kal yevecrBao av 
avrS) eBoKei /leydXTj, KaraXayc^ojjLevq) rd re avrcov ttXtj^o^; 
Kal rovs irepcocKovvras rov Uovrov. Kal eirl rovrots i^vero 


nrpCv TiVL eliretv to)v crrparicoTcov ScXavbv 7rapafcaXi(Ta<; tov 
Kvpov ixdvTLV ^evofievov tov ^A/jb^pa/acorrjv. 17. 'O Be 
Xikavo^ BeBccb^ fjLrj jevTjrai ravra fcal /cara/jieivr) ttov rj arpa- 
Tidy e/c(j)6peo etV to cTTpaTevfia Xoyov otv 'p,€vo(j)cov fiovKeTai 
KaTa/jL€Lvao ttjv crTpaTiav koX iroktv olicCaai /cat eavTco ovojia 
fcal hvvajJbLV irepLiroirjcraor^aL. 18. Avto<^ S' 6 ^cXavo^ i^ov- 
Xeto otl TayiGTa eh ttjv ^EXkdBa d^Lfceo-S^at • 0^9 jdp irapa 
Kvpov eXa^e TpLaxi^LOV<^ hapeiKov<^, oTe tcl^ BeKa rjfiepa^; 
rfKrj^evcre Bv6/jl€vo<; Kvpo), Bcecreaco/cet. 19. Tcov Be (TTpaTtco- 
TO)v, iirel rjKovaav, toI<^ fiev eBofcec ^ekriaTov elvav KaTafiel- 
vac, TOL<; Be ttoXXo?? ov, Tifxaalcov Be 6 AapBavev^ koX 
©(opa^ 6 BotcoTto^ 7rpo9 i/Ji7r6pov<; Tcvd<; 7rap6vTa<; toov ^Hpa- 
fcXecoTcov fcal ^cvcoTrecov Xejovacv otu el /jltj eKTropiovai Tjj 
crrpaTta fitaBov axTTe e')(eiv tcu eiTLTrjBeLa e/C7rXeovTa<;, otc 
KivBvvevaeL p^elvai TocravTrj BvvafjLC^ ev Ta> Uovtco • ^ovXeve- 
Tab jdp 'Bievocpcbv koX rjfjbd^ irapafcaXec, eireiBav eX^rj tcl 
TrXola, Tore elirecv €^ai(f)vr}<; ttj crTpaTca • 20. ^'AvBpe^;, vvv 
fjLev opcofjiev r}/jbd<; diTopov^ ovTa<^ fcal ev tw dTTOirXfo e')(eLV tcl 
eiriTrjBeta koX 0)9 oc/caBe direXBovTa^; ovrjaai tl tov<; oXkoi,, 
El Be jBovXecr^e Trj<^ kvkXco xo^pa^ irepl tov Hovtov olKovfie-r 
V7](; eKXe^dfievoc ottt] dv fiovXTjaSe KaTaa^/lVy /cat tov fiev 
eS-eXovTa dirikvai o'lKaBe, tov Be e^eXovTa fieveiv avTov, 
TrXola Be v/jllv TrdpecrTcv, codTe oirrj dv ^ovXrja^e e^al^V7]<; dv 

21. ^AfcovcravTe<; TavTa ol efJUTropoi dir'jjyyeXXov Tal<; tto- 
XecTL • crvveTre/juyJre S' avTol^ TcfjiacrLcov 6 AapBavev^ ^Epv/JLa- 
yov Te TOV AapBavea /cat ©copa/ca tov Bolcotiov Ta avTa 
Tavra epovvTa^, Xivcoirel^; Be koX ^HpaKXecoTac TavTa aKov- 
(TavTe^ irefJbiTovori irpo<^ tov Tcfiacricova koL fceXevovat Trpo- 
aTaTevcrai Xa/36vTa p^pT/yccara ottco^ e/cTrXevarj rj CTpaTcd, 
22. 'O Be do-fievo^ aKOvaa^ ev avXXoyM tcov (TTpaTtcoTcov 
ovTcov Xeyec TaBe ' Ov Bel Trpoaex^tv fJiovy, & dvBpe<;, ovBe 
TTj^ ^EXXdBo<i ovBev Trepl irXeiOVO^ iroielor^ai, ^Akovco Be 
Tiva^ ^vea^ai iirl tovtm ovS* v/jlIv XejovTa<;, 23. ^Tttc- 
G^yyoviiai Be vjilv dv e/c7rXer}Tey diro vovfjL7]vta<; /jLLcrBo(f)Opdv 

LIB. Y. CAP. VI. 139 

irape^eiv, Kv^cktjvov eicd(TT(p tov jirjvo^ • koX d^co v/xd^ ek 
T7]V TpcodSuj ev^ev icai eijjLL (f>vyd<i • /cat vTrdp^eo vjullv 97 ifjurj 
ttoXl^ • €/c6vT€(; fydp fie he^ovrat, 24. ' HyTJcro/JLat Be avTo<^ 
iyco ev^ev iroXKa ')(^pr)p.aTa \r|^^ea^e. '^E/JLireipo^ Be elfjLC tt}? 
AIo\lBo<; /cat Tr]<; ^pvyLa<^ Kol T7]<; TpcodBo<; koX Trj<; ^apva- 
^d^ov dpxV"^ irdarj^ ' ra jJbev Bia to ifcelBev elvac, ra Be 
Bca TO crvvecTTpaTeva-S-ac iv avTjj avv KXedp')(cp re koI Aep- 


25. ^AvaaTa^ S* av!^L^ Oclopa^ 6 Boccotlo^ 09 del irepl 
aTpuT7]yla<^ Sevo^covTO ifid'yeTO, e^rj, ei i^eX^ocev i/c tov 
TlovTov, ecreaS^ac avTol^; Xeppovrjaov ')(copav /caXfjv koX evBal- 
fiova, &(rT€ Tfti ^ovkopbevfp evoiKelv, t& Be fjur) ^ovKofjuev(o 
diiievai o'ifcaBe • yeXocov S' elvac, iv tj} ^EXKdBc ovar}<^ X^P^^ 
ttoWt]^ /cal d(f)^6voVy iv Ty ^ap^dpcov fjiaaTevecv. 26. "EaTe 
B' dv, e(j)r], iKel yivrjcrS-e, fcdyco Ka^dTrep Tcfiaatcov utt^ct^z/oO- 
fiat v/MV TTjV fjLLcrS^ocpopdv. TavTa 8' eXeyev elBco^ a Tc/JLacri- 
(ovi ol 'HpaKXecorao Kal ol ^Lvcoireh iirayyeXoivTo waTS 
ifCTrXetv. 27. 'O Be "Sevocffcov iv tovtg) ialya. ^AvaaTd<; Be 
^lX7](7lo<; /cal Av/ccov ol ^A')(aiol eXeyov co? Betvov ecr) IBia [lev 
^evo^5)VTa TrelSecv t6 /caTa/JueveLV Kal ^vea^au virep T779 
fjiov7]<; /XT] /coLVOvfJLevov Ty crTpaTca • eh Be to koivov fjirjBev 
dyopevecv irepl tovtcov • SxTTe rjvayKdtT^r] 6 Uevocj^cov dva<TT7]' 
vat Kal elirelv raSe • 

28. 'Eyco, 3) dvBpe^, ^vojiav fiev C09 opaTe oirbcra Byvafiai 
Kal virep vfioyv Kal virep i/mavTov, otto)? Tavra Tvy^dvco Kal 
Xeycov Kal voS)V Kal irpdTTcov oirola fieXXeo v/jlcv re KdXXccrTa 
Kal dpco'Ta eaea^au Kal ijxoL Kal vvv iS-vofjirjv irepl avTov 
TovTov el djieLvov ely dp')(ea^ab Xeyetv eh vfid<; Kal irpdTTecv 
Tcepl TOVTCOV Tj TTavTdiTaG'i /jLr]Be diTTea^ac tov irpdy/juaTo^. 
29. XCXavo^ Be fioi 6 fidvTL^; direKpivaTo to fiev fieyvcTTov, to, 
lepa KaXd elvau • 57866 yap Kal i/jue ovk direipov ovra Bid to 
del Trapelvai Toh lepoh • eXe^e Be otc iv Toh lepoc<; ^aivoLTo 
Ti<^ BoXo^ Kal iTTt^ovXrj ifioC, O)? dpa yiyvcocTKcov otl avrb^ 
iire^ovXeve Bta^dXXetv fxe nrpo^ vfid^, ^E^rjveyKe yap tov 
Xoyov 0)9 iyco irpdTTeiv TavTa BiavoolfjLrjv 7]B7] ov nreicra^; 


i//ia9. 30. ^EycD Be el fiev ecopcov airopovvTa<; vjia^, tovt av 
ecncoirovv a(^ ov av ryivocro coare Xa/36vTa<^ vfid^; nroKtv rov 
fjuev fiovXo/jbevov airoifKelv rjhrjy tov he fir] /SovXofievoVy eireX 
KTrjaaiTO l/cava coare kol tov^ eavrcv oiKelov^ oocpeXrjo-aL re. 
31. ^Eirel S' opco vfilv kol ra irXola rrefXTTovra^ ^HpafcXeco- 
ra<^ KoX Xivcoirel^ &are ifCTrXeiv, kol jjna^ov v7rta')(vov/jLevov(; 
vjMV avSpa^ airo vovp>7]via<^y KcCkov fMoi So/cec elvac aco^ofievov^ 
evSa ^ovX6/JLe3a paa^ov rr](^ crcorr^pta^ XafjbjBdveiV • koX avro^ 
re avairavojiai eKeivrj^ rrj<; Stavola^, /cat OTrocroi 7rpo<; ifjue 
TTpocrrjeo-av, Xeyovre^ a)9 xpr) ravra irpdrretVy dvairavaa- 
aS^ai (pTjjjii ')(^pi)vau 32. Ovrco yap ytyvcoafcco • o/jlov fjuev 
ovre^ TToWol coairep vvvl hotcelre av jjlov /cal evrijioL elvao ical 
€)(^ecv ra emrriheia • ev yap rS Kparelv ecrri Kal ro Xa/x/Sd- 
veiv ra rcov rjrrovcov * hiaairaa^evre^ 8' av Kal Kara fjucKpa 
yevojxevrj^ r7]<; Swdfjueco^; ovr av rpocj^rjv hvvaia^e XaixjBdvetv 
ovre ')(^aipovre<; av aTraWd^atre, 33. AoKel ovv fioi drrepi 
v/jilv, eKTropevea^ai eU rrjv ^EXKdha • Kal edv t^9 j^^ii^J] V 
dTToXiTrcov riva \r)(^^fi irplv ev da(f)a\el elvao rrav ro arpd- 
revfia, Kpivea^ai avrov co? dBcKovvra. Kal or(p hoKel, ecjyrj, 
ravray dpdrco rrjv X^^P^* ^Averetvav drravre^, 

34. 'O he XiKavo<; i^oa, Kal eVe^etpet Xeyeiv a)9 hUaiov 
eiT] aTTievai rov jSovko/Jievov. 01 he arparccorat ovk rjvei- 
XovrOy dX)C rjTreiKovv avrS> on ei Xrj'y^ovraL dTTohthpdcrKOvra, 
rrjv hiKTjv eTn^rjcTOLev. 35. ^Evrev'^ev eirel eyvcocrav ol 
^HpaKXecorac on eKifkelv hehoyfievov ecrj Kal 'Bevo(l)cov avrb^ 
eire-y^rr^^LKO)^ eirjy ra fJLev irXola irepnTOvaiy ra he ;)^7;yLtaTa, a 
vireaxovro Tv/jiaalcovL Kal ©copaKO e^jrevafievoc rjcrav rr]<; 
jxLa^o(j)opd<;, 36. ^Evrav^a he eKireifkrjyiievoi rjcrav Kal 
ehehoLKeaav rrjv crrpanav ol rrjv /jLta^ocpopav VTreaxv/^^^oc. 
UapaXa^ovre^ ovv ovrot, Kal roif^ aXXov<; arparrjyov^; oh 
dveKeKoivcovro a rrpoa^ev eirparroVy {irdvre^ S' fjcrav ifKrjv 
Necovo^ rov ^Acrivaiov, 09 XecptaocpG) virecrrparriyeLy XecpicrO' 
<^09 he ovTTO) TrapijVy) ep^ovrai 7rpo<; Sevo(})(A)vra, Kal Xeyovatv 
on jierafieXoL avrol^;, Kal hoKoirj Kpdncrrov elvac ifkelv eh 
^dcTiVy iirel ifKola can, Kal Karaax^lv rrjv ^aacavoov x^' 

LIB. y. CAP. VII, 


pav, 37. AlrjTov K vlBov<; iTvy')(^ave /3a<Tc\evct)v avrcov. 
Pievo(^(hv S* dire/cpLvaTo oro ovBev av tovtcov eliroi eh rrjv 
arpaTcdp' vfjiel^ 8e crvWi^avre^y ecj^rj, el ^ovKea^e, Xeyere. 
^Evrav^a dTroSetfcvvTac Ti/iaalcov 6 Aaphavei)^ jvcofi7]v ovfc 
eKKk7](Tid^eiv, dWa tou9 avrov eKacrrov \o'^ayov<; Trpcorcv 
TrecpdaS^at irel^eiv* Kal d7re'\S6pTe<; ravra eTroiovv, 


1. Tavra ovv ol (TrpaTLcorat dveirv^ovTo Trparro/jieva. 
Kal 6 Necov \eyec co? ^evocj^oov dva7re7reifccb<? tol'9 dWov<; 
G-rparrjjov^, Biavoetrac dyecv tou9 crTpaTicoTa<^ i^a7raT7]cra<; 
irdXiv eh ^dcnv, 2. ^ AKovaavre^ Se ol G-rpaTLcoraL %aXe- 
TTCO? e(j)epov • /cat avWoyoc iytyvovro koX kvkXoc avvLaravTO • 
Kol fxdXa (po^epol rjaav fir) Trocyaetav ola /cat rov^; rcov KoX- 
')(0)v K7]pv/ca<; iTTolrjcrav /cat tov(; dyopq^vo/xov^ • ocrot yap fir] 
eh rrjv ^dXarrav icaTe(^vyov /careXevaS^rjcrap. 3. 'ETrel 8e 
Tja^dvero ^evQ(pa)v eBo^ev avro) co? Td')(iara avvayayelv av- 
TO)v dyopdv, /cal [jltj eacrav crvXKeyrjvab avro/jbdrov^ • /cal 
ixeXevcre rov KrjpvKa ayXXeyeiV dyopdv. 4. 01 S' eVel rov 
KTjpvico^ TjKovcrav (TVveBpafiov Kal jjudXa eroLfjLco^;. ^EvravS^a 
'Sevo(j)a)v t5>v /jL6V G-Tparrjycov ov KaTr]y6peL, on, rjX^ov irpb^ 
avToVy Xeyev Be S)Be • 

5. ^Akovcd TLvd Bia/3dXXeLV, & dvBpe^;, ifie co? iyco dpa 
e^a7raTrjaa<; vpua^ /JbiXXco ayeiv eh ^daiv. ^AKovaare ovv 
fiov 7rpo9 S^ecbv • fcal edv fiev eyco ^acvay/jiaL dBcfccov, ov %p?; 
fie ivS-evBe direX^elv Trplv dv Bco Bl/ctjv • dv S* vfilv (j^aLVcovrac 
dBiKOvvre^ ol efie BtafidXXovre^;, ovt(o^ avroh XPV^^^ coairep 
d^tov. 6. 'Tfieh 8' ecj^Vy tcrre Btjitov oS^ev 77X^09 dvi(i')(ei Kal 
OTTOV Bverai • Kal on edv fiev n^ eh Tr]v ^EXXdBa fieXXrf ii- 
vac, 7rpo9 eairepav Bel iropevecr^ai ' rjv Be n<; ^ovXrjrai eh 
T0U9 fiap^dpov^, TovfiiraXiv irpo<; eco. ^'Ecrnv ovv ocrn^; rov- 
TO dv BvvacTO vfid<^ e^aTrarrjcraL 0)9 rfXLo<; evS-ev fiev dviG')(ei, 
Bverrai Be ivravS^a, ev^ev Be Bverai, dvi(T')(ei S' evrevS^ev ; 


7. ^AWa /JL7]V /cat tovto 76 eiriaTaaB^e ore ^opka<^ fiev e^co 
Tov UovTov et9 rrjv 'EXkdSa (pepec, voto^ Be eiaco eh ^aauv • 
KoX Xiyere, orav ^oppa<^ "Trvej) o)? fcaXol ifKol elatv eh rrjv 
'EXXdSa, Tovto ovv ecrnv oirco^ tls av vpia^ e^aTrarijcrao 
&(TT epLJ^aiveiv oirorav voto^ 'Trvey ; 8. AXXa yap OTrorav 
ydXiqvr] y efjL^t/Sco. OvKovv iyo) fjuep ev evl irXola) irXevao- 
fiaty v/jLeh Be T0vXd')(^LaT0V ev e/carov. ITco9 av ovv iyco rj 
^cacraifiTjv vfid^ avv epbol vrXetv fMrj /3ovXopLevov<; 7) e^aTrarrj' 
aa^ ayoL/jLL ; 9. Uotco S' vfid^; i^airaT7}3^evTa<; /cal Karayorj- 
revBevra^ vtt ejjLov rjKeuv eh ^clctlv • Kal Br) fcal dTrojSalvo/jLev 
eh T7]v ')((ji}pav yvcoaea^e Btjitov otl ovk ev ry ^EXXdBi ecrre' 
/cat 670) fiev ecrojiab e^r]7raT7]K0)<^ eh, vfieh Be ol e^rjirarT]- 
fievot eyyix; fivptcov e')(pvTe^ oirXa, Uco? av ovv eh dvrjp 
/laXXov Bolt) BUo^v rj ovro) irepl avrov re fcal v/jloov /3ovXev6- 
fjLevo^ ; 10. '^XV ovrol elcnv ol Xoyou dvBpcov /cal rjXtS^lcov 
Kal ifiol (j)^ovovvTcov, otl iyco vcj) v/jL&v TLjuLCj/iai. KaLTOU ov 
BL/ca(o)<; y dv fjLot c^^ovolev. Tiva yap avTcov iyco fccoXvco ^| 
Xeyeiv el rh tl dya^ov BvvaraL ev vfuv, rj iJbd')(eG'^aL ell tl<^ 
eS^eXeL virep v/jlcov re /cal eavTov, rj eyprjyopevaL irepl rrj^ ^ 
vfjLeT€pa<; d(T(f>aXeLa<^ iTrt/jLeXo/jLevov ; TC ydp ; dp')(ovTa<^\ 
alpovfievcov v/jlcov iyco tlvl ipuiroBSv elpLL ; IIapLr)/jLt, dp^e- 
Tco • fjbovov dya^ov tl ttolcov vfjLd<; (j>aLvea^co, 11. 'AXXd 
ydp ijJLol fiev dp/cel irepl tovtcov rd elpr)fieva • el Be tl<; vjjlcov 
r) avTo<^ i^a7raT7)BrjvaL dv oleTai TavTa, rj dXXov i^airaTTJaau 
TavTa, Xeycov BLSaa/ceTco, 12. ^'Orav Be tovtcov dXL^ ^XV^^y 
fjbf) d7reX^r)Te irplv dv dKOvar)Te olov opco iv Tjj cTTparLa 
dpxoj^^vov TTpdyfia • o el eireLaL /cal ecTTat olov vTroBel/cvvcrcVy 
CO pa r)fjLLV ^ovXevea^aL virep r)iicov avTcov /jlt) /cdfctcTTol re /cal 
alcryLCTTOi dvBpe<; dTrotpaivcojiieS^a /cal Trpo? 3-ecov /cal irpo^ 
dvBpcoTTcov /cal ^iXcov /cal nroXepLLcov Kal KaTa^povrj^cofxev, 
13. ^AKovcravTe<; Be TavTa ol crTpaTicoTai iSav/iaadv re 6 n 
elr) Kal XeyeLv iKeXevov. ^Ek tovtov dp^GraL nrdXLV • ^Errl- 
araa^e rrov on %ct)pia rjv iv roh opecrc /3ap/3apLKd, cplXca 
roh KepaaovvTLOL^, o^ev Kanovre^ rLve<; Kal lepela iircoXovv 
r))ilv Kal dXXa 3)v el^pv, Aokovcfl Be jjlol Kal v/jloov rivh eh \' 

LIB. V. CAP. YII. 143 

TO iyyvrdrco 'x^copiov tovtcov i\^6vT6<; ayopd(7avT6<; tc irakiv 
direh^elv, 14. Tovro /carafJLo^cov KXedpero^ 6 \o')(^ajo<; on 
Kol jjLLKpov elrj KoX d(f)v\afCTov Sea to (J^lXlov vofjut^ecv elvaCy 
ep'X^eTao iir avTov^ t^? vvkto^ co? irop^TJacov, ovSevl rjfjLa)v 
elirddv. 15. Aievev6r}T0 Be, el Xd^oc ToSe to 'X,^piov, eh p^ev 
TO GTpdTevp^a p^rjfceTL iX^elVy ifjL/3a<^ S' eh ifKolov ev c5 eTvy- 
')(avov ol avo-Kr]V0L avTOv jrapaifkeovTe^, koX iv^efjbevo<; el tl 
Xd^oL, aTrom'Xecov o'i')(e(T^at, e^co tov TIovtov, Kal TavTa 
avvcofioXoyrjcrav avT(p ol etc tov ttXolov o-vg-ktjvoc, 0)9 eyco vvv 
ala^dvop^ac. 16. UapaKaXeaa^^ ovv oiroaov^ eiret^ev rj'yev 
eirl TO ')(Q}pLov, Hopevop^evov he avTov (j)^dvec rj/jiepa (yevo- 
p^evTj, fcal (TVcrTdvTe<; ol dv^pa^iroi aTrb tcr^upwz^ tottcov /3aX- 
XovTe<; teal iTaiovTe<^ tov re KXedpeTOV dTTOKTeCvovcru fcal tcov 
dXXcov (7V)(yov(; • ol Si Tive^ /cal eh KepaaovvTa avTwv diro- 
')(^copovG-t. 17. TavTa S* rjv ev Trj rjp^epa y rjp^eh Sevpo e^cop- 
[xcop^ev Tre^f), Toov Be wXeovTcov eTC TLvh rjcrav ev Kepa- 
aovvTLy ovTTCO dvTjy/jLevoc. MeTa tovto, o)<; ol KepaaovvTCoo 
XeyovaLV, d^LKvovvTat tcov Ik, tov ')(copiov Tpeh dvBpe<^ tcov 
jepaiTepcov 7rpo9 to kolvov to 7][xeTepov %pj7foi'Te9 iX^etv. 
18. ^Eirel Be rjp^d'; ov KaTeXa/Sov, 7rpo9 tov<; KepaaowTLOv^ 
eXeyov otc ^avfid^ocev to rjfiLV Bo^etev eX^ecv eirl avTOv^;, 
'JSttcI jJuevTOL ac^eh Xeyetv, e^aaav, otc ov/c diro kolvov ye- 
voLTO TO irpdyiia, riBea^ai re avTOV^ kol fieXXetv ev^dBe 
irXelv, 0)9 TjfMV Xe^ac to, yevopLeva koI tol'9 veKpov<; KeXevetv 
avTov<; ^diTTecv Xa/36vTa<; tov<; tovtov Beofievov^;, 19. TSv 
8' diTo^vyovTCDV TLve<^ ^EXXijvcov eTV')(ov eTO ovTe^ ev Kepa- 
crovvTC • alo-^o/jLevoc Be tou9 jBapj3dpov^ orroc to Lev avToi Te 
iToXfiTjcrav ^dXXetv Toh Xl^ol<;, kol tol<; dXXoc^ irapeKeXev- 
ovTO, Kal ol dvBpe<; dTro^v^aKovac Tpeh ovTe<^ ol 7rpecrl3eL<; 
KaTaXeva^evTe^;, 20. ^Eirel Be tovto iyeveTO, ep')(ovTaL irpo^ 
rj/jid^ ol KepacrovvTCOL Kal Xeyovac to Trpdypia • Kal 7]iieh ol 
cTTpaTTjyol aKovcravTe^ rj^op^e^d Te Toh yeyev7]p.evot<; Kal 
e^ovXevop.e'^a avv Toh KepaaovvTLOc<; ottco^ dv Tacfyelrjaav ol 
TCOV ^EXXtjvcov veKpoL 21. XvyKa!^rjp.evoL S' e^co^ev tcov 
oirXcov e^ai<^v7]^ aKOVopbev ^opvjBov ttoXXov Hale Trale, ^dXXe 


ySaXXe. Kat Td')(a Sr) opcofiep ttoWou? Trpoa^eovra^; Xi^ov^ 
■e^ovra^ iv rah X^P^h '^^^^ ^^ '^^^ dvatpov/ievov^, 22. Kal 
ol [lev KepaaovvTLOL w? av Kal e(A)paic6Te<; to irap eavTol<; 
"irpd^fjia, heiaavTe^ diroytapovaL *7rpo<; ra irXola. "^Haav he 
V7] Aia fcat rjficbv ot eSecaav. 23. ^'Ejcoye jx-qv rjX^ov 7rpb<; 
avTOV^ Kol rjpcoTcov 6 to iarl to irpa^fia. Tcop S* rjaav fiev ol . 
ov8ev rjSeaav, 6/jLa)<; Se Xc^ov^ el^pv ev Tal<^ ^J^paiv. ^Eirel Ski 
eiSoTC TLvl evervxpv, Xeyet fioi on ol djopavofjiOL hetvorara^ 
TTocovcTC TO aTpuTevfia, 24. ^Ep tovtg) t^9 opa tov dyopavo- 
fjLov ZrjXapxpv 7rpo<; Trjv ^dXaTTav dTToxa^povvTa^ koX dveKpa- 
jev ' ol S' 0)9 7]fcovaav, coarrep rj av6<; dyplov rj iXd(j)ov (^aviv- 
To<; XevTai eir avTov, 25. 01 S' av KepaaovvTLoi co^ elhov 
op/jLcoPTa^; Ka^^ avTov<iy aa(pa)^ vofil^ovTe^ iirl crcj^d^; cea^atj 
cj^evyovac Spojuq:) Kal epLTTLTrTOVcnv eh ttjv ^dXaTTav. Xweia- 
eireaov Be Kal rjjiwv avTcov Ttve^, Kal iirvlyeTO 6aTC<; velv /jltj 
eTvyxfivev eiridTaiievo^^. 26. Kal tovtov^^ tl SoKecTe ; 7]hi- 
Kovv jjilv ovSev, eSeccrav Se /jltj XvTTa t6? coairep Kvalv rjfiLV 
e/jLTreTTTcoKOC. El ovv TavTa ToiavTa ecTTac, ^edaaa^e oia rj 
KaTaaTaat^ tj/jlIp eaTat t^? GrTpaTids. 27. 'T/iel^ fxep ol 
irdpTe^ ovK eaea^e KVpLou ovt dpeXea^au TroXefMOP cS ap jSov- 
Xrja^e ovTe KaTaXvaah • Ihla he 6 /3ovX6/iepo<; d^ei aTpaTevfia 
e^' o Tc dp ^eXy. Kap tlp6^ irpo9 ifpids Lcoac TrpeajSei^ rj elprj- 
prj<; Seo/juepoL rj dXXov Tip6<^, KaTaKapopTe^ tovtov^ ol ySofX6//.e-l 
POL "TT Of}] or over LP vjxd^ tcop Xoycop firj dKOvcrac Ta)p 7rpo9 vfid^ 
l6pT0)p, 28. ^'EjreLTa he ou? fiep dp vfieh diraPTe^ eXrja^e 
dpxoPTa<;, ip ovhejJLta X^P9 eaoPTat • oaTi^ S' dp eavTOP eXr}- 
Tau cTpaTTjyop Kal i^eXrj Xeyetp BdXXe ^dXXe, ovto<; eaTUL 
ucavo^ Kal dp^oPTa KaTaKapetP Kal ihicoTTjp op dp vjjlojp e^ekrj 
d/cpLTOp, rjp oxTLP ol Trecao/LLepoL avT(5, ioairep Kal pvp iyepeTO. 
29. Ola h' v/jllp Kal htaireTrpdxcio-cp ol av^alpeToc ovtol crTpa- 
TTjyol cTKeslraa^e, ZrjXapxo^ fJ^iv yap 6 dyopapoixo<^ el fiep 
dSi/cet vfid^j OLX^Tao diroTrXicop ov Sou? vjlllp hiK7]P • el he fxr] 
doucel, (pevyei, etc tov G'TpaTev/jiaTo<; SetVa? /jLT) dhlKco^ aKpuTOS 
diro^dpr). 30. 01 he KaTaXevaapTe^; tov9 'JTpea-/3et<; hieTrpd- 
^aPTO V/JLLP fjLOPOL^; flip Tcop ^EXXrjPCDP eh KepacrovPTa fu^rj 


LIB. Y. CAP. VIII. 145 

aa(j)a\€<; elvai av fir) avv l(J')(yl a<^LKvela^at * tov<; Se v€Kpov<; 
oif^ irpoa^ev avrol ol KaraKavovre^^ i/ciXevop ^dTrrecv, tovtov^ 
SteTTpd^avTo /JLrjSe crvv K7}pVKi(p en d(T(j)a\€^ elvai dveXea^ai, 
Tl^ yap i^e\7]0'€L Kr)pv^ livai KrjpvKa<^ aTre/crovco^ ; 31. 
^AX}C rjjjLeU KepaaovvTLCOv ^dyjrac avrov^ eierf^r]fiev. El fiev 
ovv ravra Kokcos €')(ei, So^drco vfilv • Xva co? tolovtcov ia-o/Jbi- 
vcov Kol ^vXa/crjv tSia iroit^arj tl<; /cat rd ipv/uuvd virepSe^ia iret- 
pdrai e')(0)V afcrjvovp. 32. El fxevroL v/jllp So/cel ^rjplwv dXkd 
fir) dv'^ pcoTTcov elvai rd Tocavra epja, (TKOirelre iravkdv riva 
avToyv el he fir), Trp6<; Alo^ ttw? r) ^eol<^ ^vaofiev r)Se(o^ ttol- 
ovvre^ epja do-e/Sfj, rj 7ro\efjiLOC<; ttw? fia')(ovfxe^a^ rjv dWrjXovf; 
KaraKaivcofiev ; 33. UoXi^ he ^tXia ri^ r)fjLd<; he^erai^ tJtl^ 
av opa ToaavT7)v dvofiiav iv r)fuv ; ^Ajopdv he rk d^et ^ap- 
pcbvy rjv irepl rd fieycara Toiavra e^afiapTdvovTe<; (^aivcofxe- 
^a ; Ov he hr) irdvrcov olofie^a rev^ea^at eiraLVov, rk av 
r)fid<i TOLovTov^ ovra^ eTraLveaeLev ; r)fiel<^ fiev jdp olS* ore 
7rovr)pov<; av (j)air)fiev elvai tov<; rd rocavra 7roiovvTa<^, 

34:. 'JE/c TovTov dviardfievoi Trdvre^ eXeyov rov^ fiev tov- 
Tcov dp^avTa<; hovvai hUrjv, rod he Xoiirov fir)KeTi e^elvai dvo- 
fiia^ dp^ai* edv he Ti9 dp^y, dyea^ai avTOv<; eirl^avdrw* 
Tovs he arparriyovs els hL/ca<; Trdvra^ /caraorrrjo-ai ♦ elvai he 
hifca^; Kal el n dXXo tis r)hiKr)To e'f ov Kvpo^ dire^ave • hiKa- 
aTd<; he roi)? Xo')(^DLyovs eTTOiTJaavro. 35. IIapaivovvTO<; he 
'Sevo(j)(bvTO<; Kal rchv fidvrecov avfi^ovXevovrcov eho^e /cat 
Ka^rjpai to (rrpdrevfia, Kal eyevero Ka^apfJLO^;. 


1. "jBSofe he Kal tou<^ (7TpaTr)yov^ hiKTjV viroGyeiv tov 
TrapeXifXv^oTo^ '^povov, Kal hihovrcov ^iXr)(no<; fiev a)(pXe 
Kal aav^iKXr}^ tt)? <^vXaKr)s tcov yavXiKcov ')(^pr)fidTcov to fiei- 
cofia ecKocTi fxvd<s. 2o(f)aLveTo<; he, on dp'^cov alpe^el<; KaTrj- 
fieXei, heKa fivd^. Hevocj^covTo^; he KaTr)y6pr)adv nve^ ^a- 
(jrK0VTe<; iralea^ai inr avTov Kal co? v^pl^ovTO^ tvjv KaTrfyo- 



plav iiroLovvTO. 2. Kal 6 p,evo<pa)v dvaaTa<; eKeXevaev evTreiv 
TOP TrpcoTOP Xe^avra ttov koX iTfXTjyrj, 'O Se airoKpiveraL • 
''Ottov Kol TO) pijet, d7rQ)Xkv/jL6^a kol %ta)z/ irXeicrTT} r)v. 3. 
'O S' elirev * ^AXKa jjbrjv /cal ')(eLiJbS)v6<^ je 6W09 ohv Xeyet?, 
aiTOV Se e7rCKekoi7r6ro<;^ otvov he fJLrjS' oa^paivea^ai rrrapov, 
VTTO he TTovcov TToWcov aTrayopevoPTcoPj irokefiioup he eiroiie- 
P(Op^ el ep TOLOvTcp fcatpcp v^pc^op^ o/jLoXoyco Kal tojp opcop 
v^pLGT6Tepo<^ elpat' oh (paacp viro t^9 v/3p€Q)(; kottop ovk 
iyyiyvea^ai, 4. "O/iw? he xal Xe^op^ ecj^rj, etc tlpo^ eTrXrjyri<;. 
Uorepop jjrovp are tc /cat eirei jjloi ovtc ihihco^ eTracop ; dXX 
dirrjrovp ; dXXd irepl nraihucodp iJLa')(o\iepo^y dXXa /jue^vcop eira- 
pwPT]aa ; 5. ^Eirel he tovtcop ovSep €(p'/j(Tep eiry^peTO avrop el 
oirXiTevoL. Ovk e(f>7]. UdXcp el ireXrd^oi, Ovhe tovt €(j)r}' 
dXX rjiJiiopop eXavpeiP^ rw^^'el^ vtto tmp avaKrjpccp eXeu^epo? 
top. o. hiPTav^a or) apaytypooafcep avroP kul rjpero ' M av 
el 6 TOP Ka/jLPOPTa dirdycDP ; Nal [xd AL\ €<prj • av yap 
rjpayKa^e<;' Ta he tcop e/JLCJp ava/crjpcop a/cevr] hieppL'y^ra'^, T. 
'-4XX' 7) jjuep hidppL'y^L'^, e(j)r] 6 aepocj^ayp, TOtavTrj t^9 eyepeTO, 
Acehcofca dXXoc^ dyetp Kal eKeXevaa 7rpo9 ifie dirayayelp' Kal 
diroXajScbp diraPTa crS)a dTrehco/cd aoi^ eirel Kal av ifiol dire- 
hei^a<; top dphpa. Olop he to irpdyfia eyepeTO dKovaaTe^ 
e9?7 • Kai yap a^LOP, 

8. ^Aprjp KaTeXeiTreTo hcd to fjirjKeTt hvpaa^at iropevea^ai. 
Kal eyoD top [xep dphpa ToaovTOP eyiyPdiGKOP otc eh rjficop 
et?7' r]pdyKaaa he ae tovtop dyeip, w fJir) diroXoLTO* Kal ydp, 
CO? iyco oljxai, TroXe/JLCot rjiup ecfieiTTOPTO. 9. Svpe(j)7] tovto 6 
dp^pa)7ro<;. Ovkovp, ecprj 6 Sepo(f>c!)P, iirel TrpovTrefxy^d ere, 
KaTaXafi^dpco a5^A9 cvp Toh oina^oc^vXa^L TrpoaLOjp ^6^ pop 
opvTTOPTa 0)9 KaTopv^oPTa TOP dp'^pcoTTOP • Kal e7ricrTa9 eTr?;- 
povp ere. 10. ^Eirel he TrapeaTrjKOTcop rjfjLcop avpeKafjiyfre to 
o-KeXo<; 6 dprjp^ dp^Kpayop oi 7rap6pTe<; on i^fj 6 dprjp* av S' 
el7r69 * 'Oiroaa ye ^ovXeTac ft)9 eycoye avTop ovk d^co. ^Ep- 
Tav^a eirauad ae • dXrj^rj Xeyeu^ • eho^a<^ yap fxot elhoTi 
eoiKepai qtl e^rj, 11, Tl ovp ; e^T)^ rjTTOP tl dire^apep, eirel 
iyco aoL direhei^a avTop ; Kal yap rj/iei^;, e^rj 6 l;iiepo(}>(bp, 



iravre^ aTro^avovfie^a* tovtov ovv eve/ca ^covra^ rjfia^ Se? 
Karopvx^V^cLL ; 12. Tovtov fiev aveKpajov Trdvre^ a)9 oXiya^; 
iraiaeiev • aWov^ he i/ceXeve Xeyetv Sea tl eicaaro^ eTrXrjjrj. 
^Eirel S' ovK avlaravTo, avTo<; eXeyep. 

13. 'JSyco, 0) av8p6<^j o/JboXoyo) Tralaav Srj avSpa^ eveKev 
dTa^ia<; ocroL^ aco^ea^ac fxev rjpKeL Sc rj/jbd^;, iv rd^ec re lov- 
Tcov KoX fxa')(0fxevo)V ottov Seot, avTol Be Xcirovre^; Td<; Td^eL<; 
vrpo^eoi^re? dpird^ecv 7]^eXov /cat rj/jicov irXeoveKrelv* El he 
TovTO irdvTe<^ eTTOiovfiev^ diravTe^ dv dircoXofie^a, 14. "HhTj 
he KoX pLaXatci^ofievov rcva koX ovk, e^eXovra dviaraa^ac 
dXXd irpoli/jLevov avrov to?? 7roXefjLcoL<; koX eiraLaa /cat i/Sta- 
o-d/jLTjv TTopevea^ai. ^Ev yap tg) /cr^upcS ')(^eL/JLooPL /cal avro^ 
TTore dvajuLevoop Ttpd<; (7V(TKeva^ofiipov<^ Ka^e^ofMepo^ av')(POP 
')(^p6vop Karefia^op dpaard'^ imoXls /cal rd aKeXr) eKrelpa^;, 15. 
^Ep e/jiavrS ovp irelpap Xa^oop i/c tovtov Kal aXXop orroTe 
Xhoifjn, fca^7]fiepop /cal ^XaKevoPTa, rfXavpop • to yap Kipela^au 
Kal dphpi^ea^ac Trapel')(e ^epfiaaiap Ttpd Kal vypoTTjTa • to 
he Ka^rja^ac Kal rjav^lap e'^etp ecopcop virovpyop op tS re 
dTroTTTjypva^aL to al/JLa Kal tw diroaTjirea^aL tov^ toop irohcop 
haKTvXov<;' direp ttoXXou? Kal vfiec^; icTTe ira^ovTa^, 16. 
"AXXov he ye La-co<i vTroXeLiro/Jiepop irov hid pacTTcoprjp Kal 
KcoXvoPTa Kal v/jLd<; tou9 irpoa^ep Kal 7jixd<; tov'^ oina^ep 
'TTopevecrBai eTraiaa irv^, oircja^ /jltj Xoyxj) vTro t&p iroXeiilcop 
TraioLTO. 17. Kal yap ovp pvp e^eaTiP avToU crcoBelo-cp el tl 
vir i/jiov eTra^op Trapd to hUaiop hUrjp Xa^elp, El S' enrl 
Tol^ 7roXefjLiOL<; iyepoPTO, tl fieya dp ovtco^ eira^op otov 
hiKTjP dp rj^lovp XapL^dpetp ; 'AttXov^ fLOC, €(f)7j, 6 X6709. 
18. ^Eycb yap el fiep eV dyaS^S eKoXaad TLPa, d^LCj vire^x^ecp 
htKrjp otap Kal yopel^ vlol^ Kal hihaarKaXoL iraiaL Kau yap 
ol laTpol KaiovaL Kal Tefipovaip eir dyaS^^. 19. El he v^pec 
vofxi^eTe fie TavTa TrpaTTecp, ep%firj^7]Te otc pvp iyo) ^appco 
(Tvp Toh Beoh jjidXXop 7) TOTe, Kal ^pacrvTepo^ el/iL pvp rj 
TOTe, Kal oIpop irXeico ttIpco • aXV o/jlco^ ovhepa Traico" ep 
evhia yap opS) vjjbd^, 20. ''OTap he ')(eLix(bp y Kal S^dXaTTa 
fieydXrj iTncj^eprjTaL, ou% opaTe otl Kal pevjiaTO^; fjLOPOV epeKa 


')(a\€7raip6L [ilv 7rpcop€v<; roU iv irpcopa, ')(aXeiraivei he kv- 
^epvrjTrj^ toU eV Trpvfjivr) ; 'Iicava jap iv tm tocovtm fcal 
fjLLKpa dfjLapTTjS^ivra irdvra avveTnTpl-y^aL. 21. ^'On he hi- 
/caico^ eiraiov avToi)^ fcal vfiel^ KarehiKdaare jore • e^ovre^; 
^L(j)r] ov 'y^ri(^ov<; Trapecrrrjre, /cal e^rjv vfuv eiriKOVpelv avroh, 
el e^oiiXea^e. ^AXKa [xd Ala ovre tovtoc^ eireKOvpelre ^ 
ovre (Tvv i/iol rbv draKTOVPra eTraiere. 22. Totyapovv e^ov- \ 
(Tiav eiToiriaaTe rol^ /ca/col<; avT&v v^pt^eLV i(OVTe<; avrov^. ' 
Olfjuai <ydp, el iS^eXere GKoirelv, tov<; avrov^ evprjo-ere /cal 

Tore KaKLCTTOV^ /cal VVV V^pL(TTOTdTOV<^. 23. Bot<7/CO^ ryOVV 

6 TTVKTTjf; 6 ©erraXo? rore fiev hLe/jbd')(^£TO, &)9 KdfivoDv, daTri- 
ha firj ^epecv • vvv S' co? d/covco KorvcoptTcbv 7roWov<; dirohi' 
hv/cev. 24. '^Hv ovv crcocjypovrJTe, tovtov rdvavTia TroirjO'eTe rj 
Toi)^ Kvva<^ TTOtovcn • Toif<^ fjLev yap Kvva^ rov^ ^aXcTTOu? ra? 
fiev qijuepa^ hiheaai, Td<; he vvKra^ "'dcj^tdac ' tovtov he, rjv 
aco(j)pov7]Te, ttjv vv/CTa fiev hijaeTe, ttjv he 7][jiepav d^rjaeTe, 
25. ^AXKa jdp, ecf)?}, S^av/Jid^co otl el fiev tlvc v/jlcov dTrrj^So- 
/ji7]v fjiifjivrjcrJ^e /cal ov accoiraTe • el he tm rj ')(^6c/jLcova eTre/cov- 
prjaa rj iroXefJiLov dirrjpv^a rj dcrS^evovvTC rj diropovvTL cvve^e- 
iTopiad TL, TOVTCov ouSet9 jJLe/iiVTjTat • ovh* ei Tiva kgXw tl 
TToiovvTa eiryveaa ovK ec tlv dvhpa ovTa dja^ov iTtjiirjaa o)? 
ehvvdfirjVy ovhe tovtcov fjiefivrja^^e. 26. ^AWd /Jbrjv /caXov ye 
/cal hi/catov /cal ocnov /^al ijhtov tcov dya^cov [xaXKov rj tcov 
/caK&v /xe/jLvrja^at, 

^E/c TOVTOV ixev hfj dvlcTTavTO /cal dve/JLifjLvr)(T/cov • /cal 
irepieyeveTe axTTe /caXm €)(ecv* 

LIB. VI. CAP. I. 149 


CAP. I. 

1. ^E/c TOVTOV he iv rfj Biarpc^y ol fxev anro rrj<^ dyopa<; 
e^o)!/, ol Be Xr]'L^6/jL6VOL ifc Tri<; IlacjjiXajovia^, ^E/cXcoTrevov 
Be KoX ol Ha^Xayove^ ev /iq^^a tou9 airoaKeBavvvfJbevov^, /cat 
T7}9 vvkt6<; T0U9 irpocrco <TK7]vovvTa<; eireipoyvTO Kaicovpyelv 
Kot iroXefitfccorara 7rpo<; dWijXov^ ^^X^^ ^^ tovtcov. 2. 'O 
Be KopvXa^y 09 ervy^ave rore IIa(p^ajovia<; apx^v, nrefiTrei 
irapa tov<; ^^EXXi]va<; 7rpea-/3et<; €')(0VTa<; L7nrov<^ fcal G'ToXa<^ 
KcCXd^, Xeyovra^ ore KopvXa<; €Tot/jio<; ellrj to7;9 ^^EXX7]va<^ 
fjL')]T dBc/celv [xrjT dBiKelcr^aL. 3. 01 Be G-Tparrjyol direKpL- 
vavTO on nrepl jxev tovtcov avv ttj o-TpaTta fiovXevcrotvTOy 
eirl ^evia Be eBe')(pvTO avTov^ • Trape/cdXecrav Be fcal tcov dX- 
Xcov dvBpo)V 01)9 eBoKOVV BtfcacoTdTOV^ elvat. 4. QvaavTe<; 
Be /3ov^ Tcov alxf^aXcoTcov koI dXXa lepela evcoj^^iav [lev dp- 
Kovaav 7rapec')(^ov, KaTaKeifievot, Be ev crTL/3dcrtv iBecTrvovv, 
Kot eiTLVov ifC KepaTLvcov TroTTjplcov, oh eveTvy')(avov ev ry 

5. 'jEttcI Be (TTTOvBal t iyevovTo fcal iTraccovto-av, dveo-TT]- 
aav Trp&Tov fiev &pdKe<; koI *jrpb^ avXov d)p')(ifj(TavTo crvv Toh 
07rXoc<; /cal rpCXovTo v'^rfxd re koX Kovcfxo'; koL Tah iia'^al- 
pai<^ eyjpSiVTO • t€Xo9 Be erepo^ tov eTepov iraiet, 0)9 irdaiv 
iBofcec TreTrXrjyevai tov dvBpa* 6 S* eireae Te')(ytf€W ttco^, 6. 
Kal dvifcpayov ol TIa(\>Xay6ve<;, Kal 6 fiev (TKvXevaa^ tcl 


07r\a Tov erepov i^fjec aScov ^LrdXKav ' aXkot Be rcov ©pa- 
Kcov TOP erepov e^ec^epov co? reS^vrj/cora • rjv Be ovBlv ireTrov- 
^a)<;, 7. MeTa tovto AlvLave<^ koX Mdyvr]Te<; dvearrjo-av, oi 
a)p')(ovvTO rrjv KapTralav KoKovfMevrjv ev roh ottXol^;, 8. 'O 
Be TpOTTO^ Trj<; op^W^^^ W' ^ f^^^ irapaSefJLevo^ ra oirXa 
airelpeL koX ^evyrjXareL ttvkvcl ixeraorrpec^opLevo^ o)<; (j)o^ov- 
fjieva^ • X?7<7T^9 Be 7rpoa'ep')(^eTac • o S' eireiBdv wpoiBTjraL, 
diravra dp7rdcra<; ra oifKa koX /xd^erai irpo rov ^evyov<; • teal 
ovToc ravT eTTolovv ev pv^fico 7rpb<; tov axikov * koX re\o<; 6 
Xr](TTrj<; Brjcra^ tov dvBpa fcal to ^evjo<; dirdyei • eviore Be Kal 
6 ^evy7]XdT7]<; tov \r](TTrjV • elra irapd Toi)^ ySou? ^ev^a^ oiri- 
aco Tft> %€tpe BeBe/jbivov eXavvec, 

9. Merd tgvto Mvo'o<; elarjXS^ev ev e/caTepa tt} xeipl 
e')((ov 7re\T7]v • kol TOTe jjuev &)9 Bvo dvTLTaTTOfievcov fiLfiovfJie- 
vo^ cop^^etro, TOTe Be 0)9 7r/509 eva i'x^prjro Tal^ irekTat'^y TOTe 
Be eBivecTO /cat e^etcv^iaTa e'xcov Td<; Trekra^ • wcrre o^^iv 
KoXfjv ^alvea^ac, 10. Teko^ Be to TlepaLKov o^p'xelTo Kpov- 
cov Ta^ irekTa^;, koI coKka^e koX e^avicTTaTO • koI Tavra irdv- 
Ta ev pv^fJL<p eTToiec 7rpo9 tov avXov. 11. ^Eirl Be tovtm 
eiTLovTe^ ol MavTLveL<; kol dXkot tlvI^ tcov ^ApKdBcov dva- 
ardvTe^ e^oTfXccrd/JbevoL 0)9 eBvvavTO KdWicTTa yecrdv re ev 
pv^fio) 7rpo9 TOV evoTTkiov pvS^fjLov avXovfjievot, /cat iTraicovc- 
crav Kal 0Dp')(^<7avTo cocnrep ev Tat^ 7rpo9 tov<^ 9^eov<^ irpoo-- 
6Sot9. ^Opcovre^; Be ol Uac^Xayove^ Betvd eirocovvTO irdaa^ 
Td<; 6p')(fj<Tet<; ev 6TrKot<; elvai. 12. 'JEttI tovtol^ opcov 6 Mv- 
o"09 eKTreTrXrjyfjuevov^ avTov<;, jrelaa^; tcov ^ApKdBcov Ttvd 
ireirajxevov 6p'x;r](TTpiBa eladyei (Ticevdaa<; 0)9 eBvvaTo /cdX- 
Xtcrra koX dcririBa Bov<; kov^tjv avrrj, 'H Be wp')(fiaaTO Uvp- 
plxv^ iXatppw. 13. ^EvTav!^a KpoTO^ rjv ttoXv^; • /cal ol 
TIa(^Xay6ve<; ijpovTO el Kal yvvalKe<; (TvvepLd')(0VT0 avT0L<;. 
01 K eXeyov otl avrac Kal at rpe^^djievat elev jSaaiXea eK 
TOV (TTparoTreBov, Tfj [lev ovv vvktI Tavrrj tovto to TeXo<; 

14. Tt] B* vcTTepala Trpocryyov avrov^; e^'9 to cTTpdrevfia* 
Kal eBo^e toI^ (TTparLcoTaL^ firjre dBcKetv TIa^Xay6va<; fJbrjTe 

LIB. VI. CAP. I. • 151 

adiK€ccr^ac. Mera tovto oi fiev irpicrfieL^ M')(pvTO' oi S' 
"EW7]ve<;, eTrecBrj TrXola l/cava iSoKet, irapelvai, ava^dvre^ 
eifKeov rjfjLepav Kol vvKra irvevfiarL koXS iv dpcarepa e')(pV' 
T€9 Tr)v IIa(f>XayovLav, 15. Tjj S' aXKrj d(^LKVOVVTav et9 
ScvcoTTTjv fcal 6)pfjLiaavT0 el^ ^ApfJbrjV7]v rr]<; ^cvco7r7]<;, Stvco- 
Treh Be olfcovaL fiev iv rfj IIacf)\ayovLKf], MiXrjo-lcov S' aTroL- 
KOL el(7LV, OvToc Be ^evia irefiirovcTL toI<; ^^EWrjacv dX(j)LT(ov 
fjuev fjL€Bifivov<^ TpLa')(^bkiov^i otvov Be Kepdfica yp^^ia koX irev- 
raKoaia. 16. KaX XeLpi(TO<^o<^ ivrav^a rjXBe TptrjpeL^; e^cov. 
Kal ol jxev arparccoTac irpocreBoKcov dyovrd tv a(f>Lcrtv rjKeiv • 
^e rjye fxev ovBev, dirrjyyeXKe Be orv eiraivoLrj avrov^; koX 
Ava^i/Scos vavap')(o<; kol ol dWot, fcal on v7rco'')(yelTo 
^Ava^i/Sio^, el dcptKvblvTO e^co rod Uovrov, fjbcaS^o^opdv av- 
ToU ecrea^aL, 

17. Kal iv ravTTj rfj ^Apfjbrjvrj e/iecvav ol crrparccoTac rjfie' 
pa<; TrevTe, 'fl^ Be Trj<; ^EXkdBo<^ iBoKovv iyyv<; yiyvea-^ai, 
TjBrj jJLoKXov Tj TrpoaS^ev eiarjet avrov^ 07rco<i av kol e^ovre^ to 
OLKaBe d(f)i/ccovTac. 18. ^Hyrjaavro ovv, el eva ekoivro dp- 
')(ovTa, fiaXXov dv rj iro\vap')(ia<; ovaTj^; Bvvacr^ai rov eva 
')(^p7]oSat T(p (TTparev/JLart /cal vvkto^ Kal r] fie pas • Kal el re 
BioL \av^dvetv, fidWov dv Kpvirrea^aL • kol ec n Beoc ^^d- 
vetVy rjTTOV dv vcrrepi^etv • ov yap dv \6ycov Belv 7rp6<; dXkr]- 
\oi;9, dWd TO Bo^av tS evl irepaivecr^av dv • tov Be efjuirpo' 
cr^ev ')(^p6vov ifc Trj<i viKcoarj^; eirpaTTOV irdvTa oi (TTpaT7}yoL 
19. 'if29 Be TavTa BcevoovvTo, iTpdirovTo iirl tov aevocj^covTa ' 
Kal ol \o')(ayol ekeyov TrpoaLovTe^; avTO) otc rj aTpaTcd ovtco 
yty vcoaxec • teal evvoiav ivBeticvvfievos €fca(7T0<; eireu^ev avTov 
VTTOOTTrjvac ttjv dp')(fjv, 20. ^O Be 'Sevo(f)cov irrj /xev i/3ov\eTO 
TavTa, vofjbL^cov Kal ttjv tc/jltjv fieii^co ovtws eavT^ yiyvea^ai 
TTpof; T0U9 <f>L\ov(; Kal eh ttjv ttoXlv Tovvofia fiell^ov d(f>{^e' 
aS^ac avTov • TV')(pv Be Kal dyaSov tlvos dv acTto<; tj} aTpa- 
Tia yevecr^ai, 

21. Td fiev Br] TOLavTa iv^vfirjfjbaTa iirfipev avTov eV^^u- 
fietv avTOKpdTOpa yevecr^ai dp^ovTa, ^OiroTe 8' av iv^v- 
fjLOLTo oTi dBrjXov fiev iravTl dvS^pcoira) ottt] to fieWov e^ec, 


Bca TOVTO Be /cat Kivhwo^ ecrj kol ttjv Trpoecpyaar/jLevrjv Bo^av 
airo^aXelv, rjTropelro, 22. AuairopoviMevfo he avrtp hiaKplvat 
ISofe KpdrcG-Tov elvac tol<; B60L<i dvaKocvcoaac* teal irapaarr]' 
adfievo^ hvo lepela e^vero tm Ait rw BaacXeL, oairep avT(o \ 
fiavrevTof; rjv ifc Ae\(j)c!)V • /cat to ovap hrj diro tovtov rod 
f&eoO ivo/jit^ev icopa/cevac o elSev ore rjpx^^o ^'^^^ '^o crvveTrtiJue' 
XelcrSac T'rj<; arpana^ Ka^icTTaa^aL, 23. KaX ore e^ ^Ecj^e- 
crov Se ayp/jbdro Kvpfp crvcrTa!^o'6fjLevo<; derov dveiiLjjbvr}(7KeT0 
eavfo) he^Lov ^S^eyyo/juevov, KaS-7]/xevov fievroi, oxnrep 6 jjudv- 
Ti<; TrpoTre/jLTTCov avrov eXeyev on fieya<; fjuev olcopo<; ecTj koI 
ov/c i8ccoTiKo<; koI evho^o<;, eTTiirovo<; fjuevTOL • rd yap opvea 
fidXiara eTTVTi^ea^aL tc5 dert^ Ka^rjjxevfo • ov fievroL XPVH'^' 
TL(TTLKov elvav Tov olcovov • Tov ydp derov rrerofievov fxaXXov 
Xafi^dvetv rd iiTLrrjheia. 2i. Ovrco Brj S^vo/Jieva) avro) Bca- 
^avS)^ 6 f5eo9 (TTjfiaiveL firjre irpoaBela^ai rrj^^ dp^fj^ I^^'^t el 
alpolvro drroBex'^cr^ai, Tovro fiev Brj ovr(o<; eyevero. 25. 
^il Be err par id avvrjXS^e, Ka\ irdvre<^ eXeyov eva alpela^ai • 
Ka\ eirel rovro eBo^e, irpoe^dXXovro avrov, ^Eirel Be eBo/ceo 
BrjXov elvai ore alprjaovrai avrov el n^ eTTcyfrTjcj^i^oc, dvearr) 
Kal eXe^e rdBe • 

26, ^Eyco, 0) dvBpe<;, 7]Bofiai fjuev vtto vficov rcfjucofjievo^, 
ecTrep dv9^p(07r6<; elfjit, /cal x^P^^ ^X^ '^^^ evx^l^cii Bovval fioo 
Tov<; f9eou9 acrcov rLvo<; vfuv dya^ov yevea^a^* rb fjuevroc ifie 
irpoKpt^vat, v(^ v/jLMV dpxovra Aa/ceBac/jLovLov dvBpo<; ira- 
povro^ oifS-^ vfilv /lot Bo/cel (TVfJt^epov elvat, dXX" rjrrov av Btd 
rovro rvyxdvetv el rt BeotcrS^e Trap* avrcov • ifjtol r av ov 
irdvv rt vo/jtt^co d(7^aXe<; elvat rovro, 27. ^Opco ydp ort Kal 
rfi irarplBt /jlov ov irpoa^ev eiravcravro iroXefJiovvre^ irplv 
eiroirjaav irdaav rr]v rroXtv ofioXoyelv AaKeBat/JLOviov^ Kal 
avrwv 7)yefJb6va<; elvat, 28. ^Eirel Be rovro Q)fjLoX6y7)crav, 
evS^v<; eiravaavro rroXefiovvre^ Kal ovKert irepa eTroXwpKTj' 
aav rf]v iroXtv, El ovv ravra opcov 67ft> BoKolrjv ottov Bwal- 
fi7)v evravS-^ uKvpov rrotelv ro eKelvcov d^icofxa, eKelvo ivvocb 
fif) Xiav av raxv (Tcocppovto-Belrjv, 29. '^O S' vfjiet^; ivvoetre 
ort rjrrov av ardcrt<; ecrj evb^ dpxovro<; rj ttoXXcov, ev care ort 

LIB. VI. CAP. I. 153 

aXKov fiev eXofievot ov'x^ evprjaere ifie araacd^ovTa • vofMi^co 
<yap oaTL<; iv iroKefJLtp cov arao-Ld^ec irpo^ ap')(pvTa tovtov 
7rpo9 TTjv iavTOv aorrjpLav araaLd^eiv • iav S' e/^e eXrjaSe, 
ovfc av J^avfidaacfia ec nva evpocre /cat vjuv koX €jjloI d')(^6- 

' 30. ^Eirel ravr elire, ttoXv TfKeiove^ e^aviaravro Xejov- 
Te9 ct)9 BeoL avTov ap^etv, ^Afyacria^; he Xrvfi^dXio^; elirev 
on yeXotov ecr], el ovt(o<; e')(OL, el opycovvrac AafceSaifjLovcoc 
KoX iav avvBecTTVOC crvveXSovre^ firj AaKehatfJLOVCOv avfiTToaL- 
apX^^ atpoyvrat • eirel el ovtco ye tovt e')(ei, e(f)7j, ovSe \o')(a- 
ryelv rjjjilv e^ecmv, o)? eoLKev, on ^ApKdSe<; eafxev. ^EvravSa 
Brf ft)9 ev eliT6vT0<; rov ^Ayaoriov dve^opv^rfcrav. 

31. Kal 6 'Sevocf)cbv iirel ecopa ifKeiovo^^ evheov, 7rape\^oi)v 
elirev ^AW\ o) avhpe<;, e^rj, a)9 Trdvv el87]Tey o/jlvvo) vfilv 
»Seou9 irdvra^ Kol 7rdcra<; rj fjurjv ejco iirel rrjv vfjierepav jvdo- 
fjLTjv ycr^av6fjL7]v, eS^vofiTjv el jBeknov eirj vfxiv re ifJLol eiTLTpe- 
'xjrac ravrrjv rrjv dp')(r]v /cat ifiol vTrocrTrjvat • /cai /xoc oi S^eol 
ovrco<; ev to?9 iepol<; eai]fi7]vav coare /cal ISccoirjv av yvoovai 
on TT]^ pLOvap^ia^; direx'^cr^cci fie Set. 32. Ovtco St) XeLptao- 
(f)ov alpovvrai, XeLpLG'0(})0<; S' €7rel ype^rjy 'TrapeXBcov elirev • 
AW y (o avope<;, tovto /lev la-re on ovo av ejcoje earaata- 
^ov, el aXKov eiKea^e, aevo(^(ovTa fievToiy e(f)7]y oivrjaare ov')(^ 
eXofjLevoo • 009 fcal vvv Ae^LTTiro<; ijSrj Ste^aWev avrbv 7r/?09 
^ Ava^l^iov 6 n eSvvaro /cal /jidXa ejxov avrov atyd^ovTo^;. 
'O Be e(f>7] vofjLL^eLv avrov TifxacTLcovt fioXKov (7vvdp')(eiv e^e- 
\7]aac AapBavel ovn rod KXedp')(pv arparevfiaro^ rj eavrS 
Ad/ccovc ovn. 33. 'jEttcI jJuevroL e/ie eliXea&e, €(f>r], Kal eyco 
iretpdo-ofiat 6 n av Bvva)/jLac vfid^ dya^ov irotelv, Kal vfiel'^ 
OVTCO Trapacr/cevd^ecrBe 009 avpiov edv 7rXoi}9 y dva^ofievoc • 6 
Be 77X01)9 ecTTai el<; ^HpdfcXeiav diravTa^ ovv Bel efcelcre nreL- 
pacr^aL KaTa(T')(elv * ra Be dXka eireiBav eKelae eXSco/iev fiov- 



1. ^Evrev^ev rf) varepaia avwyofievot Trvevfjiarc eifXeov 
KoXw rifjL€pa<; Svo irapa ^r]v. K.oX irapaifKeovTe^^ e^ecopovv 
TTjv T ^laaoviav aKTTjVy evSa rj ^Apyco Xiyerai oppilaaa^ai, 
KOI Toyv irorafxcov ra (TTOjxaTa* Trpcorov fi€V tov Oep/jbdoSov- 
ro<^, eireira he tov ^'IpLO<;, eireira he tov ^^A\vo<;, fieTa he 
TovTov TOV Uap^eviov ' tovtov he irapaifKevaravTe^^ a^UovTO 
eh ^HpcLKkeiav irokiv 'EWrjvLha Meyapecov dirocfcov, ovaav 
S' ev TTj Mapcavhvvcbv %c6/5a. 2. Kal oypfxiaavTO irapa tjj 
^A')(epovaLdhi Xeppovrjaco • evl^a XeyeTat 6 ^HpaKKrj^ eTrl tov 
Kep^epov fcvva /caTa^rjvac fj vvv tcl arjfjLeta heiKVVOvat tt}? 
KaTafid(7eco<; to ^dB^o^ wXeov rj eirl hvo aTdhia. 3. ^EvTav- 
Sa Tol^ "EXKr]cnv ol 'HpafcXecoTat ^evca TrepLTrovcrtv uX^ltcov 
fjLehL/JbVov<; TpcG-^t\Lov<; Kal otvov fcepd/juca hcor')(^LXta Kal ySoO? 
ecKOfTC Kal oh eKaTov. ^EvTavBa hia tov Trehiov pel iroTafJbo^ 
AvKO<; ovofia, evpo<; a)<; hvo TrXeS^pcov, 

4. 01 he cTTpaTCcoTaL crvXXeyevTe<; ejSovXevovTO ttjv Xot- 
irrjv iropeCav iroTepov KaTcu yr]v rj KaTa ^dXaTTav ')(^pr] iropev- 
S^vat ev TOV Uovtov. ^AvaaTa<; he Avkwv ^A')(ato<; elire* 
OavfJid^co fiev, S) avhpe^, tcov cTpaTTjyoov otl ov rrretpwvTac 
rj/jLcv eKiropi^eiv crcTTjpecnov • ra puev yap ^evta ov /xfj yevrjTat 
TTj (TTpaTca Tptcov '^fjLepMV criTa, oiroB^ev K eTncrLTcadfjievoo 
TTopevaro/JLeS^a ovk ecTTCV, €(prj. ^E/jloI ovv hoKel alTelv tov<; 
'HpaKXecoTa^ /jltj eXaTTOv rj Tpi(T')(^bX[ov<^ Kv^oktjvov^. 5. 
"-4Wo9 S' elTre, /jltj eXaTTOv rj pLvplov^ • Kal eXofievov^ nrpe- 
a^ei^ avTLKa fidXa tj/jlcov KaS^rjfjbevcov irefiiretv Tpb<; ttjv tto- 
Xcv, Kal elhevai 6 tl av dTrayyeXXcocn, Kal 7rpo<; TavTa ySou- 
XeveaS^ac. 6. ^EvTev^ev irpov^dXXovTO irpea^et^; nrpfOTov 
jiev Xetpioro^ov, otl dp^cov yprjTO ecTTi S' ot Kal Sevo^covTa, 
01 S' lcr')(ypo)^ direiJid')(pvTO • dfjii^olv yap TavTa ehoKeu pbrj 
dvayKdt^eiv iroXiv 'EXXrjviha Kal (pcXiav 6 tc firj avTol eM- 
XovTe<; hihocev. 7. ^Eirel S' oifv ovtoc ehoKOvv aTrpoBvfjioc 
elvai, Tveixirovcn AvKcova ^A^cicov Kal KaXXifjiaxov TIappd- 

LIB. YI. CAP. II. *155 

(TLov KoX ^A^aalav Srvficj^akiov. Ovroc iXBovre^ eXeyov ra 
BeBoy/jiiva' tov he Av/ccova ecpacrav koX iiraireiXelvy el firj 
iroLTjG'OLev ravra, 8. ^AKOvaavre^ K oi 'Hpa/cXecorac ^ov- 
Xevaeo-^ac ecf^aaav • kol evSv'; rd re ')(^prjixaTa etc rcov dypcov 
(Tvvrjyov Koi rrjv dyopav elaw dveaKevaaav koX ai irvKai 
eKeickeiVTo kol eirl tS)V TeL')(S)v oirXa e(f>aiveTo. 

9. 'JE/c TOVTOV oi rapd^avre^ ravra tou? arparrjyov^ 
rjnwvro Bia^^eipetv rr)v irpa^tv Kal avvicrravro oi ^ApfcdBe^ 
Kal oi ^A')(aLoi' irpoeidrrjicev Be fjidXiara avrcov KaXkifjLa')(p<; 
re 6 TIappdaLo<; Kal Avkcov 6 ^A'x^at6<;. 10. Oi Be \6yot 
rjaav avroi<; co? ala^pov etrj dp')(eiv eva ^A^valov HeXoirov- 
vrjaicov Kal AaKeBacfiovlcov, fjLTjBe/jLiav Bvvafjbtv irape')(p[ievov 
eh rrjv crrparcdv Kal rov^ fiev ttovov^ at^d^ ^X^^^' '^^ ^^ 
KepBrj dWov<;, Kal ravra rrjv acorrjpiav a(f)(!)v KareLpyaajxe- 
v(ov • elvai yap rov<; Karetpyao-fiepovf; ^ApKoBa^; Kal ^A^^ac- 
0U9 • rb S* dXko crrpdrev/jba ovBev elvat • Kal rjv Be ry dXrj- 
^eia virep ij/jLtav rov oXov arparevfiaro^; ^ApKoBe'^ Kal ^A^x^ac- 
oi' 11. el ovv (Tco^povolev ovroL, (Tvcrrdvre^ Kal arparrjyov'^ 
eXojievoL eavrcov Kojy eavrov^ dv rrjv iropeiav iroiolvro Kal 
Trecpaivro dya^ov re Xafi^dvetv. 12. Tavra eSofe* Kal diro- 
Xiir6vre<^ Xecpiaocfyov ec. rcve<^ rjaav Trap* avr<p ^ApKdBe^ rj 
^A'x^atol Kal aevocfycovra (rvveo-rrjcrav Kal crrparrjyoiff; aipovv- 
rav eavrcov BeKa • rovrov^ S* ey^rj^iaavro eK rr)^ viKcoarj^ 6 
re BoKoCrjy rovro iroielv. 'H jjuev ovv rov 7rajrro<; dp^rj Xei- 
pLdocpG) ivrav^a KareXvS^rj rjfiepa eKry rj e^Bofirj d(j>* rj<; 

13. Sevocficov fjievroc e^ovXero Kocvfj fier avrcov rrjv tto- 
pelav TroLeccrS^aLj vofit^cov ovrco^ dai^aXearepav elvai r) IBca 
eKaarov (rreXXea^aL • dXXa Necov eirecSev avrbv koS avrov 
iropevea^aLy dKovaa^ rov XeLpca6(l)ov ore KXeavBpo^; 6 ev 
Bv^avriG) dpfioarrj^^ <j)alrj rpirjpeL^ ^X^^ rj^ecv eh KdXrrrj^; 
Xt/Jbeva* 14. ottq)? ovv firjBeh fierdcrxoh aXV avrol Kal oi 
avrcov crrpartcorat efCTrXevaecav iirl rcov rpirjptoVy Bid ravra 
orvve^ovXeve. Kal Xeipiao^o^, dfia fiev d^vfxwv roh 7676- 
vrj/jbivoc^, dfJLa Be fjnacov eK rovrov ro arpdrevfia, einrpeiret, 


avT^ TTOiecv 6 ri jSovXerac. 15. Eevocpcov Be ere fiev e7re')(el' 
prjaev uTraWayeU t?}? (TTpartds eiCTrXevaai • J^vo/Jiiva) Be av- 
TftJ Tw ^HyefjLovc ^HpafcXel koI KOLvovjJbevco nrorepa \^ov kol 
ajietvov ecrj arparevecr^aL, e'XpVTV tov<; irapafieivavra^ tcov 
orrpaTLcoTcoPy rj dTraXKarrea^at, iaTjfiijvev 6 S^eos rol^ Upol^^ 
avarpareveaSat, 16. Ovrco yiyveTac to arpdrevfia Tpc')(7j • 
^ApKObhe^ fiev koX ^A')(aio\ ifKelov<; t) TeTpaKLdyiXioi koL irev- 
TUfcoacot, OTrXlrai iravre^* Xecpvaocfya) Be OTrklrau fiev eU 
TerpaKoaCov^ Kal j(^i\LOv<;y ireXraaral Be et9 eTrraKoaiov^, ol 
KKedp')(pv ©pafce^ • aevocfiCJVTC Be oifklraL /lev eh eirraKoai' 
ov^ KoX /)(^LkLov^, irekracTTal Be €t9 rpiaKoaiov^ ' iinrLKov Be 
fiovo^ ovTo<^ ei^ev, dji^l tov<; TerrapaKovra iirirea^, 

17. Kal ol fjLev ^ApKaBe^ BcaTrpa^dfievoi irXola irapd tcov 
^HpafcXecoTcbv TTpcoTOt TrXeovG-cv, OTTco^ e^ai^vr}<; eirLireaovTe^ 
TOi<; BiS^vpol^ Xdfiocev otl TrkelcrTa* koX diro^alvovcnv eh 
KdXirrj^ XcfJbiva KaTcu fxeaov 7rco<; T'f]<; 0pafC7]<;, 18. Xeiplao- 
^09 S' €U»&U9 aTTO T7}9 7r6\eco<; tcov ^HpaKkecorcov dp^d/xevo^ 
ire^fi eiropeveTO Bua Tr]<; %ctfpa9 ' eVel S* eh ttjv Qpaicrjv eve- 
^aXey Trapd TTjv S^dXaTTav fjec koX yap tjBt] rja^evei, 19. 
'Pievo(f>cbv Be ifKola Xa^cov diro^aivei eirl tcl opca tt)^ 0paK7]<; 
Kal T^9 ' HpaK\ecoTLBo<; Kal Bed fieaoyaia^ eTTopeveTo. 


1. \^^0v fJLev ovv Tpoirov rj t€ XeLpLcr6<^ov dpyri tov Trav- 
T09 KaTeXvSr] Kal tcov ^EXKrjvcov to aTpdTevfjua ecr'^^^LaS^Tj ev 
T0?9 eirdvco ecprjTai^l 2. '^Eirpa^av S* avTcov eKaaTOt TdBe, 
01 [lev ^ApKdBe<i 0)9 dire^rjcrav vvkto^; eh KdXTrrj^ Xifxeva, 
iropevovTac eh Ta9 irpcoTa^ Ka)fjLa<;, ardBoa diro ^aXdTTrj^ 0)9 
TpidKovTa, ^Eirel Be (^w eyeveTO r\yev eKaaTO^ (rTpaT7]yo<; 
TO avTov \d')(p^ eirl kco/i7]v ' oiroia Be fxeil^cov eBoKet elvat 
avvBvo X6^ou9 ^yov ol aTpaTTjyoL 3. Svve^dXovTo Be Kal 
\q<i>ov eh ov Beot irdvTa^ dkL^eaS^at, Kal aTe e^aL(j)V7]^ eVt- 

LIB. VI. CAP. III. 157 

Treaovre^ avSpaTroSd re iroWa eXa^ov Kai irpo^ara iroXKa 

4. 01 he 0paK€^ rj^poi^ovro oi hiac^vjovre^ * ttoWoI Se 
BLi(f)vyou TreXraaTol opre^ oTfkira^ ef avTcov rcov '^^^ecpcov, 
'Eirel Se o-vveXiyrjcrav^ irpoirov /xev tco 2l/jLL/cprjro<; Xo^cp kvo^ 
Tcov ^ApKciScov (TTpaTTjycou aTTLovTi 7]8t] et? TO (Tvy/C€LfjL€vov /cal 
TToXXa '^p7]fjLaTa dyovri iTnTl^evrac. 5. Kal recog puev epbd- 
^(ovTo dfia iropevofJLevoL oi ^^EXXr]ve<; • iirl Se hta^daei x^P^- 
Spa<; TpeTTovTac avTOV<; • fcal avrov re top ^fiiKprjra diroKTiv- 
vvaac fcal rov^ dXXov<; TrdvTa<;' dXXov Se Xo^pv rcov heKa 
arpaTTjycov rov 'HyyadvBpov o/crco fJLovov^ KareXiTrov • koX 
avTO^ 'Hyrja-avSpo^ icrco^rj, 6. Kal oi dXXoc fxev Xo^ciyol 
avvrjX^ov oi fiev avv irpdyfiaaiv oi S* dvev Trpay/Jbdrcov' oi Be 
©paKe^ iTTel evTV)(7J^^^ tovto to evTv^V/^^^ crvve^ocop re 
dXXijXov^ Kal avveXeyovTo ipp(DfJievco<; ttj^; vvkto^. Kal d/xa 
TTj rj/jLepa fcvfcXq) nrepl top X6(pov ev^a oi ^^EXXrive<; iaTpaTO- 
TreBevovTo eTdTTovTo Kal i7nrel<^ ttoXXoI Kal ireXTaaTai, Kal 
del irXeiove^ avveppeov, 7. Kal Trpocre^aXXov irpos tov^ 
oTrXiTa^ da(paXc!)^ * oi fjuev yap '^EXXi]ve<; ovt€ to^ottjv el^pv 
ovre aKovTKTTrjv ovre iirirea' oi Be irpocF^eovTe^ Kal Trpoa- 
eXavpovTe<; 'jqkovtl^ov oiroTe S' avToU eirioLevj paBL(o<; dire- 
^evyovr dXXot Be dXXrj eTreTL^evTo, 8. Kal tcop fiev iroXXol 
eTLTpcoaKOVTOj Tcov Be ouSetV • ware Kivrj^rjvav ovk eBvvavTO 
e/c Tov ^wp/oi;, dXXd TeXevTcovTe<^ Kal diro tov vBaTo^ elpyov 
avTov<^ oi 0paKe<;, 9. ^Ewel S' diropla iroXXr) yv, BieXe- 
yovTo irepl cttovBcov* Kal tcl fiev aXXa ay/jboXoyrjTO avTol^^ 
6/JLi]pov<^ S' OVK eBcBoaav oi OpaKe^ ahovvTcov tS)v 'EXXtj- 
vcov ' dXX^ iv tovtg) cax^To, Td fiev Bf] tcov ^ApKdBcov ovtco^ 

10. XeipL(TO(f)o^ Be da^aXo)^ Tropev6fJLevo<; irapd ^dXaTTav 
d(f)LfcveLTat ek KdXirrjf; XLpbeva, aevo<^oiVTL Be Bid Tr}9 fieao- 
yaia<; Tropevofievo) oi iTTTreh TrpoKaTa^eovTe<^ ivTvyxdvovau 
Trpea^VTat^ iropevofxevoi^; ttol. Kal eirel fj^^rjaav Trapd 
aevocf^covTa, epooTa avTov<; el tov rja^ipTac dXXov aTpaTev/ia- 
T09 6Vto9 ^EXXtjvckov, 11. Oi S* eXeyov irdvTa Ta yeyevrj/jue- 


va^ KoX vvv OTL TToXtopKovvTat iirl \6<pov^ ol Be 0paK€<; 7rdvT€<; 
TrepiKeKUKXcofiivoL etev avrov^, ^Evrav^a tov9 fJiiv av^pco- 
7rov<; TOVTov^ icj^vXarrev la'^vpw, 07rco<; '^ye/iove^ elev ottov 
SioL ' (TKOTTOvs Se KaTaaTrjaa^; avveke^e tov^ o-rpaTtcora^ koI 
eke^ev • 

12. ^'Avhp€^ crrpaTLcoTaL, rcov ^ApKciScov oi fiev re^vda-Lv, 
ol Se XotTTol iirl \6(}>ov tlvo^ irokLopKovvrai. Nofjii^co S' 
eycoje^ el efcelvou aTroikovvrat, ovS* tj/jllu elvav evhefxiav (Tcottj' 
piav, ovTco fjbev ttoWcov ovtcov tcop TroXe/juLoov, ovrco Be re^ap- 
prjKOTcov. 13. Kpanarov ovv rjfuv w? rd'^^icrTa ^orf^elv toi<; 
dvBpdacVj oTTcof; el ere elal orcoot, avv eicelvoLS /JLa')((OfjLe^a koI 
/jlt} fjiovoL \et^^evTe<; [xovol koX KivBvvevwpLev, 14. Nvv piev 
ovv crrpaTOTreBevcofjLe^a TrpoeX^opre^ oaov av BoKjj Katpo^ 
elvat €69 TO BeLTTVOTTOLela^ai'' ea)9 S' av m-opevcofie^a, Ti/jLa- 
cTLcov €)(^cov T0U9 iTTTTels TTpoeXavveTO) e(f)opcov rjfjbd^, Kal ctkq- 
ireiTco TCL epLTrpoa^eVj a)9 /JirjBev rjpid^ Xd^rj. 15. UapeTrepb-y^e 
Be Kol Tcov yv/jLV7]Tcov dv^pcoTTov^; ev^covov9 €69 rd irXdyta /cal 
eh TCI dfcpa, ottco^ et irov tl ird^ev /ca^opwev, aTjfjLaivoiev 
eKeXeve Be Kaietv diravTa otm evTvy')(dvoLev Kavdiybtp, 16. 
'HfjLeL^; yap dTroBpatrjfjiev av ovBapLov ev'^evBe* iroXXr) jubev ydp, 
e<pr], €69 'HpdfcXeLav irdXcv dirievat, iroXXf] Be eh XpyaoTroXtv 
BceX^etv • ol Be TroXefXiot TrXrjalov • €69 RdXirrj^ Be Xtfieva^ 
ev^a Xetplaocpov elKd^opLev elvat el aeacoaTat, eXa^io-TTj 6B6<^. 
^AXXd Brj eicel fiev ovTe TrXold eaTiv 069 dTTOTrXevaov/Jie^a' 
fievovat Be avTOV ovBe pad^ r]pbepa<; eaTt Ta eTriTrjBeia, 17. 
Toyv Be iroXiop/covjjLevcov dTroXopbevcov avv Toh Xeipicro^ov 
pLovot^ KdfCLov e(TTL BtafCLvBvvevetv rj TcovBe aco^evTcov irdvTa<; 
eh TavTov eX^ovTa^ Kotvfj t^9 o-coTijpiw^ e^ea^au ^AXXd 
')(^pri 'TrapaaKevaGapLevov<; ttjv yvcopurjv iropevea^at^ w vvv rj 
€t'/cX€W9 TeXevTTjaav ecrTCV rj KoXXcaTov epyov ipyaaaa^ac 
'^EXXr]va<^ ToaovTov<; aoDaavTa^. 18. Kal 6 ^€o? 6crft)9 ay€6 
o{;Tft)9, 09 T0U9 pLeyaXr]yoprj(TavTa<; co9 TrXeov (f>povovvTa<; Ta- 
ireivwcat jSovXeTac • 97/xa9 Be tou9 dirb ^edov dpxofievov<; ivTt- 
pbOTepov<; eKelvcov KaTaaTTjaat. '-4XX' eirea^ai '^(^prj Kal irpoa- 
e^ecv Tov vovv^^ ox; av to irapayyeXXopbevov Bvvrja^e iroielv. 

LIB. VI. CAP. III. 159 

19. TavT ecTTcbv rjyeLTo. 01 S' linTels StaaTretpo/jievoL i(f> 
oaov Ka\w €L)(€V e/catov fj i^dSi^ov, Kal ol ireXraaral iin- 
7rapt6vT€<; Kara ra uKpa cKatov Travra oaa Kavatfia icopcov 
Kol rj arparia 8e, et tcvc irapaXeLiropLevcp ivTvy')(^dvoLev • cjare 
'Trdaa r] x^P^ al^ea^ac iSofcec kol to arpdrev/jia ttoXv elvai, 
20. 'jETret 8' copa rjv KarearpaToiTehevaavTO eifl \6^ov eK^dv- 
re?, Kal rd re rcov TroXe/Jbicop Trvpa icopcov^ direl^ov Be to? Ter- 
Tapdicovra arahiovs^ fcal avrol co? ehvvavro irXecara Trvpa 
efcacov. 21. ^EiTei K eBeiirvqaav Td')(iG'Ta, TraprjyyeX^r] ra 
TTVpa Karaa^evvvvai Trdvra, Kal rrjv fiev vvKra (pvXa/ca'; 
nToirjcrdfJievoL i/cd^evSov d/uLa Se rfj r)fiepa Trpoaev^dp^evot rot? 
^eot? Kal avvTa^dfjievoL co? et? fid'^'qp eiropevovTo rj iBvvavro 
rd^cara. 22. Ttjuiaaicov Se fcal ol lirirel^ e^oz^re? tovs rjye- 
fjLova^ Kal irpoeXavvovre^ iXdv^avov avrov^ iirl tm X6(j)a) 
yev6fJL€voL ev^a eTroXtopKovvTo ol ^'EXkrive<^, Kal ov')(^ opdoatv 
0VT6 (piXiov arpdrevfJia ovre iroXefiLov • Kal ravra dirrjyyeX' 
Xovcn irpo<^ top ^ei/oc^cSz/ra Kal to aTpdTevfjia* ypathia he 
Kal yepovTia Kal 7rp6/3aTa oXiya Kal /3o09 KaTaXeXetfifie- 
vov<;, 23. Kal to jxev irpcoTov ^av/jca rjv tC €L7j to 'yeye- 
vrjfjievov • eireiTa he Kal twp KaTaXeXeififJiePcop iirvp^dpoPTO 
OTV ol fjL6P @paKe<^ ev^v^ dcf} eairepa^ m')^opto aTTioPTe^i • 
€co^6p Se Kal Tov^ ^'EXKrfpas e^acrap oi'^^ea^ac • ottov Se ovk 

24. TavTa aKovaaPTe^ ol dfK^l Piepocfxj^PTa, inel rjpiaTT]' 
aaPy o-vaKevaadfjiepoL eiropevopTo^ ^ovXo/JLepoo 009 Td')(taTa 
avfifiL^ac T069 dXXoc<; eh KdXirrjs Xtfiepa, Kal iropevofxepoL 
ecopcop TOP aTL^op tcop ^ApKaScop Kal ^ A'^aiSiP KaTCL ttjp eirl 
KdX7rr]<; Shop. ^Ejrel S' d(j>iKOPTO 669 to avTo, dafiepoi re 
elhop dXXtjXov^ Kal rjairdi^oPTO coairep dheX^ovs* 25. Kal 
irrvp'^dpoPTO ol 'ApKdSe^ tcHp irepl 'Sepo(f)WPTa tl tcl irvpa 
KaTaa^eaeiap • 'Hfjieli /nep yap, ecjyaaaPy wofie^a vfxa^ to jxep 
TrpcoTOP, eTrecSr) tcl Trvpa ov^ ecopcofiep, ttj^ pvkto<; fj^etp eirl 
Tov^ 7roXe/x/ou9' koI ol TroXepLCOL Si, &<; y rjfiip ehoKovp, tovto 
heLcraPT€<; aTrrjX^op • a")(ehop yap dfi^l tovtop top ')(^p6pop 
cLTrrjecrap. 26. 'JBTrel S' ovk dcf)LK€a^e, 6 he '^^popo^ i^rJKep, 


co6fjL€^' vfjLd<i irv^ofievov^ ra Trap* r]fuv (fiofir)^€VTa<; OL'^ea^at 
d7roSpdvTa<; eVl ^dXarrav • Kal iSoKCc rjfMcv firj dirokiTrea^ai, 
vfjucov. OvTco^ ovv /cat rjfiel^ Sevpo iirop^v'^Tjfiev. 


1. Tavrrjv fiev ovv rrjv rjfjuepav avrov TjiiXl^ovro cttI roO 

alytaXov irpo^ to5 \t/JL6vc. To Be ^((opiov tovto b KoXelrat 

KdXirrj^ Xi/jLTjv ecTL /lev iv rfj QpaKrj rfj ev ry 'Aaia- dp^a- 

fjbivT] Be rj GpaKT) avrrj iarlv diro tov aTopLaro^; tov TIovtov 

fjie^pi<; ^HpaKkeia^ eirl Be^td el<; tov Uovtov elaifkeovri. 2. 

Kal Tpirjpei fiev ecTiv eh ^HpdfcXecav i/c Bu^avriov /cot)7rac<; 

7]iJiepa<; fidXa fiaKpd^ irXom • ev Be rai /necra) dWrj puev nroki^ 

ovBejxla ovre (j>t\La ovre ^E\\r]vl<; dWd 0paKe(; St^vvoi* 

Kal ov<; dv 'Xd^coat rcov ^EXkrjvtov rj eKTriirrovTa^; rj dWco^ 

7rco9 Becvd v/3pL^etv Xeyovrat [tou9 '^EXkrjva^']. 3. 'O Be 

KakiTT]^ Xifirjv ev piecrw piev Ketrai e/carepco^^ev ifkeovrcov e^ 

^HpaKXeia^ Kal Bv^avriov • eart S' ev rfj ^aXdrrrj irpoKel- 

puevov ')((0pL0Vy TO piev eh ttjv ^dXaTTav KaB^rjKov avTov ireTpa 

dTTOppco^, yyjro^ ottt] e\d')(LO'Tov ov puelov ecKoacv opyvt&v • o 

Be av^7]V 6 eh ttjv yrjv dvrjKcov tov ')(piyplov pudXiG-Ta TeTTd- 

pcov ifXeSpcov TO evpo<; • to S* ei/T09 tov av')(evo^ ')((opLov iKa- 

vov pLvplot^; dvS^pcoTTOt^; oiKrjaac, 4. AcpLrjv S* vir avTrj Ty 

TreTpa to 7rpo9 eairepav alyiaXov e')((ov. Kprjvr) Be 'qBeo<; 

vhaTO^ Kal d(j)Bovo<; peovcra eir avTfj ttj SakdTTy vtto Ty 

eTTiKpaTeia tov ')(copLov. 'BvXa Be iroWd puev Kal dWa, irdvv 

Be TToWd Kal KaXd vavTrrjyijo-vpia eV avTy Ty ^aXdTTy, 5. 

To Be 6po<; to ev tm Xopbivt eh pLecroyatav puev dvriKei ocrov 

eirl eiKOGi aTaBlov^^ Kal tovto yecoBe^ Kal dXv^ov • to Be 

irapa BdXaTTav irXeov t) eirl eiKOGi GTaBiov^ Baav iroXXoh 

Kal iravToBairoh Kal pbeydXoi<^ ^vXoi^, 6. 'H S' dXXrj %copa 

KaXr] Kal iroXXy • Kal Kcopbai ev avTy elai TroXXal Kal oIkov- 

puevab • ^epei yap rj yrj Kal Kpi^d^ Kal Trvpov^ Kal oairpia 

irdvTa Kal pbeXlva<; Kal arjcrapLa Kal avKa dpKovvTa Kal dp^nre* 


Xou9 TToWa? Kal rjBvoLVOv<; /cat raXKa irdvTa ttXtjv eXaccov, 
'H fjLev %cop<x rjv rocavTT]. 

7. ^EaKTjVovv Be iv tq) alyLa\a> 7rpo9 ry ^cCkdrrrj • eh Se 
TO TToKiCTixa av yevofxevov ovic i^oiiXovro arparoTreSevecrS^aL • 
dWa eBoKec koX to eX^elv ivTavS^a i^ €7rt/3ouX^9 elvaCy ySou- 
Xofjievcov TLvcov /caTOL/CLcraL itoKlv, 8. Tchv yap aTpaTccoTcov 
ol ifXelaTOL rjaav ov aTrdvec ^lov i/CTreTrXevfcoTe^ iirl TavTrjv 
T7]v fjLta^o(popdv, dWa Trjv Kvpov dpeTrjv d/covovTe^;, ol [xev 
fcal dvSpa^ dyovTe^;, ol Be /cat 7rpocrav7)\o)/c6Te<; ')(^prj/iaTa, koX 
TovTcov eTepOL diToBeBpaKOTC^ iraTepa'^ /cal /XTjTepa^ ol Be Kal 
TeKva /caTaXcTTOVTe^ co? ')(p'J]/uLaTa avTol^ /CTTjcrdfMevoi, rj^ovTe^; 
TrdXtv, dKOvovTe<; Kal tov^ dXKov^ tov<; Trapd Kvpco ttoWcl 
Kal dyaSd irpdTTetv, ToiovTOi ovv 6vTe<^ iiro^ovp eh ttjv 
^EXkdBa ad>^ea^au 

9. ^EirevBr] Be vcTTepa yfjuepa eyeveTO Tr]<; eh TavTov avvo- 
ooVy CTT e^ooG) er^veTO liievocpcov • avayKTj yap rjv eiri Ta eirC' 
T7]Beia i^dyecv • eTrevoec Be Kal tov<; veKpov^ S^dirTecv. ^Eirel 
Be Ta lepd eyeveTo elirovTO Kal ol ^ApKdBe^;, Kal tou9 fji^ev 
veKpovs Tov<; TrXeccrTov^ ev^airep eireaov eKaaTOV^ eS^a'yjrav • 
fjBri yap rjaav Tre/jLTTTalot Kal ov^ olov re dvacpelv eTC rjvr 
eviov<^ Be tov<; eK tcjv oBmv crvveveyKOVTe^; eSayfrav eK tcov 
VTTap')(ovT(cv 0)9 eBvvavTO KaXkicrTa • 0^9 Be firj evpidKov 
KevoTacftLov avToh iTrotrjcrav [xeya Kal irvpdv fieydXrjVy Kal 
(TTe^dvov<; eire^eaav, 10. TavTa Be 7rot7JaavTe<; dve)(^cop7]aav 
eirl TO (TTpaToireBov, Kal TOTe jiev Bec7rv7]cravTe<; iKoc/jbrj^r]' 
crav TTj S* vaTepala (Twrps^ov ol aTpaTLcoTac TrdvTe^, avvriye 
Be jubdkta-Ta ^Ayacria^; re ^TV/jbcf^dXco^ Xo')(^ayb<; Kal 'lepcovv- 
fjLO<; ^HXelo^ \o;^a709 Kal aXKoL ol irpea^VTaTot tmv ^ApKd- 
Bcov 11. Kal Boyfia eiroLTjaavTo, edv tl<; tov Xocttov fivrj- 
aBfj Bl')(a TO aTpdTev/xa irooelvy ^avdTco avTov ^Tj/jitovcrS^ao • 
Kal KaTCL %aipaz; dirtevaL fjTrep TrpoaSev el')(e to aTpdTevfia, 
Kal dp')(eiv tov<; irpoa^ev G-TpaT7]yov^* Kal XetpLcro(f>o<; fiev 
rjBrj TeTekevTTjKeL (}>dp/JLaKOV ttlcov TrvpeTTcov* tcl S' eKelvov 
Necov^AortvaLo<; irapeXajSe, 

12. MeTa Be TavTa e^avaaTa^; elire aevo^cov ^fl dvBpe^ 


(TTpaTL&TaL, TTjv filv iTopelav, ft)9 eoiKe, SrjXov ore irei^fj ttolt}- 
reop • ov yap eaTV ifKola • avwyKT] Se iropevea^ai tj^t] • ov 
yap €<7Ti ixevovan ra eTrvTrjheLa. ^IIjjb€l<i fJ^ev ovv, €(j>r], ^vao- 
yLte^a* vfid^; ^e Bel Trapaa/cevd^ea^ac 0)9 fJLa')(pv/jLivov<; ec irore 
Kal SXkore' oi yap TrdXifJLiov dvare^apprjKaaLv. 13. ^Eic 
TOVTov i^vovTo ol arpaTTjyol, /jLavrt^; Be irapijv ^Aprj^lcov 
^ApKCL^ • 6 Be St\avb<; 6 ^A/jifipaKcd!)T7]<; ijBi] cLTToBeBpaKei 
ttXoIov iMia^cocrdfievo^i i^ ^HpaK\eta<;, Qvofievoi^ Be iirl rfj 
d(j)6B(p ov/c eylyvero ra lepd, 14. Tavrrjv fiev ovv rrjv ^/^e- 
pav iiravaavTO. Kal rcve^ iroXficov Xeyecv ft)9 o 'Sevocj^MV 
/3ov\6fjLevo<; to ')((opiov OLKccrac TriiretKe top fJidvTLV Xeyeiv (h^ 
ra lepa ov yiyverai eiri d^oBtp. 15. ^Evrev^ev Krjpv^af; rfj 
avpiov irapelvav eirl rrjv ^vaiav top ^ovXojievov Kal [idvTL^ 
ec Ti^ ecT], 7rapayyeL\a<; irapelvac o)? avv^eaaofievov ra iepd, 
e^ue* zeal ivrav^a Traprjcrav iroXKoL 16. Ovofjuevcov Be ird- 
Xiv 619 Tp\<; eTTL rfj dcpoBtp ovk eylyvero ra iepd, ^Efc rovrov 
p^aX€7rw9 el'xpv ol arpartcorat • Kal yap ra eirLrrjBeLa eirekL' 
rrev a e')(pvre<; rfS^ov, Kal dyopa ovBefJila iraprjv. 

17. ^Ek rovrov avveX^ovrcov elire irakiv Bevocj^cov, '^fl 
dvBpe<;y eirl fiev rfj iropela, 0)9 opare, ra lepa ovttco ylyverai • 
Twz^ S' iTTLrTjBeicov opco v^ia^ Beofjuevov^ • dvdyKTj ovv fioc BoKel 
elvat ^vecr^ac irepl avrov rovrov, 18. ^Avaara^; Be rc^ 
elire • Kal ecKorco^; dpa rj/jLcv ov ylyverai ra Iepd • 0)9 yap 
€70) drro rod avrofjudrov %^e9 rjKovro^ ifKolov rjKOvad rLvo<^ 
on K\eavBpo<; 6 eK Bv^avrlov dp/jLoarrjf; fieWet rj^eiv irkola 
Kal rpirjpeL<^ ^X^^' ^^' -^^ rovrov Be dvafjbivetv fiev rraa-iv 
eBoKei • errl Be ra eTnrrjBeia dvdyK7\ y]v e^cevac • Kal eirl rov- 
r(p TTokiv e^vero eh rpk, Kal ovk eylyvero ra Iepd, Kal ijBi] 
Kal iirl (TKrjvrjv I6vre<; rr]v 'Bievo<f)S)vro<; ekeyov on ovk e'xpiev 
ra eirtrrjBeLa • S' ovk av e(f)r) e^ayayetv fir] yiyvoyievwv rcov 

20. Kal irdXiv rfj varepala i^vero, Kal G")(eB6v n iracra 
7] err par la Bca rb fieXetv aTracnv eKVickovvro nrepl ra Iepd* 
ra Be ^vfjuara eTnXeXolTrec, 01 Be arparrjyol e^rjyov fiev ov, 
avveKdXecrav Be, 21. Elrrev ovv Uevo(f>c!)v ''I(T(o^ ol iroXe- 

LIB. YI. CAP. lY. ^ 163 

jlioi (rvveiXey/JLevoc elal koX avar/Kr} iid')(ea^av' el ovv KaraXi' 
TTOvre^ ra crKevr] ev tc3 ipvfJLV^ X^P^V ^^ ^^^ f^^XV^ Trape- 
a/cevacTfiivoc coifiev, l(TQ)<; av ra lepa TTpoxcopOLi] rj/nlv. 22. 
^A/covcravTe^ Be ol (TTparcayrao dveKpar/ov co? ovSev Biov eh to 
Xoyptov dyecv, dXkd S^veaSac 0)9 Taxf^crra. Kal irpo^ara fMev 
ovKerc rjVy /3ovv Be v(f dfjud^ri^ Trptdfjuevot, i^vovro • kol 'Sevo- 
(j)ci)v KXedvopo<; eBerj^ rov 'ApKdBo<; Trpo^^VfJLeloSat ec rt ev 
TOVTcp eL7], AW ovo ft)9 eyevero. 

23. Necov Be rjv fiev (rrparrjyo^; Kara to Xecptao^ov fie- 
pG<; • €7rel Be ecopa tov<; dv^p(oirov<; co? ^Ix^^ Betvco<; ttj evBeia, 
^ov\6fjLevo<; avroU ^j^ap/fecTrSat, evpcov Tiva dvS^pcoTrov 'Hpa- 
K\ecoTr]v 09 ecj^T] K(Ofia<; 677^9 elBevai o^ev eirf Xa^elv Ta 
eTrLTrjBeia, ifcijpv^e tov ^ovKofxevov levav eirl Ta eiriTrjBeia 0)9 
r}ye/jL6vo<; eaofxevov, ^E^epxovTat Brj <7vv BopaTLOL<^ /cat dcTKoh 
KOL S^v\dKot<; /cat dWoi<; dyyetoL<; eh Bc(TXiX^ov<; dv9^p(07rov<;. 
24:. ^EireLBr) Be rjaav ev Tah K(OfjLac<; fcal BiecTTreLpovTo 009 eirl 
TO Xafi/3dveLV, eTnTriiTTovcnv avToh ol ^apva^d^ov iinreh 
irpcoroc, ^e^orj^fc6Te<; yap rjaav Toh Bt^vvoh ^ovXofievoL 
crvv T0fc9 BiS^vvoh el BvvacvTO diro/ccoXvo-at tou9 ^^EXk7]va<; 
fjirj eXS^elv eh ttjv ^pvyiav, Ovrov ol liTTTeh diroKTeivovcTL 
Tcov dvBpcov ov /juetov 7revTaKocrcov<; • ol Be XolttoI eVl to opo^ 

25. ^Ek tovtov dirayye/Ckeo Tt<; ravra t&v dirocpeuyovTcov 
eh TO (TTpaToireBov, Kal Uevocpcov, eVetS^ ov/c eyeyevrjro Ta 
lepa ravrrj rfj rj/xepay Xa^cov /3ovv virb dfjud^rj^;, ov yap rjV 
dXka lepela, atpaytaad/jLevo^ e^orj^ei, Kal ol dXKoL ol fiexpo 
TptdKOVTa eTcbv diravTe<;, 26. Kal dva\a/36vTe^ tov<; Xot- 
7rov<; dvBpa^ eh to (TTparoTreBov d(j)CfcvovvTac, Kal riBrj fjuev 
d/ji(f)l rjXlov BvcTfjid^ rjv Kal ol ^^EW7]ve<; /xdXa dSv/jico^ exovTe^ 
eBecTTVOTTOcovvTo, Kal e^a7rcvr]<^ Bid tmv Xaaicov tCiv BcS^wmv 
Tive<; eiTLyevoiJbevoL roh 7rpocj)vXa^c tou9 fJiev KaTeKOvov tov^ 
Be iBlco^av fiexpi^ eh to G-rpaToireBov. 27. Kal Kpavyrj^ 
yevofievrj<^ eh Ta oifXa irdvTe^ avveBpajbLov ol ^^EX\,7]ve<^ Kal 
BccoKecv ixev Kal Kivelv to (TTpaToireBov vvkto^ ovk dat^aXh 


iSofcec elvai* Baaia jap rjv ret 'xcopia* iv Be toI<; ottKol^ 
ivvKTepevov ^vkajTop^evoL Uavols (j)vXa^L, 

CAP. V. 

1. Trjv fiev vvfcra ovrco Btijyayov* a/xa Be rfj rj/Jiepa ol 
CTpaTTjyol €69 TO epvfjLvov "XP^piov rjyovvTO* ol Be eXirovro 
dva\al36vTe<; ra oif\a koX ra arcevr], Uplv Be apiarov &pav 
elvai a'7re7d(^pevaav f] rj elaoBo^ rjv e/9 to ')((opiov, fcal dire- 
(TTavpcoaav dirav, KaToXiir6vTe<; Tpel<; TrvXa^. Kal ifKolov 
ef ^RpaKkeia^ rj/cev dk^iTa dyov koX lepela fcal olvov, 2. 
Ilpcoi S' dvaaTd<^ aevo(^wv i^vero enre^oBia, koX yiyveTai Tct 
lepa iirl tov TTpcoTOV lepelov. Kal rjBr] Te\o<; e')(0VTcov tcov 
lep&v opa derov aicnov 6 fiavTi^ ^Aprj^icov IIapf)daL0<;, Kal 
rjyela^at /ceXevec tov 'p,evo(f)c!)VTa. 3. Kal Bia^dvTe^ rrjv 
rdcj^pov TCL oirXa TtS^evTai, Kal eKrjpv^av dpKTTrjcravTa^ e^te- 
vai Tov<; cTTpaTi^Ta^ avv toI<^ ottXol^, tov Be 6')(Xov Kal rd 
dvBpaTToBa avrov KaTokLirelv, 4. 01 fiev Brj dWoL irdvre^ 
e^yecrav, Neoyv Be ov' iBoKec yap KdWiarov elvat tovtov 
(j)vXaKa KaraXiTrelv tcov iirl tov arpaTOireBov, ^Eirel B* ol 
Xo')(ayol Kal ol crparLcoTaL direKLirov avTov^, al(T')(yv6iJLevoi 
fjiT) e(^eirea^ai tcov aXXoyv i^LovTcov, KaTeXtTrov avTov tou9 
virep Trevre Kal rerrapaKovTa err], Kal ovtol fiev efxevov • ol 
S' dXXov eTTOpevovTO. 5. TIplv Be irevTeKaiBeKa ardBia Bie- 
XrfXvMvac iveTV)(pv rjBr] veKpol^ • Kal ttjv ovpdv tov Keparo^ 
TTOLTjadfjievoc KaTa tou9 Trpcorov^ <^avevTa<^ veKpov^ e^aiTTov 
7rdvTa<; oiroaov^; iTreXdfi/Save to Kepa^, 6. ^Eirel Be tov<; 
iTpo)Tov<; e^ayjrav, 7rpoayay6vTe<; Kal ttjv ovpdv aSS^^9 ttolt]- 
adfievoL KaTa tov<; irpcoTOV^ tcov dTd(j)Q)V e^aiTTOv tov avTov 
TpoiTov 6ir6<Tov^ eTreXdfJb^avev 97 aTpaTcd. ^Eirel Be eh ttjv 
oBov rJKOv TTJV eK TCOV KcofJicov, ev^a Brj eKeivTO d^pcoc, awe- 
veyKOVTe^ avTov<; e^a-yjrav. 

7. ''HBrj Be ire pa fjueaovcrr]^ Tr]<; r/fiepa^; 7rpoayay6vTe<; to 
GTpdTevfia e^co tcov kco/hcov iXdfi^avov Ta eiriTrjBeia 6 tl rk 

LIB. VI. CAP. V. 165 

opwr) evTO^ T?79 (paXajyo^;. Kal i^aL(pV7]<; opcoat rov'; TroXe/bLi- 
ov<; vTrepl3dWovTa<; Kara \6cf)ovs tlvcls etc rov ivavriov^ rera- 
fyfiivov^ iirl (pd\ajyo<; iTTTrea^ re ttoXXol'? fcat nre^oxj^" koX yap 
^Tn^pihaTTj^ KoX 'Pa^lv7]<; rjKov nrapd ^apvajSd^ov €')(0VTe^ 
TTjv SvvafjLLV, 8. ^Efirel Se KarelSov tou9 ^'EWrjva^; oi iroke- 
fjLtot, earrjaav aTri^xovre^ avrcov ocrov irevre/caiSeKa aTaSL0V<;. 
^Ek tovtov €v^v<; ^Aprj^Lcov 6 [idvTL<; rcov ^EXkrjvcov a (flayed- 
^€Tac, fcal iyevero eirl rod irpcorov Kokd rd a(f)dyia, 9. "Ev- 
^a Brj aevocj^cov Xeyec Aoicel /jlol, o) dvhpe<; arpaT-qyoL^ eTrcrd' 
^aa^ac rfj (pdXayyt Xo'^ov^ (^likaKa^, Xva dv ttov Serj ayacv ol 
i'7TL/3o7]^7]o'ovT€<; rfj ^dXayyt, Kal ol irokefjiioL Terapayixevoi 
ifjbTTLTrTwaLV eh rerayfievov^; Kal aKepaiov^. 10. SvveSoKec 
ravra irdaiv. 'T/iet^; fiev roivvv, 6(^77, irpor^yela^e rrjv tt/oo? 
Tov<; ivaPTLov^j ct)? fir] iorrTJKcofiep iirel cocf^^Tj/aep Kal €c8o/jL€P 
Tov^ TToXepLLOvs ' iyo) Se 7]^co rou? TeXevralov^ X6')(^ov^ Kara'^co- 

piaaS f)7T€p V/JLLP BoK€U 

11. 'jBa: tovtov ol fiep rjavyoL irporjyop • 6 Se rpe?? a<j6e- 
Xobp Ta? TeXevTaia^ Td^eL<^^ dpd hiaKoaiov^ dpSpa<;, ttjp /juep 
iirl TO he^LOP eTreTpe^l^ep e^eirea^ai^ aTroXcTroPTa^; co? irXi- 
^pop • Safji6Xa<; ^Aj(aLo<^ TavT7]<; rjpj^e t^9 Td^eco<; • rr/z/ S' iirl 
TM fJLe(r(p ej((jopL(Tep eTrea^ac Hvppias ^ApKa^ TavT7}<; ^/o%€* 
TTjp he pilap iirl T(p evcopvfio) • ^paaia<; ^A^Tjpalo^^ TavTrj icj^e- 
(TTrjKeL, 12. Upo'CoPTe^ Se, eirel eyevopTO ol riyovfiepoL iirl 
vdirec fieydXq) Kal hvairopfp, eaTrjaap dypoovPTe<^ el StaffaTeop 
ecTj TO pd7ro<; • Kal irapeyyvwcrv crTpaTr}yov<; Kal Xo'^ayov^ 
irapiepai eirl to rjyov/jiepop, 13. Kal 6 aepocj^cov, ^avfidaa^; 
6 TL TO Xaj(op eiT] TTJP TTopeiap Kal Tayy aKovoyp ttjp irapey- 
yvTjP, eXavpei 7; iSvpaTO Td')(^LO'Ta, ^Eirel Be crvprjX^op, Xeyec 
^o(paipeTO^ TTpear^VTaTO^ ct)P tcop aTpaTrjycop otl /3ovX7]<; ovk 
d^top ecr) el Bia^aTeop eaTL tolovtop op to pdiro^, 

14. Kal 6 'Biepo(pcbp cnrovhfi v7roXa/3cop eXe^ep • '-4XX' ccrTe 
fiep yLte, & dpSpe^j ovSepa ttco klpBvpop irpo^epijaaPTa v/jllp i^e- 
XovaLOP* ov yap 86^779 opco Beo/juepov^ v/xd^s eh dpBpeioTijTa, 
dXXd accTrjpla^, 15. Nvp Be ovtco<; e^et • dfjLa-)(^el /xep ip- 
^epBe OVK eGTiv aTreX^etP • rjp yap fxr) r^fxel^ Xcofxep eirl tou? 


iroXefJbiov^y ovtol r^fxlv oirorav aTricofiev eyfrovTat Kal eVivre- 
aovvrai, 16. ^Opare Srj irorepov Kpelrrov ievat eirl rov^ 
avhpa^ irpol^aXkofievovs tcl oifka^ rj /jLeTa^aWojiievov^; ottl- 
a^eu rjfiMP eTrtovra^; rov^ TroXe/Jbiov^ ^edaaa^at, 17. ^'lare 
fMEVToc OTt TO fJiev diTievaL diro TroXefilcov ovSevl Ka\a> eoLKe • 
TO he €(f>e7r6(T^at /cat toIs KaicioaL ^dppo^ ifiTroiel, ^'Eycoy 
ovv 7]Slov av (Tvv rj/JbLaeatv iTrotfjbrjv rj avv SL7rXaaioL<; diro^co- 


iXTTL^ere avTov<i Be^aa^ac rj/jid^ • diriovrcov he irdvre^ eTnard" 
/jie^a ore roXfirjaovaLV e^eTTea^au 18. To he hia/Sdvra'^ 
oTTta^ev vdirof; 'x^aXeTrov irotrjaaa^at fxeXKovra^ pbd^ea^aL 
ap ov'X} ^^^ dpirdaaL a^tov ; Tol9 fiev yap iroXeiiioi^; ejcoye 
^ouXoi/jLrjv av eviropa Trdvra (^aivea^ai cocrre dir 0^(01) pelv • 
r]iia^ he /cal diro rod ^((opLov hel hthdaKea^au otl ovv earc /jlt] 
vtKcoac acorrjpia, 19. ©av/Jbd^o) S* eycoye Kal to vdTTo^ tovto 
et TL<; fiaXKov (po^epbv vo/jLc^ec elvau tcov dXXcop &v hiaTreiro- 
pevfie^a ^copicov. Uco^ fiev yap hiajSaTov to irehiov^ el /jlt] 
vLfC7](J0fjLev Tov<; CTTTrea^; ; ttw? he a hceXrjXv^a/jLev oprj, rjv jreX- 
TaaTal Toaoihe e<pe7ro)VTat ; 20. 'Hp he hr) /cal aoo^cofiep eirl 
^dXaTTap, TToaop tl pdiro^ 6 Uovtos ; ep^a ovTe irXold idTC 
TCL dird^opTa ovTe ctlto^ cS ^pe'\jr6fjLe^a fiepoPTe^ • heTjaet he, rjp 
^aTTov eKel yepco/jLe^a^ ^uttov nrdXip e^tepao iirl tcl iircTT]- 
heta, 21. OvKOVP vvp /cpeiTTOP rjpLaTrjKOTa^ fjud^ea^ac rj av- 
pLov dpapLCTTov^, ^'Aphpe^, ra re iepd rjfup KoXd oX re olcopoI 
atacoL Td re a^dyia KoXXio-Ta. "Ico/iep errl tov<; dphpa^, 
Ov hec eTL tovtov?, eirel rj/jLd<; 7rdpTa)<; elhop, rjheco^ hecTTpijaaL 
ovS" OTTOV UP ^eXcoac a/crjprjaat. 

22. 'EpTev^ev ol Xo')(ayol rjyeta^aL ifceXevop, /cal ovheh 
dpTeXeye. Kal o? rjyelTO, TrapayyelXa<; hia/3aipecp y e/cacTTO^ 
eTvy')(ave tov pdirov^ cop • ^clttop yap ap a^poop iho/cec ovtco 
irepap yepea^at to aTpdTev/Jba rj el /caTa ttjp ye^vpap rj eVi 
tg5 vdireu rjp i^e/jbrjpvoPTO, 23. ^Eirel he hte/STjaapj Trapiobp 
irapd TTjP (j>dXayya eXeyep' "Aphpe^, dpa/uLLfjiPTjaKea^e ocra^; 
hr) iJLd')(a^ avp rot? ^eot? ojioae lopTes pePL/c7]/caTe /cat ola ird- 
G")(pv(TLP oi TToXe/jLLOv^ (j)evyoPTe<; • Kal tovt epporjaaTe otl ezrt 

LIB. YI. CAP. V. 167 

rat^ ^vpac^; t^? 'EXkdSo^ eafiev, 24. ^A\X errea^e rj'yeiiovi 
Tw ^HpatcXei^ Kal aXKrfKov^ irapaKaXelre ovoiiaaTi, 'H8v rot 
avSpelov TL Kal koXov vvv elirovra Kal Tronjaavra fjLV7]/jL7]v iv 
oh eSeXet Trape^etv eavTov. 

25. Tama irapekavvcov eXeye Kal afia v(f)7]yecT0 eVl (f)d- 
Xajyo^^ Kai rov^ ireKraaTd^ iKarepco^ev TTOL7}ad^evoL iiropev- 
ovTo iirl Tpu? TToXe/jLLOv^, IlaprjyyeXXeTO Se ra fjuev ho para 
iirl TOP Se^top a)/jLOP ej(eLPy ew? crrj/jLaiPoc rrj adXiriyyi • eiretra 
Se et9 7rpo/3oXr]p Ka^hra^ eirea^ai ^dhrjp Kal /i7]Sepa Spo/xcp 
SicoKetp. 'Ek tovtov (7vp^7]iia irapyeL ZETX SiflTHP, 
'HPAKAHS 'HTEMnN, 26. 01 hk TroXi/iLoc {jirefxepop 
pofjLL^opre^ KaXop e^etp to y(£>plQP, 'Eirel Se iTrXrjo-ial^op, dXa- 
Xd^aPT€^ ol ''EXXrive<^ nreXraaTal e^eop iirl tov^ iroXepbiov^ 
irpip TLpa KeXeveip • ol 8e iroXepaoi dpriot cop/irjaap, ol t€ 
LTTTreh Kal to arl^o^; tcjp Bl^vpcop' Kal TpeiropraL roi/f; ireX- 
Taard^;, 27. '-4W' eirel v7r7]PTLa^€P rj <^dXay^ twp ottXltcop 
Ta)(y TTopevofiipT] Kal afia rj adXiny^ icfj^ey^aro kg) iTraccovL' 
^op Kal fiera rama rjXdXa^op Kal dfia ra Bopara Ka^ieaap • 
iprav^a ovk6tc iBe^aPTO ol iroXeiiLoi, dX>C e(j)evyop, 28. Kal 
TcfiaaLcop fiep e')((DP tov^ LTnreh icf^eLirerOj Kal direKTLPPVo-ap 
oaov^ irep iBvpapro &)9 oXlyoL opre^, Tcop Be iroXe/jLLcop to 
fiep evcopvfJLOP ev^v^ Bteo'TrdpT], /ca^' o ol ^^EXXrjpe^; iTTTreh 
Tjaap • TO Be Be^cop uts ov acpoBpa BtcoKo/jLepop iirl X6(f>ov avpe- 
(JTt;. 29. ^Eirel Be elSop ol ^'EXX7}Pe<; vtto flip opt a^ avTOv^^ 
iBoKei paaTOp Te Kal aKipBvpoTaTOP elpau iepau iir avTov<^, 
TIaLaPLaaPTe<^ ovp ev^v^ erreKeLPTO* ol Be ov^ vire/xeLpap, Kal 
ipTav^a ol ireXTaaTal iBlo^KOP j^^XP^ '^^ Be^Lop av Biecnrdprj • 
dire^apop B' oXiyoL • to yap Ittttlkop (Jj6/3gp irapel^^ to twp 
TToXe/iLcop iroXv op. 30. 'Eirel Be elBop ol ''EXX7]pe<; to Te 
^appa^d^ov Ittttlkop 6tc avpecrTTjKo^; Kal tou9 Bc^vpov<; Itt- 
Trea? TTpo^ tovto avpa^ poi'C^ofJLepov^ Kal aTTO X6(f)ov TLpb<^ KaTa- 
^eco/jLepov^ tcl yiypopbepa^ aTTeiprjKeaap flip, 6fi(c<^ 8' iBoKec Kal 

6776 T01;T0U9 hioV clpaL OVTCO^ 0776)9 BvPaCPTOj Ct)9 fir) Te^appT]- 

KOTe^ dpaTTavaaiPTo, SvPTa^dfiepoL Brj TTopevopTac. 31. 
'JEz^TeO^ez^ ol TToXeficot iTTTrel^ (f>evyovaL KaTa tov TTpapov^ 


ojjboio)^ &aiT€p viro iTTTricov BccoKOfievoc ' vdiro^; yap avrov^ 
virehe')(eTO, o ov/c fjBeaav ol ^'EKkr}ve<;, aXka TrpoaTrerpaTrovro 
hicdKovre^ • o'y^e yap rjv, 32. ^Eiravek^ovTe^; he evBa 97 irpd)- 
T7] avfi^oXrj iyevero arrjcrdfjievoc rpoiraiov aTrrjeaav iirl Sd- 
Xarrav irepl rfkCov Svafjid^ • crrdSioc S' ^aav 0)9 e^rjKovra iiri 
TO arparoirehov. 


1. ^Evrev^ev ol fiev TroXifJuoc €l)(ov dfi<^l ra iavrcov Koi 
dnrriyovTO kol tov<; olK6Ta<; kol ra ')(^p7]/jLaTa ottol iBvvavro 
TrpocrcordTO) • 01 Be ^^EXXrjve^; Trpoaefievov /juev KXeavBpov kol 
Ta9 TpLr)peL<^ /cat ra likola d)^; rj^ovra • i^t6vTe<; Be eKaarr]^ 
rjiiiepa'^ avv rol^ vTro^vyLot^; koI toI<; dvBpairoBoi^; e<^epovTO 
dBeo)^ TTVpov^;, Kpi^d^, olvov, ocTTrpta, fieXiva^, av/ca • airavra 
yap dyaS^a el^ev r] %c6pa ifkrjv ekacov. 2. Kal qirore fiev 
KarapAvoL to aTpdTev/ia dvairavop^evoVy i^rjv eirl \eiav levai • 
KoX eXdpblSavov ol i^copTe^ • oiroTe S' e^ioL irdv to o-TpdTevfia, 
ec Ti^ %<i>/>^9 dire\^d)v XdjSoc tl, Brjp.oo'Lov eBo^ev elvai, 3. 
"HBrj Be rjv iroWt] irdvTcov d^^ovia • Kal yap dyopaX irdvTO- 
^ev d(pLKPovPTO e/c tcov 'EWrjvlBoyv iroXecov, Kal ol irapaTrXe- 
ovT€<; dap^evou KaTrjyoVy aKovovTe^ 0)9 oIkl^olto *7r6Xc^, Kal 
\ip.rjv etrj. 4. "ETre/juTTOV Be Kal ol iroXepioL tjBt] 01 ifkricriov 
o)KOvv 7r/)09 "Pievo^covTa, dKovovTe<; otl ovto^ TroXi^et to ')(^cO' 
ploVy €pQ)TcbpTe(; o Ti BeoL nTOiovvTa<; ^IXov^ elvau ^O S' eVe- 
BeiKvvev avToi)^ toI^ aTpaTCcoTat^. 5. Kal ev tovtco KXeav- 
Bpof; d(j)CKvelTaL Bvo TpLrjpei^; e')(coVy ttXoIov S' ovBev, 'JEruy- 
X^^^ ^^ TO o-TpdTevp^a e^co ov 6t€ dipUeTO Kal iirl Xeiav 
Ttve<; olxpfi^vot dXXoL dXXy eh to opo<;, Kal eiXrj^eaav irpo- 
fiaTa TToXXd • oKVOvvTe^ Be p^rj d^atpe^elev T(p Ae^iinTfp 
XeyovcTiVy 09 direBpa ttjv TrevTrjKOVTopov e^oyv eK Tpaire^ovv- 
T09, Kal KeXevovat BiacrdocravTa avTOL<; Ta irpo^aTa tcl p^ev 
avTov Xa^elvy tcl Be G(plcnv diroBovvai, 

6. EvB^m B' eKetvo^ dTreXavveo tov^ Trepiea-TcoTa^ t&v 

LIB. VI. CAP. VI. 169 

(TTpartcoTcov fcau Xiyovra^; ore BrjfjLocrca etr) • koX tm EXedv- 
hp(p eX^oov \ej60 ore dpTrd^etv iiTi')(eLpovaLV. 'O Se KeXevev 
TOP dpTrd^ovra dyecv 7rpo9 avrov, 7. Kal 6 fxkv Xa/Scov rjje 
TLva • 7repiTV')(pdv S* ^Ayacria^ d(patp€Lrao • fcal yap rjv avrp 
6 dyofievo^ \o')(^lt7]<;. 01 Se dXKoL oi nrapovre^ tcov arpaTLco- 
Tcov iiTL'X^ecpovcn /3dXk€LV tov Ae^nnrov, dva/cakovvT€<; rbv 
TTpoSorrjv. 8. "ESeLaav Be Kal tcov rpcrjpcrcov ttoWoI fcal 
€(j)€vyov 669 rrjp S-dXarrav • /cat KXeavBpo^; S e(^evye, lAevo- 
(j)cov Se fcal ol dXXot orrparTjyot /careKcoXvov re Kal rep KXedv- 
Spa) eXeyov on ovBev elrj Trpdy/jia, dXXd to Boyfia acTLOV eci] 
TO TOV G-TpaTeviJiaTO<^ TavTa yeveaS-ac. 9. 'O Be KX€avBpo<i 
VTTO TOV Ae^LTTTTOv TG dvepeS-L^6fievo<; Kal avTo<; d')(^ecr^el<; 
OTC icj^o/STjS^T], dTTOirXevaelor^ab ecj^Tj Kal KTjpv^eiv jJbrjBefjuiav 
TToXcv Be^ea^ao avTov<;, 0)9 7roXe/jiiov<;. '^Hp'^ov Be t6t6 
irdvTcov TCOV ^EXXtjvcov ol AaKeBatpboviOi, 

10. ^EvTavS-a TTovrjpov to nrpdyixa eBoKei elvac to?9 ^^EX- 
Xtjctl, Kal iBeovTO //.?) irocelv TavTa. ^O B' ovk dv dXXco^ ecj)7] 
yevecrS-ac, el {jltj Tt9 eKBcocrec 'tov dp^avTU jSdXXecv Kal tov 
d(f>eX6fjLevov, 11,^ Hv Be ov e^^Teo ^Ayacrla^ Bid TeXov^ c^l- 
Xo<; T(p ^evo(f>cbvTC • e^ ov Kal Bii/SaXev avTov 6 Ae^cTTTro^;, 
Kal ivTevS-ev iiTeiBi] diropia rjv, crvvriyayov to crTpdTevfia oi 
dp'XpvTe^ • Kal eviob fiev avTcov Trap" oXiyov eTroiovvTo tov 
KXeavBpctv tco Be 'BevocpcovTV ovk iBoKec cj^avXov elvai to 
irpdyjjiai dXX^ dvacrrd^ eXe^ev • 

12. ^f2 dvBpe<^ cTTpaTtcoTaL, i/JLol S' ov <pavXov BoKec elvac 
TO Trpdyfia, el rj/jLtv ovtco^ ^X^^ '^V^ yvcofirjv KXeavBpo<; dTrei- 
(JLV &(T7rep Xeyei. Elcrl puev yap iyyv^ ai ^EXXr]ViBe<^ 7r6XeL<; • 
T?}9 S' 'EXXdoo^ AaKeBat/jLovLOL TrpoeaTrjKaaiv • iKavol Be elcn 
Kal eh eKacTTo^ AaKeBacfiovlcov ev Tah TroXecnv 6 tc fiovXov- 
Tai BiairpdTTeaB^at, 13. El ovv ovto^ TrpcoTOV fiev rjfjba^ 
Bv^avTLOv diroKXeiaei, eTreiTa Be Toh dXXoL<; dpfiocTTah nra- 
payyeXel e/9 Ta9 7r6Xec<^ /jlt] Be^ea^ao co<; diricTTovvTa^ AaKe- 
Bat/MOVLOL^; Kal dv6/jLov<; ovTa<;' eTU Be 7rpo9 ^Ava^i^tov tov 
vavapxov ovto^ 6 X6yo<; nrepl rj/icov rj^et • 'XpXeirov ecTTat Kal 
fieveiv Kai diroiTXelv Kal yap iv Ty yfj dpj(pv(7L AaKeBat- 


fjLovLOC Kol iv rf) J^aXdrry tov vvv xpovov. 14. Ovkovv hel 
0VT6 ez/09 dvBpo^ eveKa ovre Svolp rjfJid^ tov<; dXkov^ ttj^; 'EX- 
XaSo9 dirkyeG^ai^ aXKa Treiareov 6 tl av /ceXevcoat • koI yap 
at 7r6\6i<; rj/jLcov o^ev icrfiev Trel^ovrat avToc<;, 15. ^Eyco fiev 
ovVy KoX yap d/covco Ae^iirirov Xeyeiv irpb^ K\eav8pov a)9 ovfc 
av iiTolrjo-ev 'Aya(TLa<; ravra, el [mt] iyco avrov ifceXevaa, iyco 
fi€V Qvv diroXvco kuI u/ia? tt}? airla^ koI ^Ayaaiav, av avTo<; 
^Aya(jla<^ (j>7]G-y ifjii re tovtcov airiov elvai, /cal /caraBiKd^co 
i/zavTov, el iyco irerpof^okia^ t) dXKov tlvo<^ ^tatov e^dp')(o}y 
T'i]<; eG-')(dT7}<; Bifcrj^; d^to^ elvai, koX v^e^co rrjv Sl/ctjv, 16. 
^rjfil 8e /cal el riva dXkov alridraiy xprivai eavrov iTapaG")(/lv 
KXedvSpo) Kplvat' ovrco yap av vfiel<^ diro\e\v[ievoL t?}9 al- 
TLa<; eirjTe, ^f2<; Se vvv e^eL, x^Xeirov el blofievoi iv rfj ^EX- 
XdSc /cal iiraivov koX TijJiri^ rev^eaS^ao dvrl Se tovtcov ou8' 
o/jLOiot T0?9 dXXoc<; iorojjue^aj dXh! elp^ojieB^a iic rcov ^EXXrjvC- 
Bcov TToXecov, 

17. Merd raOra dvaard^ elirev ^Ayacria'^ • ^Eyco, c5 dv- 
Spe<;, o/jivv/JLL ,Seou9 /cal r&ea9 ^] fJ^rjv [irjre fie 'Bevocj^covTa KeXev- 
cat d(^eXeaB^ai tov dvBpa firfre dXXov v/jlcov (JbrfBeva' IBgvtl 
he jioi dvSpa dya^ov dyofievov rcov i/xcbv Xox^rcov vtto Ae^iir- 
TTOVi ov vfJLel<; iTriaraaB-e v/jbd^; nrpohovra, Betvbv eBo^ev elvat • 
/cal dc})eiX6fJb7jv, ofjioXoyco. 18. Kal vjxel^ jxev /jltj iKBcore fxe* 
iyco S' i/jLavTov, iocrirep *Bevo^(ov Xeyet, irapaGyjqcay Kpivavrv 
KXedvBpG) o TO dv ^ovX7]Tab Trotrjaai • tovtov eve/ca firjTe 
iroXefxelre AafceBacfjL0VL0L<; aco^eorS-e re dacpaXco^; oirou ^eXei 
€Ka<7T0<;, ^vfMTrefJb'ylraTe fievTOt /moc vfjLcov auTCJV eXofJuevoi 
irpo^ KXeavBpov OLTCve<;, dv tl iyco TrapaXeiTrco, /cal Xe^ovcnv 
virep ifiov Kal irpd^ovaiv, 19. ^Eic tovtov eBco/cev rj o-TpaTcd 
ovcTTLva^ ^ovXoiTO TrpoeXofJievov levat, ^O Be irpoeiXeTO tov<; 
(TTpaTTiyov^. Mera TavTa iiropevovTo irpo^ KXeavBpov 
^Ayaala^ /cal at crTpaTrjyol /cal 6 d^atpeS^eh dvrjp vtto ^Aya- 
dov • Kal eXeyov oi aTpaTTjyoL 

20. "ETrejJL'yJrev rjixd'^ t] (TTpaTid 7rpo9 ere, Sy KXeavBpe, Kal 
eKeXevcri cre, e'cTe 7rdvTa<; alTca, KpivavTa creavTov ^PV^^^^ ^ 
TL dv fiovXy, ecTe eva TLvd rj Bvo rj Kal nrXeiov^ ahta, tovtov^ 

LIB. VI. CAP. VI. 171 

a^LOvcTL 7rapa(7')(eLV gov kavTov<^ et? KpLcriv, Eire ovv rj/xcov 
TLva alrca, irdpea/jbev croc rj/jiel^; • elre fcal aXkov rcvd, cj)pd' 
aov • ovhel^ jap dirkcTai ogti^ av '^/jLcv iS-ekrj Tre/rJecTf&a^. 
21. Mera ravra TrapeX^cov 6 ^Ajaaia<^ elirev • ^Ejco elfjn, & 
KkeavSpe, 6 d(p€\6fJL€vo<; Ae^LTnrov dyovTO<; tovtov tov dvSpa 
Kol TTaieiv /C€\6vcra<^ Ae^unrov. 22. Tovtov [lev jap olBa 
dvSpa dyaS^ov ovra* Ae^LTnrov he olha alpe^evra viro ttj^; 
GTparcd^; dp')(eLV ttJ? TrevTTjfcovTopov ^9 yrriadiie^a irapd 
TpaTre^ovvTLCov i<p^ S re irkola avXkeyecv 0)9 aay^olfxe^a • Ka\ 
dirohpdvTa Ae^tTnrov Kal irpohovra rov^ crrpaTLcora^; /leS-^ o)V 
iacoBT]. 23. Kal rov^ re Tpajre^owTLOv^ direcTTepriKaiiev 
T7]V TTevTrjKovTopov Kal KaKol BofcovfJL€V elvat Sid tovtov • av- 
TOL T€ TO iirl TovTcp aTToXcoXafiev, "Hicove jdp, coairep 
rjiJLehy 0)9 diropov elrj irei^fi dinovTa^; tov<; TroTa/Jiov^ re Sca/STJ- 
vau Kal crcoS-rjvac eh Trjv ^EWdSa. Tovtov ovv tolovtov ovTa 
d^eckS/iTjv. 24. El 8e av 97769 rj dWo<; tl<; tcov irapd aovy 
Kal /JL7] Tcbv Trap" rj/jicov d'H'oSpdvTcov, ev ccr^c otc ovBev av tov- 
TCOV eTTolrjaa, No/ic^e S\ edv e/jie vvv diroKTelvrj^, Sc dvSpa 
SecXov T€ Kal irovripov dvSpa dyaSov dTTOKTelvcov, 

25. ^AKovGa^ TavTa 6 KXeav8po<; elirev otc Ae^cirirov [ilv 
ovK eiracvoir], el TavTa ireTrocTjKco^ elrj • ov fievToc e<p7} vofxi- 
^ecv ovS* el Trafiirovrjpo'; r/v Ae^C7r7ro<; /Siav ')/p'f]vac TrdG')(ecv 
avTov, dXXd KpcMvTa, &cnrep Kal v/jcec'^ vvv d^covTe, t?}9 
Slkt]'^ TV')/ecv, 26. Nvv fiev ovv drrcTe KaTdkc7r6vTe<; TovSe 
TOV dvSpa • oTav S' iyco KeXevaco, TrdpecTTe 7rpo9 ttjv Kpcacv, 
Alt ceo fiat Be ovTe Trjv cTTpaTidv ovTe dXkov ovBeva eTC • eirel 
ovTO<; avTo<; o/noXoyec dcj^eXecrS^ac tov dvBpa. 27. 'O S' dcpac- 
pe!^eh elirev • ^Eyco, w KXeavBpe, el Kal otec fie dBcKovvTd tc 
dyecr^aCy ovt eiracov ovBeva ovt e/3aWov dW elirov otc 
BrjfjLocrca e'trj tu 7rp6/3aTa • rjv yap tcov cTTpaTicoTcov Boyfzay et 
TC^ oiTOTe 7] cTTpaTtd e^loc IBici Xrjt^ocTo, B7][i6ata elvac Ta 
X7](j)MvTa, 28. TavT elTrov eK tovtov /ne \a/3cbv ovto^ 
TjyeVy Lva fir] ^B-eyyocTO (jbrjBeky dX)C avTb<; Xa^cov to fiepo^ 
BcacrcacreLe toI<^ XycrTac^; irapd ttjv prjTpav Ta xpVf^^'^^' 


JTpo? ravra 6 JKXeaz^Spo? elirev • 'JETrel tolvvv tocovto^; el, 
Kardfievei Xva koX irepl crov /SouXevaco/jLeS^a, 

29, 'jE/c tovtov ol fjuev aficfu KXeavSpop '^pLcrrcov • ttjv Se 
ar par Lav avvrj^a^e 'Sevocf^cbv /cat avve^ovXeve, irifiylrac civ- 
Bpa<; Trpo? KXiavBpov TrapaiTrjaojJLevov^ rrrepl rcov avSpcov. 
30. 'JS/c TOVTOV eSo^ev avTol<; nTeii'y^avTa<^ aTpaTrjyov^ /cal 
Xo')(^ayov<; Kal ApaicovTLOV tov ^TrapTcaTrjv, /cal tcov aXXcov 
at iSo/covv eTnTrjheioL elvav, BelaSac KXedvBpov KaTa TcdvTa 
Tpoirov d^elvaL too dvSpe. 31. ^EX^odv ovv 6 "Pievocj^cov Xi- 
y€i • ^'E')(eL<; /xiv, S) KXiavSpe, tou? dvSpa<; • /cal r) aTpaTtd 
(TOL i^ecTO o TL i^ovXov TTotrjcrat Kal rrepl tovtcov /cal irepl 
iavTcov aTrdvTcov. Nvv Si ae ahovvTac Kal BiovTao Bovval 
a^tai TO) dvSpe Kal /ir) KaTaKaiveiv ' TroWd yap iv tc5 e/x- 
TrpoaBev XP^^V 'Trepl ttjv aTpaTtdv ifjioxSrjadTrjv. 32. Tav- 
Ta Be aov Tv^pVTe^ vincrxyovvTal aoi uvtI tovtcov, rjv /3ov\y 
r]yela^ai avTcov Kal rjv ol Beol IXeo) Sycnv, iirLBei^eiv crot Kal 
0)9 KOG-fjLLOL elab Kal ft)? iKavol tg3 dp^ovTi TreiB^ofievoi tov<; 
TroXe/Jblov^ avv toI^ l^eol^ /jlt) (^o^elaB^at, 33. AeovTav Be aov 
Kal TOVTO, 7rapayev6/jL€Vov Kal dp^avTa eavTcov irelpav \a^elv 
Kal Ae^iiTirov Kal acj^cov tcov dWcov 0I09 CKaaTO^ iaTt, Kal 
T7]v d^iav eKdcTTOi^ veljiat, 34. ^AKovaa^ TavTa 6 KXeav- 
Bpo<; ^AWd val tco Scco, €(j)7], Tayy tol v/jllv aTroKptvov/jiaL, 
Kal T(o T€ dvBpe v/xtv BiBco/jit Kal avTo<; Trapiao/JLat • Kal tjv 
ol ^eol TrapaBiBcocrt, i^7]y7]ao/JLat et? ttjv 'EWdBa. Kal ttoXv 
ol Xoyot ovTOi dvTLOL elalv rj ou? iyco irepl v/jlcov ivicov tjkovov 
o)? TO aTpdTev/jia dcfyco-TaTe diro AaKeBatjjLOvicov. 

35. ^Ek tovtov ol fxev eTraivovvTe^; dTrrjk^ov, e^ovTe'^ ro) 
dvBpe • KkiavBpo^ Be iBv€To eirl Trj iropeici Kal crvvrjv 'Sevo- 
(j>S)VTt ^c\lkco<; Kal ^evlav ^vve^dXovTO, ^Eirel Be Kal icopa 
avTOv<; TO irapayyeWofievov evTdKTCo^ iroLovvTa^, Kal fidX- 
Xov €TL eire^vixev rjye/jLcbv yevecrS^ac avTcov. 36. ^Eirel fiivTOL 
^vofjLevcp avTcp eirl Tpeh rjfjbepa^; ovk iycyveTO Ta lepd, crvyKa- 
Xecra<^ tov<; G'TpaTr,yov<; elTrev ^E/xol fiev ovk iS^eXec yeve- 
(T^ai Ta lepd i^dyecv • t'/xe?? fievTOV jjur] d^^vfjuecTe tovtov eve- 
Ka • v/uv ydp, co? €0LK6, BeBoTac iKKo/jblo-at, tovs dvBpa^ • 

LIB. VI. CAP. VI. 173 

aXka TTopevea^e, ^Hfiel^ Be vfid^y eireihav ixetae TjKrjre, 
Be^ofJbeS^a &)9 av Bvvco/jieSa /cdWtara, 

37. 'JE/c TOVTOV eSofe rot? arparccorac^ Bovvat avroi ra 
BrjiJbocna Trpo/Sara, 'O Be Be^d[JLevo^ Trakiv avroh aTreBcofce • 
fcal ovTO^ fJLev direifKeL. 01 Be arpancbTac BcaS^i/jLevoc top 
alrov ov rjaav (TvyfceKO/JLCcriJLivoc fcal raXKa a eCKrj^eaav e'^e- 
iropevovTo Bca tcop BlS^vvcov. 88. ^Eirel Be ovBevl eveTV')(ov 
TTGpevofievov rrjv 6p^r]v oBov, &<7t ej^oz^re? tl eh rrjv ^tXiav 
iXSecv, eBo^ev avrol^ Tov/ji7ra\cv virocrTpe^^avTa^ eXBelv [liav 
rijiepav fcal vvKra, Tovro Be iroLrjaravre^ eka^ov iroXka /cat 
avBpdiroBa fcal Trpo^ara • /cat d^iKovro etcraloL eU UpvaoTTO- 
Xcv T?}9 XdkKrjBovla^^ kuI eKel efieivav r)[iepa<; eTrra Xacj^vpo- 


HENO<l>12NT0 2 

CAP. I, 

1. ^'OXA fjbev Brj iv rfj ava/3da€L rrj fiera Kvpov eirpa^av 
ol ^^EWrjve^ I^^XP^ '^^^ P'^XV^' '^^^ ^^^ ^'"^^^ Kvpo<; ireXevrr]- 
crev iv rf) iropeia fjce^pi' ^h tov Uovtov acj^l/covro, /cat Sera i/c 
Tov Uovtov irei^fj i^tovre^ koX ifkeovre^; iiroLTjo-av jJ^^XP^ ^^^ 
TOV (TTOiiaTO^ l^kvovTO iv XpvaoTTokec t^9 ^Aaia^;, iv tS> irpo- 
a^ev \6y(x> S€h7]\coTac, 2. ^E/c tovtov Be ^apvd/3a^o^ (fyo- 
fiov/JL€vo^ TO (TTpcLTevixa fjUTj i^rl TTjv avTOv dp'xrjv aTpaTevrj- 
Tac, 7r€/jLy(ra<; 7rpo9 ^Ava^i^tov tov vavap')(ov, 6 he eTV^ev iv 
Bv^avTLO) cov, iSetTo ScajSc^daat, to aTpaTevyia iic ttj^ ^Acri- 
a9, KoX vTTia'xyelTOy irdvTa iroirjcreLV uvtS oaa Beoc, 3. Kal 
^Ava^[^co<; jjueTeirefi'^aTO tov<^ o-TpaT7]yov<; real 'Xo')(ayov^ 
Tcbv (TTpaTLcoTcbv eh Bv^dvTLov, fcoi v7ri(T')(yeLT0, el Bia^aleVy 
ficaS^o^opav eaeaS^ao tol<; aTpaTtcoTac<;. 4. 01 fJLev Brj dXKoi 
€(paaav fiov\ev(rd/jievoL dirajyeXeLV • 'B€VO(f)cov Be elirev avToi 
OTL diToXkd^oLTO 7]Brj aTTo T7]<^ aTpaTLCL^ KoX fiovXoLTO diro- 
TrXecv. 'O Be ^Ava^i^io<; iKekevaev avTov avvBca^dvTa eiret- 
Ta ovTco<; aTraWdTTecrS^at. "EcJ^t} ovv TavTa TroLijaeiv. 

5. ^ev^7]<? Be 6 ©pa^ ireiiirei MrjBocrdBrjv Kal Ke\evei 
*Stevo^o)VTa crv/JLTrpoS^vfieLa^at ottco^ Bia^jj to aTpdTevfJia, 
Kal €(j)7} avTM TavTa G-vjuLTrpoS^v/zi^^evTV otl ov fieTa/ieX'^o-eLV. 
6. 'OS' elireVy ^AXKa to (Jiev arpdrevfjua B La/37] crer ac * tovtov 
eveKa firjBev TeXetTco fJLrjTe ifiol fJurfTe aXkco jJLrjBevt' iiretBav 

LIB. YII. CAP. I. 175 

Be Sca/37J, iycb [lev aTToXXd^ofjiaL- irpo^ Se tov<; Stafievovra^; koX 
iTTLfcacpLov^; ovras irpoat^epea^co 009 av avrS Sofcfj da^aXe^. 

7. ^Efc TovTov hia^aivovau Trdvre^ ek Bv^dvriov ol arpa- 
TLOiTai. Kal fjica^ov fiev ovfc iSlSov 6 ^Ava^l^to^ • iKTjpv^e he 
Xa^6vTa<^ rd oirXa fcal rd crKevrj rov^ aTpaTLooTa<; i^iivat. o)? 
diroireiM^ayv re afxa koI dpL^ixov iroirjacov. ^Evrav^a ol 
arpaTLcoTac rj-^ovro, ore ovfc el^ov dpyvpiov eTTLaLTi^ea^at ek 
TTjv iTopeiav, koX o/cvTjpco^ avveaKevd^ovro. 8. Kal 6 aevo- 
(f)cov KXedvSpay tco dp^oajfj ^epo<; yeyevrjfjievo'^ TrpoaeX^cov 
i^aTrd^ero avrov co? diroirXevaovfxevo^ ijSrj. ^O S' avrw Xejeu • 
Mr] woL7]ay(; ravra • el Be (jltj^ ecprj, alrlav ef e^9, eVet kcCX vvv 
TLvh rjBr] ae alTtchvraL on ov Ta')(p e^epireL to arpdrevfia, 

. O euTTev • AXK airto^ (lev eycoye ovfc ec/JLc tovtov, ol oe 
arparccoTai avrol eincnTiaixov BeofxevoL Bed tovto d^vfJLOvort 
TT/po? r7]v e^oBov. 10. ^AXX ojjlcos^ ecj)rj, iyco act cv/ji^ovXevco 
i^eX^elv /xev w? iropevcro/jLevov ' eireuBdv B' e^co yevrjTat to 
crrpdrevfia, Tore diraXXdrrea^aL, Tavra roivvr, €(f)r) 6 Sei/o- 
(pcov, iX^6vT€<; 7rpo9 ^Ava^i^Lov BiaTTpa^ofjie^a. Ovt(o<; iX- 
^6vTe<; eXeyov ravra. 11. 'O S* ifceXeva-ev oiirco nrotelv Kal 
e^ievai rr]v ra^iarrjv (JVveaKevacrfxevov^^ Kal nrpoaaveLirelv^ 09 
dv fjirj irapfj els ttjv i^eraacv Kal eh rov dpt^jioVyOn avros 
avrov alridaerai, ^ 12. ^Evrev^ev e^rjeaav cX re arparrjyol 
irpcoroL Kal ol dXXot. Kal dpBrjv rrdvre^ rrXyv oXcycov e^co 
rjcrav, Kal ^EreovLKo^ elcrrrjKei rrapd rd<; rrvXa^ <hs Swore e^co 
yevoLvro irdvres avyKXelacov rd^ rrvXa^; Kal rov fio'^ov epb^a- 
XS)V, 13. ^O Be ^Ava^i^Los cvyKaXeo-a^ rov^ (Trparr]yov<; 
Kal rovs Xo')(ayov^ eXe^e • Td jiev einrrjBeia, e^rj^ Xafi/Sdvere 
eK rcop QpaKLCDV kco/jlcov • elal Be avro^t woXXal Kpt^al Kal 
irvpol Kal rdXXa rd eirtrriBeia • Xa^ovres Be iropevea^e eh 
XeppoPTjaov, eKel Be KvvlcrKO<; vfuv pbta^oBorrjaei. 14. ^Eira- 
Kovaavre^ Be nve^ rcov arpartcorcov ravra, rj Kal rcov Xo'^a- 
ycov res BcayyeXXet eh rb arpdrevfjia, Kal ol [lev <rr parity ol 
eTTVv^dvovro irepl rov ^eii^ov irorepa iroXe/jLCOs ecrj rj (j^lXo^^ 

Kal wore pa Bed rov lepov opov<; Bioc iropevea^ac rj kvkX(o Bed 

fiear]^ rrjs QpaKT]^. 


15. ^Ev M Be ravra BceXeyovro ol arparLcorac avapira- 
o-avre^ tcl oirXa ^iovac Bpofxw 7rpo<; ras 7rvXa<; co? ttciXlv eh 
TO Tet^o9 elacovre^. ^O Be ^EreovcKO^ koX ol avv avTM co? 
elSov 7rpoa^eovTa<; rov^i 67rXlra<;, avyKXeiovai Tas iTvXa<; kclI 
TOP ixo')(Xov €/x/3dXXovaLV. 16. 01 Be crparicoTai efcoTrrop re 
Ta<^ TTvXa^ Kol eXejov ore dBi/ccorara Trda'^otev ifcj3aXX6iievoi 
eh T0U9 'jroXe/JLLOV^; ' koX KaTaayiGeiv i:a<^ irvXa^ ecj^aaav, el 
1X7] ifcovre^; dvol^ovacv. 17. ^'AXXol S' e^eov eirl ^dXarrav 
KOL irapcL TTjv xrjXrjv rod rei'^ov'^ vTrep^aivovaiv eh rrjv tto- 
Xtv • dXXoc S' 06 errvyyavov evBov opTe<; Tcbv arparccorcov w 
opcbcTC TCL eTTL Tuh nTvXai^ TTpdj/Jbara, BLafcoTrrovres rah d^U 
vac^ rd KXeV^pa dvaireTavvvovcn ra? irvXa<^ • ol B^ elairi- 


18. 'O Be 'Bevo(j)0)V w elBe rd jiyvo/Jieva, Beiaas firj e<j) 
dpTTajfjv TpdiToiTO TO (TTpdrevfJLa kol dv7]/ceaTa kuku ryevoLTO 
TTj TToXec Kol eavTO) koI roh o-rpaTtcoTaL^;, e^ec kol avveia- 
TTLTrret, eicrco tcop ttvXcov crvv tm o^Xco, 19. 01 Be Bv^dprcoc 
C09 elBov TO (TTpdTevfJLa ^ia elcnriTTTOv, (j)evjovatp etc t^9 dyo- 
pd^^ ol /jLep eh Ta TrXola, ol Be o'UaBe • ocro^ Be epBop eTvyya- 
POP opTe^ e^o) e^eop • ol Be Ka^elXKOP ra? Tptr}peL<;, w? ep Tah 
TpLTjpecn (Tco^ocpTO • TrdpTe^ Be oiopTO diroXcoXepai co? ecCXoH' 
Kvias TTjS TToXecos* 20. 'O Be ^ETeoptKo^ eh ttjp aKpap diro- 
(pevyet. 'O Be Apa^i^ios /caTaBpajxcop eVt ^dXaTTap ep 
dXtevTLKS irXoicp TrepteTrXeL eh ttjp aKpoiroXcp, kol ev^v<^ 
pLeTairefJiiTeTaL etc XaX/c7]B6po<; <ppovpov<; • ov yap Ifcavol iBo- 
Kovp elpai ol ep ttj dfcpoiroXei cryeip tov<^ dpBpa^. 

21. 01 Be aTpaTLcoTac co9 elBop top Sepocj^coPTa, 7rpoo"7rL- 
TTTovtJLP avT(p TToXXol KOL Xiyovai • Nvp aoL 'e^eaTLP^ w aepo- 
^a)P, dpBpl yepea^au "E')(ei^ TroXtP, ex^t^ TpcT^pei^, eyeLS 
XpV/^^'^^f ^X^^^ aVSpa? too'oi;toi;9. Nvp dp, el /3ovXolo, av re 
rjfid^ 6p7]o-at<;, kol rjfjieh ce fieyap 7rot7]craL/jLep. 22. ^O Be 
aTrefcpcpaTO • MxV ev t6 XeyeTe fcal Troirjaco TavTa • el Be 
TovTcop eTTL^v/JLecTe, ^ea^e Ta oirXa ep Td^eu ct)9 Tdyt^aTa. 
BovXofxepo^ avTov^ fcaTijpefjLicraL, fcal avT6<; re irapTjyyva Tav- 
ra KaX tov^ dXXov^ ifceXeve irapeyyvap Kal Ti^ea^ai, tu 

LIB. VII. CAP. I. 177 

07r\a» 23. 01 Se avrol v(f iavrcov rarro/JLevot oi re oTrXtrai, 
iv oXlyo) '^popo) €69 o/cTft) iyevovTO koX oi TreXraaTal iirl to 
Kepa^ ifcdrepop irapaSeSpafjLijfceaav, 24. To Be ^((opiov olov 
kclWlcttov iicrd^aa^aL eam to QpaKtov KaXovjjbevoVy eprj/xov 
OLKLcbv KoX iTehivov, ^EttcI Be e/cecTO Ta oirXa koX KaTijpefJLL- 
a^7]crav^ avyKokel "Sepocfycov ttjv aTpaTcdv Kol \ijei raSe* 

25. '^Otl fxev opyt^ea^e, & avBpe^ aTpaTccoTat, kol vo/jLl- 
fere Secva 7rd(T')(eLV i^airaTcofJievoo ov ^avfid^co, "Rv Be tw 
^vfiw ')(^apc^(t)fjLe^a Kal AaKeBatfiovLOV<; Te tov<; irapovTas tt]^ 
i^aTrdT7]<; Tifjicoprjacoijie^a kol ttjv ttoKlv ttjv ovBev ahiav 
BcapTrdacofjiep, iv^vfieta^e a eaTau ivTev^ev. 26. UoXeixioi 
fjLev ecro/jie^a diroBeBeiyfievoi Aa/ceBat/jLovLoc^ koX toc<; av/JL/uid' 
"XpLS* olos S' 6 TToXefjLo^ av yevoiTO el/cd^ecv Brj irdpeaTLv, ecopa^ 
KQTa<; KOL dva/jiV7]a^evTa<; tcl vvv Brj yeyevrjfjbiva, 27. ^Hfxeh 
yap ol ^A^7]vacoc rjX^ofjiev ek top TroXe/xop top 7rpo9 AuKeBat- 
fjiOPLov^ Kal T0U9 av[xiJid')(pv^ €')(pPTe<^ Tpc7]pet<; Ta9 f^ep ip 
^aXdTTT) Ta9 S' ip TOL<i vecopLois ovk iXdTTOv^ TpcaKoalcop 
virap')(0PT(Op Be ttoXXcop '^pij/uidTcop ip Trj rrroXeCj /cal irpoaoBov 
ovar]^ KaT ipiavTOP diro Te tcop ipBrjfjLWp Kal iK T779 v7repopia<^ 
ov fjbecop ')(^iXicop TaXdpTcop • ap')(pPTes Be tcop vijacop diraaodp 
Kal €P Te Trj ^Aata 7roXXa<; e^oPTe^ 7r6Xet9 Kal ip ttj EvpcoTrrj 
aXXa9 Te 7roXXa9, Kat avTo tovto to Bv^dpTtop ottov pvp 
ia/xep e')(pPTe^y KaTeiroXefjurfisrifxep ovtco<; d><; TrdpTe<^ vjaeh iiri- 
GTacT^e, 28. JVOz/ Be Brj tl clp olofie^a ira^elp AaKeBacfio- 
Vicop fjLep Kal TWP ^Aj(aio)p (TVjJbiid')(ct)P virap'^^oPTCop, ^A^rjpaicop 
Be Kal oaoo iKeiPOi<; TOTe rjcrap cru/z-yLta^ot TrdpTccp TrpocryeyepT]' 
fjiepcop, Tc(Taa(j)ippov<^ Be Kal tcop irrl ^aXaTTrj dXXcop ^apjSd- 
pcop nrdpTWP TroXe/jbicop rj/jLtP optcop, TroXejiicoTdTOv S' avTOv tov 
apco ^aacXeco^y op 7]X^o/jLep dcj^aiprjaofjLepoL Te ttjp dp')(r]p Kal 
cLTTOKTepovPTe^; ei Bvpalfjue^a. Tovtcop Bt] TrdpToop ofiov optcop 
eaTL TL<; ovtco<; a^pcop octtl^ oleTai clp Tjfxas irepiyepea^at ; 
29. Mt] 7rpo9 ^ecop fiacpco/jie^a fji9]B€ alaxpm diroXcofxe^a 
iroXe/JLtoL 6Vt€9 Kal Tal<^ TraTpicrt, Kal tol<; '^fjLeTepoc<; avTcop 
cj)LXoc<i Te Kal olKeioi^, ^Ep yap Tal^ TroXeatp elac irdpTe^; 
Tal<; icj> r]ixa<; (rTpaTevaofiepaL<; Kal BiKaicos^ ei /Sdp^apop (lep 



nroKiv ovSe/Jbtav rj^ekrjaaiiev KaTaa')(elv^ kol ravra /cpaTOvvT€<;^ 
'EXXrjvlSa Se eh rjv Trpcorrjv itoXlv 7]X^ofjL€V, ravrrjv i^aXaird- 
^ofjuev. 30. 'JSyo) fiev roivvv €V)(piJbaL Trplv ravra emhelv vcf) 
vfjLOJV yevo/JLeva fivpia^; efxe ye Kara yr]^ opyvLas yeveo^au 
Kal vfilv he avfi^ovXevo) ^'EXXrjva^ bvra^ rol<; rcov 'EXXt]- 
vcov TrpoecrrTjKoaL rreChoiievov^ rretpao'^aL rcov hiKalcov rvy- 
')(aveiv. ^Eav Se fMrj Bvvya^e ravra, rjfjid<; Set ahtKOVfievov^ 
ri]<; yovv 'EXXdSo^ jxr] arepea^au 31. Kal vvv fJLOo Sofcel 
Tre/jiylravra^ ^Ava^i^Lcp elirelv on rjixel^ ovhev ^iatov itoltj' 
aovre<; TrapeXrjXv^afJiev €l<; rrjv ttoXlv, dXX* rjv fiev Swco/jue^a 
Trap' vfJLcov dya^ov n evplafcea^ac • el Be firj, dXXa SrjXcoaoV' 
re? on ov/c i^airarcofievoi dXXd rrrev^ofjievot e^ep')(0[JLe^a. 

32. Tavra eSo^e • Kal ire/jLTrovaiv ^lepcovvfMOv re ^HXelov 
epovvra ravra Kal EvpvXo^ov ^ApKdSa Kal ^cXijcnov ^A'^atov, 
01 [xev ravra w')(ovro ipovvre<;, 

33. "Ere Se Ka^rj/jiivcop rcov arpancoroov iTpoaep')(erav 
Koipardhrj^ ©r]l3aco^, o? ov <j>evyo)v rrjv 'EXXdSa irepirjei 
dXXd crrparrjycov Kal i7rayyeXX6/Jievo<; et Tt9 rj ttoXc^ rj e^vo<; 
<7rpar7]yov Seocro, Kal rore 7rpoaeX^a)v eXeyev on eroifio^ 
elr] r]ye'La^aL avrol^ eh rb AeXro KaXovfievov rrj<; QpaKr]^;^ 
ev^a TToXXd Kal dya^d XTjyjroLvro • eare S' av /jloXcoo-lv, eh 
d^^oviav Trape^eiv e(j)7j Kal crcra Kal irord, 

34. ^Akovovcti ravra ol G-rpandorac Kal rd rrapd ^Ava^i- 
^lov dfia dirayyeXXo/jbeva • direKplvaro yap on nTeL^oiievoL<^ 
avroh ov fierafJieXtjcret, dXXd roh re oXkol reXeori ravra diray- 
yeXel Kal avrb<; ^ovXevcrotro irepl avrwv o n Svvatro dyaHsov. 
35. ^Ek rovrov ol arpandorao rov re KotpardSrjv he'xpvrai 
G-rpaTqyov Kal e^co rov rei')(ov<i dirrjX^ov, 'O Se KotpardSr]<; 

' a writer ai avroh eh rrjv varepalav Trapecrea^ac iirl rb err pa- 
revfjia ej(o)V Kal lepela Kal fxdvnv Kal alra Kal irord rfj arpa- 
na. 36. ^Eirel S' e^rfX^ov^ 6 ^Ava^i^co^ cKXeuae ra? iTvXa<; 
Kal €K7Jpv^6v o? av dXo) evhov cov rcov arpancordov Treirpdae- 
rat. 37. Tf] S' varepalct 6 KotpardSr]^ fxev e^cov rd lepela 
Kal rov jidvrtv r}Ke, Kal dXc^tra (})epovre<; ecTTovro avra> eiKO- 
atv dvhpes Kal olvov dXXot e'Uoat Kal eXatcov rpeh Kal aKopo- 

LIB. YII. CAP. II. 179 

ScDV [669] dvfjp oaov ehvvaro (le^tarov (j^oprlop koX ak\o^ 
KpofjL/jLvcov. Tavra Be KaraS^e/Mevo^ 0)9 iirl Bdcrfievacv iB^v- 


38. Uevocpojv Be fiera'jrefi'xjrdfJLevof; EXeavBpov eKeKeve Bca- 
wpa^ai 07rQ)9 eh to rel^o^; re elaeXS^oc kol diroifKevGai eK Bv- 
^avTLov, 39. 'JSXJcbz/ S' o KXeavBpo^, Md\a /j,okL<;, e(p7], Bca- 
irpa^dfievo^; tjkco • Xeyecv yap ^Ava^i^Lov ore ov/c eTTcrijBeLov 
ecrj Tot'9 fJiev oTpartcora^ irXTjalov elvai rov Tei')(pv<;, Hei/o- 
(jicovra Be evBov* tou9 Bv^avriov^ Be araatdi^etv kol irovrj- 
pov^ elvac Trpo^ dWi]\ov<;' ofico^ Be elacevaCy e^rj, ifceXevev, 
el fjueXkoL avv avrS eiafKelv. 40. ^O fiev Br) Sevocj^&v daira- 
adfievo^ tov<^ crTpaTid>Ta<; et(T(o rov Tel^ov<; aTrrjeu avv KXe- 
dvBpcp, ^O Be KoipaTaBrj^ rfj fiev wpoyrrj r/fjuepa ov/c ifcaWte- 
pec ovBe Beefier pTjcrev ovBev to69 arparLcorac^; • rfj 8' varepaia 
ra fiev lepela eloTijfcec irapa rov ficofjibv koX KoLpardBr}^ earre- 
(j)avcofJbevo<; 0)9 Svcrcov • irpoae'kBcbv Be TifJiacriQiv 6 AapBavev<; 
KOL Necop 6 ^AaLvalo^ koX KXedvcop 6 ^Op')(pfJLevL0<; eXeyov 
KocpardBrj firj BveLV, c»9 ov^ rjyr^croiJbevov rfj arparca, el fir] 
Bcoaeo rd eTrLrrjBeia, 41. ^O Be fceXevec BcafierpelaS^ac, 
^Eirel Be iroXkwv eveBec avrS> cocrre rjfjbepa'^ alrov e/cdo-ro) 
yevea^at, rcov arparccorcov, dvaka^cov rd lepela dirrjeL Kal 
rrjv arparifylav aTrecTTcov. 

CAP. !!• 

1. Nemv Be 6 ^Acrcvaco^ Kal ^pvvicr/co^ 6 ^Aj(^aLo<; Kal $6- 
\rj(jeo<^ 6 ^A')(aLo^ Kal p,av3^LK\r](; 6 ^A')(aLo<^ Kal Tifiaaicov 6 
AapBaveix; eirefievov errl rfj (rrparia, Kal eh Kd)fia<; rcov Spa- 
Kcbv TTpoeXSovref; rd<; Kara Bv^dvriov icrrparoTreBevovro, 
2. Kal ol crrparrjyol earacriai^ov KXedvcop fjuev Kal ^pvviaK0<; 
rrpo<; SevBrjv ^ovXofievot dyeiv • errei^e yap avrov^, Kal 
eBcoKe Tft) fjuev XiriroVy rtp Be yvvacKa • Necov Be eh Xeppovrj- 
cov olofjuevo^ el vtto AaKeBaLfjbovLOi<; yevocvro, 7ravro<; av 
Trpoeardvao rov arparevfiaro^ • TLfMaaioyv Be irpovBvfielro 


irepav eh T979 ^Aaiav iraXtv hia^rjvai, olo/xevof; av OLfcaBe fca* 
reXJ^etv. 3. Kal oi o-rparLcorac ravra e^ovKovro. Acarpc- 
^ofievov Be rov ')(^p6vov iroXkol rcov arparLcorcov, oi /lev ra 
OTTka airoBiBofievoi Kara tov<; 'X^copov^ aireiikeov &)9 eBvvavro* 
Oi Be fcal [BcBovre^; tcl OTiKa Kara rov^ ')((cpov^~\ eh ra? TToXet^ 
Kare/jLcyvvovro. 4. ^Ava^i^io'^ 8' e')(atpe ravra ukovcov Bta^ 
^Setpo/jLevov rb crpdrevfjia • rovrcov jap ycjvofjievciov oiero 
fiaXiara ')(api^e(T^aL ^apvajBdi^cp. 

6. ^ATToifkeovru Be ^Ava^i^L(p e/c Bv^avriov avvavra ^Api- 
G'rap')(p^ ev Kv^Uqy BtdBo')(p<; KXedvBp(p Bv^avrcov dpixo* 
arrj^; • eXeyero Be on Kal vavap')(p^ BidBo')(o^ TLSyko^ oaov ov 
rrapeiT] rjBrj eh ^E'Kkrj(j'7rovrov, 6. Kal ^Ava^l^Lo<; ra> fiev 
^Aptardp')((p eTTLareWec 6tt6(tov^ av evpoL ev Bv^avriO) rcoif 
Kvpov arparicorcov v7ro\e\eLfi/Jbevov^ diroBoa^ai • Be KXe- 
avBpo<; ovBeva eireTrpdKei • oKka Kal rov<i Kd/Jivovra<; e^epd- 
Trevev OiKreipoov Kal dvajKa^cov oIklo, Be')(ea^aL • ^ Aplarap')(p'; 
S' eirel rfK^e rd^tara, ovk eKdrrov<; rerpaKoai(ji)v drreBoro, 
7. ^Ava^Lj3L0<; Be TrapairXevcra^ eh Tldpcov TrefiTrec rraph 
^apvd/3a^ov Kara ra avyKei/xeva. ^O B' errel fjaS^ero ^Api" 
crrap')(ov re rjKovra eh Bv^dvrtov dpfjboarrjv Kal ^Ava^t/Stoil 
ovKert vavap')(pvvray ^Ava^tfilov fiev rjfjLeXrjae, irpo^ ^Api* 
arap')(pv Be Bceirpdrrero ra avra irepl rov Kvpeiov arparev' 
fjLaro<; direp Kal irpos ^Ava^i^Lov, 

8. 'JE/c rovrov 6 ^Ava^i^Lo<; KoXeaa^ 'Bevotpcovra KeXevet 
rrdcrrj re')(yrj Kal fJi^X^^V 'T^^^y^'ac errl ro arpdrevpia C09 rd- 
')(Lara, Kal avve'y^etv re avro Kal avva^pol^eiv rcov Bieairap" 
fievcov tt)9 av ifkeiarov^; Bvvr]rac, Kal rrapajajovra eh rrjv 
UepcvS^ov Bia^t^d^ecv eh rfjv ^Aatav on rd')(^Lara • Kal BlBco- 
av avroi rptaKovropov Kal iTTcaroXrjv Kal avBpa avfJuirepLTreu 
KeXevaovra rov<; UepivB^iov^ 009 rdj(^L(7ra 'Eevof^&vra irpo- 
rrepb'y^ai roh Xiriroi^ eirl ro arpdrevpLa. 9. Kal o puev aevo- 
(j)(ov BiaTrXevaa^ d^LKvelrai errl rb arpdrev/xa • ol Be arpa- 
ncorat eBe^avro -^Beco'^ Kal evBv^ eXirovro dcrpbevoi 0)9 Bcafir)' 
GOfxevot €K rr](; &paK7]<; eh rrjv ^Acriav, 

10. ^O Be SevS^rj^ aKovaa^; rjKovra rrdXiv rrefju'^^a^ nrpb^ 

LIB. VII. CAP. II. 181 

avTov [fcara S^dXarrav] MijBoadSrjv iSecro rrjv arpaTiav 
a^eiv irpo^ eavrov, vTTL(T')(yoviievo<; avrco o tl aiero Xijcov 
irelaecv. ^O S' dTreKpcvaro avrco ore ovSev olov re €677 rov- 
Tcov yevio-S-ac, 11. Kal 6 /jl€V ravra aKOVcrm <pX^'^^' ^'^ ^' 
^^EWr]V€<; eVel dcj^tfcovro eh TlepivS^ov, Necov [lev d7rocnrdaa<; 
iarparoTreSevaaTO %ci)pt9 ^X^^ ^^ ofcrafcoalov^ dvSpcoTrov^ • 
TO 8' dWo arpdrevfjia nrav iv tco avrS irapd rd recxo^ to 
TlepcvS^Lcov r^v. 

12. Merd ravra 'a€vo(f)cov fjiev eirparre nrepl ttXolcov, 
OTTCD^ oro rd^i^o-Ta Sca/Salev. ^Ev he rovrcp dtpiKOfievo'^ ^Apl- 
arapxo^ 6 ifc Bv^avrlov apjiocrrrj^, ^X^^ ^^^ rpLr}pet<;, rre- 
7rec(TfJLevo<; vtto ^apva^d^ov rol^ re vavK\rjpoL<; direlire firj 
BLdjecv, e\^d)v re eVl rb arpdreviia rol^ arparLcorac^; elire 
pbT) irepaLova^ai eh rrjv ^ Act Lav. 13. ^O 8e 'Eevocj^cov eXeyev 
ore ^Ava^i^Lo^ eKeXevae, Kal efxe irpo^ rovro eirefji^^ev evS^dSe. 
UdXiv 8' 'Apccrrapxo^ eXe^ev • ^Ava^i^Lo^ puev rolvvv ouKero 
vavapxo^, eyco Be rySe dp/jLOorri]^ • el Be rtva vfxwv Xrj'\^oiiaL 
iv rfi ^aXdrrr) KaraBvaco, Tavra elrrcov ^xero eh rb rel- 
^09. 14. Ty S' varepata [leraTreiirrerai rov<^ crrparr^yov^ 
Kal Xox(^yov<; rod crrparev/jiaro<;, "HBtj Be ovrcov 7rpo9 rtp 
relx^L e^ayyeXXeo rc<; t&> aevo^covrt on el eccrecG-ty avXXT]- 
^S-7]creraL Kal rj avrov rt ireia-eraL rj Kal ^apva/3d^(p rrapa- 
Bo^rjcrerai. ^O Be, aKOvcra^ ravra rov^ fjuev tt poire fXTrer at, 
avrb^ S' elirev on S^vaaL n ^ovXoiro. 15. Kal drreX^cbv 
iBvero el irpoelev avrS ol ^eol Treipdcr^aL rrpb^ Hev^v dyeiv 
rb arpdrevfia • ecopa yap ovre Bca^aiveiv dacpaXe^ ov rpLT]- 
pec<; e^ovro^ rod KcoXv(Tovro<; • ovr eirl Xeppovrjcrov iXScov 
KaraKXeLcr^vai e/3ovXero Kal rb arpdrevfia iv rroXXfj arrd- 
vev irdvroov yeveoS^ac • eVrSa irel^ea^aL fiev dvdyKy rw iKel 
dpfjuoary, rwv Be iTrLrrjBelcov ovBev efMeXXev e^ecv rb crrpd- 

16, Kal 6 fJLev dfi(f>l ravra elx^v ol Be arpari^yol Kal 
Xox^^yol rjKOvre^; irapd rov ^ Aptcrrdpxov dirriyyeXXov ore vvv 
fjuev dmevai (T(pd<^ KeXevec, rf]<; Be{Xr]s; Be rjKeiv • ev^a Kal Brj- 
Xr) fjidXXov iBoKec r) iTTC^ovXi], 17. ^O ovv Sevo(f)S)V, iirel 


iSofcec ra lepa /caXa elvao avT& Kal tS> arpaTevfiaTi aa^a- 
Xg)9 7rpo9 SevBrjv levau irapaXa^cov UdKvKpaTrjv rov ^A3^~ 
valov '\o')(a^ov koX Trapa tcov aTparrjjcjv eKaarov dvSpa, 
ttXtjv Trapa Necovo^, c5 €f€aaTo<; eirlaTevev o^'^ero t^9 vvkto'^ 
iirl TO Sev^v (TTpdrevfia e^rjKOVTa ardSta. 18. ^Eirel S' 
€771)9 rjcrav avrov, i7riTV^')(aveL irvpol^ ipriixoL<;, Kal to fiev 
TrpcoTov oieTO pbeTaKe'^coprficevai irot tov Xev^rjv. ^Eirel Be 
J^opv/3ov T€ f}a^6T0 Kal cr7]/jbaLv6vTcov aXX'^\ot(; tcov irepl 
SevBijv, /caTefiaS^ev oto tovtov eveKa tcl irvpa KeKavjieva eir] 
Tcp X^v^y Trpo TCOV vvfCTO(pv\dKcov o7rco<; ol fjuev (f>v\aK€^ fjurj 
opMVTO iv Tc5 (TfcoTet, opT6<; firjTe oirocrov jirjTe ottov etev, ol 
he rrrpocTiovTe^ pur) "Kav^dvoiev oKKa Sea to ^w9 KaTa^avel^ 
elev* 19. eirel Be jjaS-eTO, Trpoirepuirev tov eppirjvia ov eTvy- 
')(avev €')(Q)V, Kal elirelv KeXevet XevS^rj ore Sevocj^cov irdpeaTV 
/3ovX6fievo<; avyyevecr^^at avT(x>, 01 B ypovTo el ^A3-7]valo<; 
6 aTTo TOV cTTpaTevjJLaTO^, 20. ^ETreiBrj S* €(f)7] ovto<; elvac, 
dvaiTr}Br}(TavTe<i iBccoKov* Kal oXuyov vaTepov Traprjcrav TreX- 
TacTTal oaov BiaKocnoiy Kal 7rapa\aj36vTe<; 'Sevo^chvTa Kal 
T0U9 cvv avTcp rjyov 7rpo<; Xev^rjv, 21. ^O S" rjv iv Tvpaeo 
fjbdXa ^vkaTTop^evo^, Kal Xiriroi irepl avTrjv kvkXcd eyKe')(aki- 
vcofibivoL' Bta yap tov (f)6/3ov Ta<; fiev rjfjbepa^^ e')(iKov Toi)^ 
Ilttttov^;, tcc^ Be vvKTa^ iyKe')(^a\ivcofjLevoc<; i(j>vXdTTeT0. 22. 
^EXeyeTO yap Kal irpocr^ev Trjpr]^ 6 tovtov Trp6yovo<; ev Tav- 
TTj Trj %copa, iToXv e)(^cov aTpdTevfia vtto tgvtq)v tcov dvBpcov 
iroXXoif^ aTToXeaao Kal tcl cTKevocj^opa d^aope^rjvat, '^Haav 
S' ovTOi ©vvol, irdvTcov Xeyofjuevoi elvat adXicrTa vvKTb<; tto- 

23. 'JETrel S' €771)9 rjaav, eKeXevaev elaeX^elv 'Bevocf^covTa 
€')(pvTa Bvo 0U9 l3ovXoiTO, ^EireiBr] Be evBov rjaavy rjcrird^ovTO 
p^ev TTpcJTOV dXX'i]Xov<; Kal KaTcu tov OpaKiov vopbov KepaTa 
oXvov Trpovirivov • iraprjv Be Kal MrjBoG-dBrj^; tc5 Xev^fi oairep 
eirpea^evev avTS irdvTocre, 24. "EirecTa Be *Eevo<^S)v rip')(eTo 
Xeyeuv • ''ETrepi'yJraf; 7rpo<^ ifie, & XevS^, €69 XaXKTjBova irpo)- 
TOV Mr]Boo-dBr]v tovtovI, Beofievo^ pbov avfJLTrpoS^v/jiTjSTJvao 
Bcafirjvat to aTpdTevfia eK Tm ^Aaia^, Kal virid'yyoviievo^ 

LIB. VII. CAP. II. 183 

fioi, el ravra Trpd^acfii, €v 7roci](7€CV, a)9 €(j)7] MrjBocrdST]^ ou- 
TOcrL 25. Tavra eiiro^v eTrrjpero tou MrjBocrdSTjv el dXrjSrj 
ravT ecT], ^O S' ecj^rj. Av9^i<; rjXS^e MrjSoa-dSrj^; ovto<; eirel 
iyo) hiej^Tjv irdXiv eirl to arpdrevfia i/c Uapcov, uTr^cr^i^ou/ie- 
vo<;, el dyocfjic to crTpdTev/jia 7rpb<; ae, ToXXa re ere <^l\(o XPV' 
crecrSao /cal dSe\(p(p koX tcu irapa ^cCkaTTy jioo "^ixipia S)v av 
KpaTel^ eaea^at irapa crov. 26. 'JEttI tovtol^ ttoXiv iirypeTO 
Tov Mrjhocrdhrjv el eXeje TavTa, 'O Be (Tvvecpr) koI TavTa. 
^'19^0 vvVy e(p7], dcj^TJjrjcrac TOVTcp tI aot dTreKptvd/jirjv ev XaX- 
KrjhovL TrpcoTov, 27. ^ATrefcpiVco otc to cTTpdTevfia Sca^ijaoiTO 
eh Bv^dvTLOv, Kol ovSev tovtov eveKa Beoc Te\elv ovTe aol 
ovTe dWo) • avTo<; he eirel Bta/3ai7]<;, dirtevai ecj^rjoSa • kol 
eyiveTO ovtco<; coairep av eXeye<;, 28. Tl yap eXeyov, ecfyT], 
OTe fcaTa ^rjXv^pcav d(j)c/cov ; Ovtc ecjyrjcr^a olov t elvai, 
dXX^ €69 Ueptv^ov eX^ovTa^ Sca/Satvetv el^ ttjv ^Aalav, 29. 
Nvv Toivvv, e(p7] 6 Uevocj^cov, TrdpeifJiL koX iyco kol ovto<; ^pv- 
VLcrKo<; eh tcov cTTpaTrjycbv fcal IIoXvKpdT7]<; ovto<; eh tcov 
Xo')(ay(!)v • koX e^co elalv diro tcov cTTpaTrjycbv 6 rrrtcTTOTaTO^; 
e/cdcTTG) irX7)v Necovo^ tov AaKcovLfcov. 30. El ovv ^ovXet 
TTCCTTOTepav elvai ttjv irpa^iVy /cal i/ceivov^; KoXecrai, Ta he 
oirXa aij eXS^cov elire & IIoXv/cpaTe<;, otl eyct) KeXevco KaToki- 
irelv • KoX avTo<^ eicel KaToXcTrcbv ttjv /xd'^atpav etcri^L, 

31. ^A/covcra^ TavTa 6 Sev!^<; elirev otl ovhevl &v diri- 
GT7](jeiev ^ A^iqvalayv • koI yap otl crt^yyei^er? elev elhevac fcal 
(f){Xov<^ evvov<; e^rj vofit^ecv, MeTa TavTa S' eTrel elarjXJ^ov 
0U9 ehec, irpcoTOV "Eevoipcov eTrrjpeTO Xev^rjv 6 tl ^eoLTO ypV" 
c^aL Trj (TTpaTLa, 32. ^O S' elrrev whe* Maiadhrj^^ rjv Tra- 
TTjp fjLOL* eKelvov S* Tjv dp')(r]V MeXavhlTaL Kal ©vvol Kal 
TpavL^lraL, ^Efc TavT'r]<; ovv tt}? ")((£> pa<;, eirel Ta ^Ohpvacov 
TTpdyjiaTa evoarrjcrev, eKTreacov 6 irarrjp avTO'^ fiev diroSvi]- 
(TiceL v6a(p ' eyoy h* i^eTpdcj)r]v 6p(f)avb<; irapa MrjhofCG) tm vvv 
(SaaiXel, 33. ^ Eirel he veavia/co^ eyev6fi7]v, ovk ihvvdfjbrjv 
^rjv eh dXXoTptav Tpdire^av diro^Xeircov • /cal eKa^ei^ofirjv 
evhL(ppLO(; avTco lfceT7]<; hovval julol oiroaov^ hvvaTo^; ecTj dv- 
hpa<;y OTTCO^; Kal tov^ eK^aXovTa^ rj^a^ el tl hvvaifMrjv KaKov 


TTOCoirjv fcal ^^r]V fjbr) ek Tfjv ifceivov rpdire^av aTro/SXeTTcov 
axTTrep kvcov, 34. ^Ei$ tovtov fjiov SlScoac tov<; avhpas koI 
Tov<; tTTTTou? ov^ vfjLeL<i Q-^ea^e iTretSav rjfiepa jivrjrat, Kal 
vvv iyo) ^cj TOVTOV^ ^X^^^ \r]l^6/jL€Vos rrjv ifiavrov irarpcpav 
')(^dopav. El Be fJLOL vfiels irapayivoLa^e, oI/jlul av avp rols 
^eoh pahico^ airoka^elv rrjp ap^/jv, Tavr earlv a iyco vfjLcov 

35. Ti av ovv, €^7] 6 Pievo(f)c!)p, av SvvaLo, el eX^oipLep^ ry 
T6 ar pared BtSovac /cat toc^ Xoxayol^ Kal roU arpaTrjyol^ ; 
Ae^ov, Xva ovroo aTrayyeXXcoo-iV. 36. 'O Se vTvea^ero to3 fiev 
o-rparcdoTy kv^lktjvop, tc3 Se Xo^ciy^ ScpbOLpiav, tS Se arparr)' 
yep rerpa/JLOipiav, Kal yrjv oiroarjv av ^ovXcovrat Kal ^evyy Kal 
')(o)piov iirl ^aXcLTTTj TeTeL')(^Laixevov. 37. ^Eav B\ €(j)rj 6 'Sevo- 
(^oyv^ ravra TretpcofjuevoL [xtj hiaTrpd^copLev^ oXXd n^ (f>6/3o^ diro 
AaKeSacfiovLcov §, Be^rj els ttjv aeavrov av ris dirievaL ^ovXt]- 
Tai Trapd ere ; 38. 'O S* elrre • Kal dSeX(pov<^ ye TrocijaofiaL 
Kal evSc(j>pLOv<; Kal kolvcovovs dTrdvrcov &v dv Svvco/JLe^a ktcl- 
(T^ai, Sol S\ 0) 'Sevo(j)ct)v, Kal Suyarepa Scoaco Kal ec rt? 
aol earo ^vydrrjp^ oovrjao/jLac QpaKico vofJLW • Kal Bcadv^rjv 
oLKTjcTLV Bcoaco OTvep ifjLol KaXXcarov ^l^piov earl tcop iirl 


1. ^AKovaavre^ ravra Kal Be^cds 86pre<; Kal Xa/Sovre^; dirrj^ 
Xavvop • Kal rrpb rj/jiepas eyipopro iirl r<p (TTparo7re8(p Kal 
diriqyyeCXap eKaaroi rot? Trepb'^aaip. 2. ^Eirel Se r]fJLepa eye- 
pero, 6 fjiep ^Apiarap')(os irdXtP eKdXet roi)^ arparrjyov'^ Kal 
Xo')(ayovs' rocs 8' eBo^e rrjp fiep Trpos ^Apiarap')(op oBop idaai, 
ro Be arpdrev/ia avyKaXeaai, Kal avpijX^op irdpres irXrjp ol 
Necopos* ovrot, Be drrel^op w BeKa ardBca, 3. ^Eirel Be avp- 
r]X^op^ dpaards 'Bepocpcop elire rdBe • ^'ApBpes, BiairXelp fiep 
kp'^a fiovXofjie^a ^ApLarap')(ps rpcTjpecs e'X^oop KcoXvev Sxrr eh 
rrXola ovk acr^aXe? ifju/SaipeLV • ovros Be 6 avro<; KeXevet, els 

LIB. VII. CAP. III. 185 

Xepf)6v7]crop ^ia Sea rod iepov 6pov<^ iropeveor^ai • tjv Se Kpa- 
TTjaavre^ tovtov eiceiae ek^cofjbev, ovte ircoXTJaecv en u/xa? 
(j)r)orLV, coairep iv Bv^avrto), ovre i^aTTarrjcreaBao en vfid^;, 
aXXa Xrj-s^ea^aL [iicf^ov, ovre 7repi6'y\re(7^aL en coairep vvvl 
Beofiivov^ Tcov i7rLT7]S€Lcov. 4. OvTo^ fJbev ravra Xeyec • Sev- 
St]^ Be (j)r]acv, av irpo^ eKelvov trjTey ev TroirjcreLV vfjia^, Nvv 
ovv crKe'^aa^e TTorepov ivS^dSe pbivovre^^ tovto fiovXevaeaS^e 
rj ek ra iTrLrrjBeta iiraveX^ovre^;. 5. ^E/jloI fiev ovv BoKel, 
iwel ivBdSe ovre dpjvpcov e')(piiev focrre djopd^ecv ovre dvev 
dpjvptov iaxTL Xa/Jb^dvecv ra eTnrrjBeLa, eTraveX^ovTa^ eh ra? 
Koo/JLU^ oS-ev ol 7]TT0V<; ecbac Xapu^dvetVy ifcel e')(pvTa<^ rd eTTi- 
Trjheia dKOVovra^ 6 n n<^ vficov Belrao alpela^au 6 n dv v/jllv 
Bofcfj fcpdrcG'Tov elvaL, 6. Kal otg), e^T], ravra Bo fee t, dpdrco 
rfjv %etpa. ^Avereivav diravre^, ^Aircovre^ rocvvv, ecj^rj, 
G'V(7Kevdt,ea^e, Kal eTrecBdv irapayyelXy n<;, eTreaS^e rw ^^yov- 

7. Merd ravra Bevo^cov fiev ^yecro, ol S' eiTrovro, Ne- 
cov Be Kal Trapd ^ApL<jrdp')(pv dXXot errei^ov dirorpeirea^ao' 
ol Be ou% virrjKOVov. ^Eirel Be oaov rptdKOvra crraBiov^ 
rrpoeXrjXvS^eaaVy drravra ^evS^<^, Kal 6 'Bevo^cov ISwv av- 
rov rrpoaeXdaac eKeXevcrev, ottco? on rrXeiarciov dKovovrcov 
ecTTOo avroi a eBo/cei avfK^epeLV. 8. ^Errel Be TrpoarjXSeVy 
elire 'Bievo(f)&v ^U/ie?? iropevofjieBa ottov pbeXXet e^eiv rb 
arpdrevpia rpo(j)'i]v • eKel Be dfcovopre<; Kal aov Kal rcov rod 
AaKcovcKov alprjaopieS^a d dv Kpdncrra BoKjj elvai, ^Hv ovv 
rj/jLLV ^7^cr77 oirov irXelard eanv eirirrjBeia, viro cov vopLiov- 
fiev e^evicr^ai, 9. Kal 6 SevSrj<; €(j)7}, ^AXXd olBa KcopLa<; 
TToXXd^ d^p6a<; Kal nrdvra i')(ovcra^ ra eTnrrjBeta dire')(ovaa^ 
r}pLO)V oaov BieX^ovre^; dv rjBeco^ dpiG-rcprjre. ^Hyov roivvv, 
€(pr) 6 'Bevo^cov. 10. ^Errel Be d(f>LKovro eh avrd<; rrj<^ BeC- 
Xt]^, avvfjX^ov ol arpancorac, Kal elire SevB7]<; rocdBe' ^Eyco, 
Q) dvBpe^y BeojJLai v/jlcov arparevea^at avv efioi' Kal vin- 
cr^vovpiai vfilv Bcoaetv roh arpancoraL<; kv^lktjvov, Xo')(ayoh 
Be Kal arparrjyoh ra vojuLL^opieva • e^co Be rovrcov rov d^tov 
rcfirjo'co. ^cra Be Kal irord S^airep Kal vvv €k t^9 X^P^^ 


Xa/jbfidvovT€^ €^€T6. ^ OiToora Se av oKiGKrfcai d^cooaco av- 
Tb<; €')(€iv, Lva ravra hiart^eiJLevo<^ vjuv tov fjutaS^ov iropl^co^ 
11. Kal rd fiev (pevyovra koL dirohihpdaKovra rj/jLel^ iKavol 
icrofieS^a Bccofcetv koX ixaareveiv • dv he tc^ dv^iarrjraL, crvv 
vf,up iT€Lpacr6/JL€^a ')(eLpova^ai. 12. ^EinfjpeTo 6 'Btevo^cov 
Uoaov Be diro ^akdTTr}<^ d^ccoaec^; avveTrecr^aL aoL to arpd- 
revfjia ; ^O S* direKpivaro • Ovhafirj ifKelov eirrd rjfjiepcov, 
fjielov Be ir6KXa')(fj, 

13. Merd ravra iBlBoro Xeyecv tc3 ^ovkofievco, Kal 
eXejov TToXkol /card ravrd on iravro^ d^ia Xeyoi ^ev!^7]<; • 
')(^6i/uLcbv jdp eir], Kal ovre ot/caBe diroifKelv rto rovro /Sovko- 
fiivco Bvvarov etrj, BiayeveaS^ac re iv (piXta ou^ oIgv r elrj, el 
BeoL wvovfievov^ ^fjv ev Be rrj nroXefila Biarpi^eiv Kal rpe- 
^ea^ao dcT(j)a\ecrrepov fjuerd SevBov rj fji6vov<; ovrcov djaScov 
rocrovrcov • el Be pbiaBov rrpoaXrj^^oivrOy evprj/ia eBoKeie elvat, 
14. ^EttI rovro t<; elrre 'Sevocj^MV • Et n^ dvr(Xeyet, Xeyerco • 
el Be fJLT] iTTL'yjrTjcj^L^erco ravra, "'Eirel Be ovBeU dvrekeyev, 
eTTe'y^r}<^L(7ey Kal eBo^e ravra, Ev3^v<; Be XevBrj elire ravra, 
on avarparevaoLvro avrco, 

15. Merd rovro ol fxev dXKoi Kard rd^ei^ icrKijvrjaav 
arpar7]jov(; Be Kal \o')(^ayov^ eirl Belirvov SevBrj^; eKoKeae, 
rfk^Giov KoyjJi7}v e')(Q)v, 16. ^Eirel 3' eVi Svpac^; rjaav w? eirl 
Belirvov Trapiovre^;, rjv n<; ^HpaKXelBrj^ Mapcovelrrj^; • o5to9 
TrpocTtcbv evl eKaarG) ov(Tnva<^ wero e')(eLv ro Bovvai, Xev^y 
Trpcjrov /Jbev Trpo? TIapiavov<; nva<;, ol iraprjaav (j^tklav Bia- 
irpa^ofxevoi irpo^ MtjBokov rov ^OBpvaoov ^aaCkea Kal Bcopa 
dyovre<^ avrS) re Kal rfj yvvatKi, ekeyev on M^Boko^ [lev 
dvco ecrj BcoBeKa TjfJbepwv drro ^a\drr7]<; oBov • 2!ev^7]<; Be 
eTreiBr] rb arpdrevfia rovro eiXrj^eVy dp')((ov eaotro irrl ^a- 
\drrrj • 17. yeircov ovv cjv lKavoi)raro<; earac vfid<; Kal ev 
Kal KaKO)^ iTOielv, ^Hv ovv acocppovrjre, rovr(p Bcoaere o re 
dyere • Kal dfietvov vfuv BtaKeicrerac rj edv MrjBoKcp rS> irpo- 
aco olKovvn Score. Tovrov<; fiev ovrcov eirei^ev, 18. Av^l^ 
Be Tc/JLaaLcovt rS AapBavei irpoaeXii^v, eirel 7]Kovo-ev avrai 
elvac Kal eKTrco/xara Kal rdrrcBa^ ^ap^aptKa^y eXeyev on, 

LIB. VII. CAP. III. 187 

vofiL^oLTo oirore enrl BetTTVOV /cdXicratTO ^ev^r]^ Bcopela^at 
avTcp T0U9 K\7]^evTa^ • ovro^; S' '^v fiiya^ iv^dSe jivrjracy 
Uavo^ earai ere Kol ocKaSe Karayayetv koX iv^dhe Tfkovaiov 
Trocrj(Tac. Totavra Trpovfivdro efcdarcp Trpocrtcov. 19. UpocT' 
eX^oov Se KOL Bevo^covTL eXeye' Xv fcal TroXeco^ /jL6yc(TT7]<; el, 
fcal irapa Xev^y to gov ovofia fieytarov icrrc • kol iv rfjSe 
rfj %o&pa IVo)? d^maei^ /cat rei'xrj Xafi^dvecv, iocrirep fcal dX- 
XoL rcov vfierepcov eXa^ov, kol ')(0)pav • d^iov ovv cot, /cat fxe- 
yaXoirpeireG-Tara rtfjurjcrac ^ev^rjv. 20. Evvov^ Be aoc cov 
Trapatvco • ev oTBa yap on oaco dv fiel^co tovtco Bcoprjcrrj, 
TO(70VT(p fjuet^co vTTo TOVTOV dya^d irelcrrj. ^Akovcov ravra 
Pievocj^cov 7)170 peL • ov yap Bia^e^rjiceL e^cov i/c TLapiov el firj 
iralBa fcal oaov i(j)6Bcov. 

21. ^Eirel Be ela7]X^ov eirl to Belirvov tcov re Opa/ccov at 
KpdTLCTTOL TCOV TTapovTcov Kal ol aTpaTTjyol /cal ol Xo^ayol 
TCOV 'EXXtjvcov Kal ei ti<^ irpea^eia Traprjv l^r^^ 7r6Xeco<;, to 
BeliTvov [lev rjv Ka^rj[jbevoL<^ kvkXm • eirecTa Be TpliroBe^ elar]' 
ve')^7jcrav irdauv • ovtol S* rjaav /cpecov /leaTol vevefjajfievcov, 
Kal dpTOL ^v/JiLTaL fjieydXoc TrpoaTreTrepovrj/jLevoc rjcrav 7rpo9 
TC69 KpeaaL. 22. MdXtaTa Be at Tpdire^ac KaTa tov^ ^evov^ 
del iTcS^evTO • v6fio<^ yap rjv, Kal 7rpS)T0<^ tovto eiroiei Xev- 
^779' dveXo/JLevo^; Toi/^ eavToy TrapaKeifJbevov<^ dpTov^ BteKXa 
KaTa fiCKpov Kal BteppLTTTec 0^9 avT(5 iBoKec • Kal Ta Kpea 
wcravTco^, oaov fJLOvov yevcracr^aL eavT(p KaTdXiiroov. 23. 
Kal ol dXXoc Be KaTa TavTa eTTolovv koS ov<; al Tpdire^av 
eKeivTO. ^ApKa^ Be tc^ ^Apvo-Ta<; ovojia, (^ayelv BeLv6<;, to 
[lev BcapptTTTeLV ela ')(aipeLV, Xaficbv Be et9 rrjv X^^P^ oaov 
TpcxplvcKov dpTov Kal Kpea B^eiievo<^ eirl Ta ybvaTa eBeiTrvei. 
24. KepaTa S' olvov irepie^epov^ Kal 7rdvTe<; iBe^ovTo. 'O S' 
^ApvcTTa^, eirel irap avTov cj^epcov to Kepa^ 6 olvo^oo^ rjKev, 
elirev IBcov tov ^evo(f)(ovTa ovKeTv BetirvovvTa • ^EKeivcp, e^rj, 
B6^ • a^oXd^ec yap tJBtj, eyco S' ovBeTTCO, 25. ^AK0vcra<; Xev- 
^7]^ Trjv (j^covrjv r/pd)Ta tov olvo^pov TiXeyoc. ^O Be olvoyoo^ 
elirev eXXrjvl^eiv yap r^iriaTaTO. ^EvTav^a [lev Brj yeXco^ 


26. 'JETrel Be irpov')((i>pev 6 7r6TO<^, elarjk^ev dvrjp 0pa^ 
LTTTTOV e')(cov XevKov • KoX Xaficbv icepa^ fiearov, elire • JJpoiri- 
vco (TOCy CO SevSrjy fcal top lttttov tovtov Scopov/JiaL, i(j> ov koX 
Slcokcov ov av ^eX7]<;, alprjcreL^y koI diro^copcov ov fjur) SetV?;? 
TOP TToXi/jLLOV, 27. ''-4XXo9 iralha elaayajcov ovrco^; iScop?]' 
aaro irpoirivcoVy Kal aWo<; lixdria rfj ryvvat/cL Kal Tcfia- 
crlcov irpGirlvcov iScopijaaro ^idXTjv re dpyvpdv koX rdinha 
d^lav Befca /mvcov. 28. Tvrjcr lttttov he n^ ^A^r]valo^ dva(JTa<^ 
elirev on dp')(alo<; eir] vofMO^ /caWtaro'^ tou9 j^ev e')(pvTa^ htho- 
vai TO) ^aaCkel TiiJiri<^ evefca, tol^ Be firj e')(ovaL BcSovac top 
fiaaiXia* iva Kal iycoy ecprj, €')(^co aot Bcopela-Bat Kal Ttfiap, 

29. ^O Be aevocj^cop rjiropelrOy 6 tl iroirjaoi* Kal jdp irvy- 
')(apep 0)9 TC/JLcofjuevo^y ip rS TrXrjcnatTdrci) BL(^p(p Xev^rj Ka^rj- 
[JLevo^* 'O Be ^HpaKXeiBrj^ eKeXevep avrcp to Kepa<; ope^ai 
TOP oIpo')(6op, ^O Be SepocpcoPy tjBt] yap vTTOTreTrcoKW eTvy- 
yavePy dpecrTrj S^appaXeco^ Be^dpuevo^ to Kepa<; Kal elirep • 

30. ^Eyco Be croCy & ^evS^Tj, BiBcofjn ipLavTOP Kal Tot'9 €/jLoii<; 
tovtov^ €TaLpov<^ (J)lXov^ etpai inaTov^y Kal ovBepa ctKOPTa, 
dXXd nrdpTa^ fiaXXop 6TL ipiov aoc ^ovXopLepov^ <^lXov^ etpac. 

31. Kal vvp Trdpeiaip ovBip ae 7rpo(7abTovPTe<;y dXXd Kal 
TTpole/jiepoL Kal iropelp virep crov Kal irpoKipBvpeveLP iS-e- 
XoPTe<; • fie!y wv, dp ol S^eol S^eXcoaCy ttoXXtjp ')^c!)pap ttjp jxep 
dTToXrjy^rj TraTpwap ovaaPy ttjp Be KTijarj, *7roXXov<; Be iTTirov^y 
7roXXov<^ Be apBpa<; Kal yvpauca<; KaXd<; KTrjcrrj, ov^ ov Xrj'i^e' 
cr^ai Beriaeiy dXX avrol (j)epoPTe<; irapeaopTai 7r/309 ere Bcopa. 

32. ^ApacTTa^ 6 ^ev3-7]<; avpe^eTrce Kal crvyKaTeaKeSdcraTo 
fieTa TOVTO TO Kepa<;. MeTci TavTa elarjX^op Kepaal re 060^9 
cqiiaiPovcTLP avXovPTe<; Kal adXirty^LP wfJioj3otpav^ pv^fJLov^ 
re Kal olop puaydBo aaXiri^oPTes* 33. Kal avTo^ Sev^7]<i 
dpaaTCL^ dpeKpaye re iroXejuLKOP Kal e^rfXaTo SxiTrep /3eXo<; 
(pvXaTTOjJLepQ^ fidXa iXacppm. Elcrrjeaap Be Kal yeXcoTO- 


34. '^29 S' r]P 7]Xto<; eirl Bvcr/jLaL<;, dpeaTrjaap ol ^^EXXrjve^ 
Kal elirop otl copa vvKTO(^vXaKa^ KaS^taTdpao Kal avpS^fia 
TrapaBiBopac. Kal ^evBrjp CKeXevop irapayyelXai o7rco<; eh 

LIB. VII. CAP. III. 189 

ra ^EXKriviKa crrparoireSa fxrjSel^; rcov ©paKcov e^taecat vv- 
KTO^' oX re fyap Troki/jLtoi Qpaice^ v/jllv fcal rj/jilv ol (J)lXoc. 85. 
'if29 6' e^yeaav, cvvaviaTrj 6 ^€v^7]<; ovSev re fie^vcvn ioc- 
fcco<;. ^E^eX^cbv S* elirev avTov<; tov<^ arpaTrj^ov^ airoicaXk- 
aa^ • '^lO avhpe^, ol iroXepnoL rjficov ovfc ccraal ttco rrjv rjixere- 
pav G'vp.iJLa')(^Lav ' rjv ovv eK^cofJuev eir avTov<; Trplv cj^vkd^a- 
crSac ware firj X7](p^r]vac rj TrapaafcevdaacrSaL &cne dfJivva- 
aSat, /judXcara av Xd/Sot/iev koI dv3^pco7rov<; /cat ')/p7]ijLaTa, 
36. Xweirrjvovv ravra ol arpaTiq^ol koI rjyetaS^aL i/ceXevov. 
^O S' elTre* UapacrfcevaG-dfJievoc dvafievere' iyoo S' oirorav 
Kaipo^ f] rj^co 7rpo9 t'/^a?* Kol tov<; TreXraara^; koX v/jbd^; dva- 
Xa^wv rfjrjao/JLai avv toI<; ^eol^, 37. Kal 6 'B€vocf)a)v elire • 
S/ce^lraL tolvvv, elirep vvkto<; Tropevao/jLe^a, el 6 ^EXX^vl/co^; 
vofJLO^ koXXlov €')(£(, ' jjie^^ 7jfjL€pav puev yap ev Tal<^ 7rop€Lat<; 
"^jecTao Tov crrpaTevixaTO^ oirolov av del irpo^ rrjv ')(^c!)pav 
avfjL^eprj, edv re ottXltlkov idv re TreXraG-rcKov edv re liriri- 
Kov vviCTCop he vojjio^; tol<; '^EXXtjctcv rjyeia^ai iorrc to /Spa- 
BvraTov 38. ovrco yap yKCcrra hiaGiraraL ra arpareufLara 
teal rjfCLO'Ta Xav^dvovaiv dirohi^pdaKOVTe^ dXXrjXov^ • ol Se 
hLacnTacr^evTe<; 7roXXd/a<; fcal irepLTTiTTTOvatv dXXrjXoi<^ Kal 
dyvooiwre^ KaKS)<^ irotovcn Kal iTda')(pvG'iv, 39. Elirev ovv 
Sev^7]<^ • 'Op^w? re Xeyere Kal iycb tc3 vojulo) tQ> vfieTepco 
ireiCTOfiaL. Kal v/jlcv fiev rjyefiova^ Scoaco tcov ^Trpecr^vrdrcov 
T0U9 ejiireipordTOV^ Tr}<; "^aypa^, avTo^ S' e^e^y^roiiai reXevraio^; 
Tov(; tTTTTOU? ^X^^ ' ^^X^ ^^P '^P^'^^^ ^^ ^^V '^cLpiaofjiat, 
Svv'^Tjfia S' elirov ^AOHNAIAN Kara rrjv avyyeveiav. 
TavT eliTovre^; dveiravovro. 

40. 'HviKa S' ^v dfi^l fjiicra^ vvKra^, rraprjv ^ev^rj^ ^X^^ 
T0U9 liTTreaf; Te^copaKicrfjievov<; teal tou9 7reXTacrrd<; crvv T0i9 
ottXol^. Kal iirel TrapeScoKS tov9 rjye/Mova^, ol fiev oirXlrai, 
7]yovvTOy ol 8e ireXracTTal eiirovTOi ol he lTTirel<^ aoTTLcr^ocpvXd' 
Kovv. 41. 'Eirel Se rjfLepa rjVy 6 ^ev^7](; TraprjXavvev eh to 
Trpoa^ev Kal eTrrjvecre tov ^EXXtjvlkov vo/jlov ' 7roXXdKL<; yap 
€^7) vv/CTCop avTo^ Kal crifv oXtyoif; 'Tropev6pLevo<; diroaTraa^ri' 
vat (Tvv T069 iTTTTot^ CLTTO T&v 'TTe^cov * vvv Be &Girep Bel 


a^pooL TTCLvre^ afia tt) rjfiipa (paivofie^a. '^XV u/^et? fJiev 
ireptiieveTe avrov koX avairaveo-^e* iyco Se aKey^dpievo^; ru 
7]^co. 42. TavT eLTToop rfKavve hC 6pov<; 686v rcva Xa/3c6i/. 
^Eirel S' d^L/c€TO eh ')(^L6va ttoWtjv, ia/ciyjraTO el etrj tx^V ^^" 
^pcoTTcov Tj irpoaco rjyoviJLeva rj evavrta, ^Eirel he drpL^ri 
icopa TTjv oBop, Tjtce Ta')(y ttoXlp Kat eXejep* 43. "Avhpe^f 
KaXcb<; ecTTaLj tjp Sr609 ^eKy tov<; yap dp^pcDirov^ XTjcrofiep 
iin7rea6pTe<^. ^AX)C iyo) fiep Tjyrjaojiai tol<; c7r7roL<;, oVct)? ap 
TLPa tSco/jbeVy fjurj Sia^vycop (rrjfjbrjvy tol<; TroXefiloL^; • v/neU S' 
eirea^e • kup Xeicp^rjre, rai ari^cp tcop lttttcop eirea^e • vTrep- 
/3dpTe(; Se ra opr] 7]^o/Ji6p et9 K(i>iJLa<^ iToXXd<i re koX evhai- 

44. 'HpUa Se rjp fxecrop rjiJbepa<;, ijBrj re rjp eVl tol<; d/cpotg 
KoX KarcScop ra? KcofjLa<; rjicep iXavpccp irpo^ tov<; 67rXLTa<; fcal 
eXeyep* ^A^ijaco tjStj Kara^elp tov^ fiep Imrea^ eh to nrehiop, 
Tov<; Se ireXTaard^ eirl ra? /cco/jia^. 'AXX^ eVecj^e a)9 dp 
SvpTja^e Td')(L(TTa^ ottco^ edp Tt9 v^KTTrjTai, dXe^rja^e, 45. 
^A/covaa<; ravra 6 aepo^o)p Kare^rj diro rov lttttov. Kal og 
7]p6T0 • Tl KaTa/3aipet<; eirel airevSecp See ; OlSa, ecprj, ore ov/c 
ifJLov fiQPov Sir) • 06 S' oirXlraL ^drrop BpapLovprac Kal 7]Slop, 
edp Kal eycb Tre^o? r]yS)fiai. 

46. Merd ravra (px^'^^ '^^^ TcfJiaaccop fier avrov e^cui^ 
l7nrea<; co? rerrapdKOpra tcop ^EXXrjpcop, ^epo(pcop Be iraprjy- 
yvrjcre rov<; eh rptdKOpra err] rrapiepai drro tcop Xo^cop ev^co- 
Z/0U9. Kal avro^ /aep erpoxc^^^ Tovrov<g ^X^^ ' KXedpcop 8e 
7]yelro tcop dXXcop "^EXXrjpcop. 4z7. ^Errel S' ep rah Kcofxai^ 
rjaaPj Sev'^7]<; excop octop rptdKOPra /Trvrea? irpoaeXdcra^ elire • 
Tdhe St], S) ^epo(pcoPj a av eXeye<; • exoprav oi dp^pcoTrot • aX- 
Xd yap epTj/ioL oi linreh olxoPTai fiov dXXo<; dXXrj Slcokcop Kal 
SiSotKa fjLT] crvcTTdpTe^ d'^pooo irov KaKOP re epydacoprai ol 
TToXe/jLLOL, Ael he Kal ep rah Kcopuac^; Karafiepeip ripas rjfjbcop • 
fiecrral yap elatp dp^pcoTTCop. 48. ^AXX eyco fiipj €(f)7] 6 aepo- 
(f)cop, avp oh exco ra aKpa KaraXrj'xlrofJLaL ' av he KXedpopa 
KeXeve hid rov rrehiov iraparelpau ttjp (j^dXayya irapd rd^; Kciy- 
fJLa^, ^Errel he ravra eTroLTjcrap, (TVprjXca^rjcTap dphpdrroha 

LIB. VII. CAP. lY. 191 

Tore fjLev Bf) avrov rjvXca^rjaap, 

CAP. lY. 

1. Tfj S* varepala Karaicavaa^ 6 ^ev^rj^ ra^ fcco/ia^ irav- 
TeXcwj KoX olfCLav ovSe/jLiav Xlttoov, otto)? cf)6/3ov iv^elr) kol toI<^ 
dXkot<; ola Treiaovrac^ av /irj irei^oovTat^ airrjeb ttoXcv, 2. 
Kal rrjv fiev Xecav aTveireii'^e Btarl^ea^ac ^HpafcXecSrjv ek 
Uiptv^oVj OTTCO^ /xt(7^6? jivijraL toI<; arparccoraL^; * avTO<; he 
/cal oi ^'EXKrjve^ idrparoTreSevovTO ava to ©vvcov irehlov, 01 
S' eKki7r6vTe<^ €(f)€vjov ek tcl oprj, 

3. Hv Be 'Xioiv TToWrj fcal '\frv')(^o^ ovrco^ axTre to vScop b 
i^epovTO iirl Belirvov iirriyvvTO koX 6 olvo<; 6 ev tol^ djy6coL<;j 
/cal Tcjv 'EXXtJvcov ttoWcov kol plve^ aireKaiovTo kol 3)Ta» 4. 
Kal TOTe drjXov iyiveTO ov eveKa oi Qpaice^ Ta<^ akayireKihas 
eirl Tal^ /C€(j}d\aL<; (popovac koI toI^ d)aiy Kal '^CTcova<; ov fiovov 
irepl Tol^ CTTepvois dXXa /cal irepl tol^ /iirjpoL<^ • /cal ^ecpd<; fii- 
')(^pi TtDV iroScov eirl tcov cttttcov €')(ovcnVj dXX^ ov ')(XafjLvSa<;, 5. 
^A<jjLeU Be Tcov aL')(^fjLaXcoTcov 6 Sev^r)^; eh tcc oprj eXeyev otl el 
fiT] KaTa^TjcrovTaL olKTjaovTe^ Kal ireiaovTai, otl KaTaKavcreu 
Kal TOVTwv Ta9 KcofJLa<; Kal top gItov^ Kal diroXovvTai tm 
Xtfio). ^Ek tovtov KaTejSaLvov Kal yvvaiKe^ Kal 7raLSe<; Kal ol 
irpea^VTepoL • ol Be vecoTepoL ev Tat? vtto to 6po<; Kcofiac^; 
rjvXi^QVTO, 6. Kal 6 Hev^T]^; KaTajxa^cov eKeXevae top aevo- 
(f)(!)VTa T&v ottXltwv tovs vecoTUTOV^ Xa/36vTa avveTrcaTrea^ac. 
Kal dvaaTdvTe<^ tt]^ vvkto<^ afia ttj y/^epa iraprjaav et? Td<^ 
Kco/jia^' Kal ol fiev irXelaTOL i^ecpvyov TrXrjalov yap rjv to 
opo^ ' oaov^ Be eXa^e KaTTjKOVTiaev d(f>eLBoo^ Sev^rj^, 

7. ^E'7rta^ev7]<; Be rjv tl<; 'OXvv^co<; TraLBepaaTi]^, o? IBcbv 
iralSa KaXov rj^daKOVTa apTt TreXTrjv e')(0VTa fieXXovTa diro- 
^VTjaKeiv, irpoaBpaficbv ^evo(j)WVTa iKeTevcre ^orf^rjaac TratBl 
KaXw. 8. Kal 09 irpoaeX^cov T<p ^ev^rj BeiTac firj diroKTel- 
vat TOP iralBa* Kal tov 'ETTta^evov^ BirjyecTat top TpoTrop, 


KoX OTL Xo^ov TTore o-vveXi^aro a/coircov ovBev dXXo rj el rtve^ 
elev KaXoi' koX fiera tovtcov r^v avfjp dya^6<;, 9. 'O Se Sev- 
^779 rjpero, ^H koI ^eXoi<; aV, S) 'E7r/cr^ez/6?, vTrep rovrov 
aTTo^avelv ; 'OS' elirev dparelva^ top Tpd')(7]Xov, 11 ale, 6^77, 
el KeXevei 6 nrat^ jcal p^eXXec xaptv elhevai, 10. ^Eirripero 6 
2ev^r]<; top TralSa el iraiaeuep avrop clptI e/ceipov. Ovfc eca 6 
7raA9j aXX' l/cereve p^rj^irepop fcaraKatpetp, ^Eprav^a S* 6 
^Eina^epT]^ TrepiXa^cbp top TralSa elTrep' "flpa aou^ & Sev^T]^ 
Trepl TovSe piot Stapd'^^ecr^aL' ov jdp pie^rjaco top TralSa, 11. 
'O Se Sev^7]<; jeXcop Tama p^ep ela • eSo^e S' avT^ avTov av- 
Xia^rjpaii Xpa pr] e/c tovtcop tcop /ccopi&p oi eTrl tov 6pov<; Tpe- 
ipoLPTO. Kal at'To? piep ep tS TreS/w v7roKaTaj3d^ eaKrjpov • 6 
he ^epo(f>cbp e')(cop tov^ eTrtXe/crof? ep ttj vito to opo<; dpcoTdTco 
/ccopLT) • Kal ol dXXoL ^^EXXrjpe^; ep toZ? opeloc^ KaXovpLepoL<; 
&pa^l TrXrjalop fcaTeafCtjprjarap. 

12. ^E/c TOVTOV rjpuepai ov TToXXal SceTpl^oPTO, Kal ol ifc 
TOV 6pov<; 0paKe<; KaTaj3aLP0PTe<; Trpo? top Sev^rjp Trepl aTrop- 
hS)P Kal opijpcop SteirpdTTOPTo. Kal 6 'Bepo^cop eX^cop eXeye 
Tft> Hev'^T] OTL ep TTOPTjpoU t6ttoi<; aK7]pa>ep Kal TrXrjalop elep ol 
TToXepLOi • 7]Sl6p t dp e^co avXl^ea^at e(f)r) ep e')(ypol^ j^cop/o^? 
pdXXop rj ep toI<; oTeypol^y coaTe dTroXea^ai, 13. 'O he ^ap- 
pelp eKeXeve Kal eSet^ep SpLypov^ TrapopTa^ avTw. ^EheopTO he 
Kal TOV 'Biepo(j)(j!)PTc<; KaTa/3aLP0VTe^ Tcpe^ tcop e/c tov opov^ 
avpTTpd^al a(pLorc ra? aTTOphd^. ^O S' wpioXoyei Kal ^appelp 
{iKeXeve Kal rjyyvaTO prjhep avTov^ KaKOP Treicrea^ac TreL^opi- 
vov^ Sev^y. 01 h' dpa TavT eXeyop KaTa(7K0Trrj<i epeKa, 

14. TavTa pLep t?}? r]pepa<i eyepeTo* ek he ttjp eTTLovaap 
pvKTa eTTLTi^ePTaL eX^oPTes eK tov opov^ ol QvpoL Kal 
tjyepoop pep rjp 6 heaTr6Tr]<; eKdcrT7}<; ttj^; olKia<; • j(aXe7rop yap 
?)p dXkcD^ Tas oiKca^ ckotov^ opto^ dpevpiaKecp ep Tal^ kco- 
pat^ ' Kal yap al olKiao kvkX<p Trepteo'TavpcoPTO pieydXoc<; 
aTavpol^ TCOP Trpo/SdTcop epeKa, 15. 'EttcI 8' eyepoPTO KaTa 
Ta9 ^vpa<i eKaaTOV tov olKrjpaTO<;^ ol puep elaTjKOPTi^op^ ol he 
ToU (TKVTdXot<i €/3aXXop, a e')(eLp e^acrap co? dTTOKoy^opTe^; tcop 
hopaTcop Td<; X6y^a<: • ol he epeTrip^Trpacrap • Kal *&epo^S)PTa 

LIB. VII. CAP. lY. 193 

ovo/jLaarl KoXovvre^ i^covra eiceXevov dTro^VTJa/ceLV^ r) avrov 
€([)a(7av Karafcav^rjcrecr^ai avrov. 

16. Kal Tjhr] re hia rod 6p6(j)ov ec^aivero Trvp, kol ivre^cc- 
paKLafievoL oi Trepl ^evo(^o)VTa evSov rjcrav aaTTiSa^ kol fia'^aL- 
pa<; Kal Kpdvr] e^ovre^, fcal ^LXavo<; Mafcearto^; ircov fjhrj o)? 
oKTa^KalSe/ca cov arj/jialvec rfj craXTrtyyt, • /cal et'^u? i/cTrrjScocnv 
eTrraapLevob ra ^l(J)7] /cal ol i/c tcov dXXcov crKTjvcofjLdrcov. 17. 
01 Se QpaKe^ ^evjovatv^ wairep hr] TpoTTO^ rjv avTOL<;, oTncr^ev 
7repc/3aXX6fievoL Td<; ireXTa^ • Kal avrcov VTrepaXXofxivcov tou? 
aravpov^ iX7](f)^7]crdv nve^ Kpefiaa^epre^ ive'^ofxivcov rcov 
nreXTOiV toIs crravpoh * ol Be Kal dire^avov hLafiapTovre^ rcov 
i^oScov ol S' '^EXX7]V€<; iSicoKov e^co t?}? /ccofjirj^;, 18. Tcov Se 
0VVCOV viTQtTTpa(bevTe<^ rcve^ ev to5 aKoreiTov^ Traparpi^ovra^^ 
Trap olKtav KaLO/jievrjv rjKovrt^ov et? to ^w? ck tov aKorov^ • 
Kal erpwaav 'lepcovv/jbov re EvoSea Xo'^ayov Kal ©eoyevTjv 
AoKpov Xo')(aj6v • dire^ave he ovhet<^ • KareKav^rj fiivroc Kal 
€a^7]<; Tcvcov Kal (TKevrj, 19. ^ev^T]^ Be rJKe jSorf^rjacov avv 
iirra iTnrevcn to?? 'TrpcoroL'^ Kal tov o-aXTrtyKrfjv e')((ov tov 
©paKCov. Kal eireLTrep fja^eTO, ocrovirep '^povov i/3o7]^€C, 
TOdovTov Kal TO K6pa<; icb'^eyyero avrS • c5a-T6 Kal tovto <jE)6- 
/Sov crvfjLiTapeo")(^e toI^ TroXefitoc^. ^Eirel 8' rjX^ev, iSe^covro 
T€ Kal eXeyev oro ocolto TeSrz^ecoTa? ttoXXov^ evpijaecv. 

20. ^Ek tovtov 6 'Bevoipcbv Selrac TOV<i o/iTJpov^ Te avT(p 
irapaSovvaL Kal iirl to opo<; el j3ovXeTai avarpaTevea^ai • el 
he fir), avTov idcrau 21. Trj ovv vaTepaia irapahihcocnv 6 
Sev^T]^ Tov^ ofirjpov^j irpecr/SvTepov^ avhpa<; rjhr]^ tov<^ Kpari- 
cTTov^^ CO? €(f)aaaVj tcov opeivcov* Kal avTO<; epj^erai avv Tjj 
hvvd/jiec, "Hhr] h' el^^e Kal TpLTrXaaiav hvva/iiv 6 Hev'^T]^;' 
eK yap tcov 'Ohpvcrcov aKovovre^; a irpaTTOt 6 ^ev^r]^ ttoXXoI 
KaTe^acvov avaTpaTevaofjuevoi, 22. 01 he Qvvol iirel elhov 
diro TOV opov^ TToXXoi/g fiev OTrXtra^, ttoXXou? he iTeXTaaTd<;^ 
TToXXou? he tTTTre??, KaTaj3dvTe^ iKerevov crTrelcraa^aL • Kal 
irdvTa a)/jioX6yovv Troirjaeiv Kal tcl Trcard Xa/x/Sdvetv eKeXevov. 
23. O he I!ev^rj<^ KaXecra^ tov Uevocj^covTa eTreheUvvev a Xe- 
yoiev ' Kol ovK e^i) Gireiaea^aiy el Uevo(l)cov ^ovXocto tliko- 


prjaaa^ai avTov<; tt}? eV^^ecreo)?. 24. 'O S' elirev* ^A\}C 
ejoyye l/cavrjv vofxi^co koX vvv Slktjv e^euv, el ovroi SovXol eaov- 
TUL avT iXev^ipcop' crvix^ovKevetv fievTov ecf)?] avrai to Xolttov 
6lxrjpov<; Xafjb^dveiv tovs BwaTcordrov^ kukop tl iroieiv, Tov<i 
Be yepopTa^ oIkol eap. Oi puep ovp ravTrj Trdpre^ By frpoacO' 

CAP. V. 

1. 'TTrep^dWovat Be Trpo^ tov^ virep Bv^apTiov QpaKm 
eh TO Aekra KoXovfJiepop * avrr) 8' rjp ov/cerL dp'^rj MaLcrd- 
BoVf dXXa Trjpov^ tov 'OBpvaov, dp')(aiov tlpo^, 2. Kal 6 
^HpaKXeiBi]^ epTav^a e^cop rrjp tl/jltjp Tr}<; Xeta^ 'Traprjp, Kal 
2ev^rj<; i^ayaycop ^evyrj rjfJbLOPiKa rpia, {ov yap r)P TrXeito,) ra 
S' dXXa fioecKd, KaXeaa^ ^epo^o)PTa i/ceXeve XajSetP, ra S* 
aXXa Btapel/jLac TOt? aTparrjyoh Kal Xo')(ayoh. 3. 'Sepocpcop 
Be ehrep • ^Efiol puep toLpvp dp/cel fcal av^c^ Xa^etp • tovtol^ 
Be Toh arpaTTjyoh Bcopov oi avp epbol rjKoXov^Tjaap Kal Xo')(^a^ 
yot?. 4. Kal TO)P ^evycop Xajit^dpet ep fiep Tc/jLao-icop 6 Aap- 
Bapev^^ ep Be KXedpcop 6 ^Op'^o/jLePLo<^, ep Be ^pvpiaKos 6 
^A')(aL6<; • Ta Be /SoetKa ^evyq rot? \o')(ayol<^ KaTe/jLepia^r}, 
Top Be fjLia^op diroBlBoDaiP e^eXrjXv^oro^ rjBr] tov /jltjpo^; e'cKoac 
fjLOPOP '^fiepcjp* 6 yap 'HpaKXeiBrj^ eXeyep oTt ov irXelop eixiro- 
\r](Tai. 5. 'O OVP aepocj^MP a;>^^ecr^el9 elrrep iiro/xoaa^ • Ao- 
Keh /JLOLj S) ^HpaKXeiBr], ov')(^ 0)9 Bel KTjBea^ac Sev^ov • el yap 
eKrjBov, r]Ke<; ap <f>epo)P TrXr)p7} top jULca^op Kal TrpoaBapecad- 
/jLepo<;, el /jlt] aXXcw? eBvpco, Kal d'TroBofxepos tcl aavTov IfxdTLa. 

6. ^EpTeifbep 6 ^HpaKXeiBrj^ rjj^ea^rj re Kal eBecae firj €K 
TT]^ ^ev^ov ^tX/a9 eK/3Xr}^eL7] • Kal 6 tc iSvpaTO airo TavTr\<^ 
T779 7]}xepa^ 'Sepo<pa)PTa Bce^aXXe Trpo^ Sev^Tjp. 7. 01 fjuep Brj 
aTpaTiwrai ^epo(f>coPTL ipefcdXovp otl ovk el')(0p top fica^op • 
^ev^Tj^ Be 7])^eT0 avTt^ otl ePTOPco^ Toh aTpaTL00Tac<; aTrrjTeL 
TOP fjLLa^op, 8. Kal Tea)9 /Jiep del e/jbe/JLprjTo oo<; eireiBap eirl 
^dXaTTap direX^rjj TrapaSooaoc avTw B Lo-dp^rjp Kal Tdpop Kal , 

LIB. YII. CAP. V. 195 

Niov Tet')(p^ • CLTTO he tovtov tov j(^p6vov ovZevo^ en tovtcov 
€/jLefjLvr]TO, ^0 fyap ^HpaKkeiSr}*; /cat tovto 8Le/3ej3\'^/cei 0)9 
ovK acrcjbaXe? etr) Tei')(7] irapahihovau dvSpl Svva/jiiv ej(0VTL. 

9. 'JS/c TOVTOV 6 fjLev Uevocj^cov el3ov\eveTO tl ')(^pr] Troielv 
Trepl TOV eTi avco aTpaTvea&at • S' ^IIpafc\eiS7j<; ela-ayajcov 
Tov<^ aXXou9 aTpaTr]jov<; tt/oo? ^evBijv Xeyecv re i/ci\evev av- 
Tov^ OTL ovBev av tjttov a^ec<; dydyoiev Tr]v o-TpaTidv rj Hei/o^ 
^cov, TOV T€ pbta^ov virco'')(yeLTO avTol^ ivTo^ oXlycov ^/lepcov 
eKTrXecov irapeaecrJ^at hvolv /jltjvolv • fcal G-vaTpaTeveoS^ac e/ce- 
Xeve. 10. Kal 6 Tijiaaicov elirev • ^Eyo) /nev toIvvv ovK av 
irevTe fir]V(bv /i^cr^o? fieWrj elvav aTpaTevo-a{/ji7]v av dvev 
'Sevo(f>covTo<;. Kal 6 ^pvvLcrKO<; Kal KXedvcop avvco/jLoXoyovv 
TM Ttjiaa-LcovL. 

11. ^EvTev^ev 6 ^ev^7]<; iXoiSopet tov ^HpafcXeiSrjv otl ov 
Trapa/caXel fcal 'B,evo(j)a)VTa. ^E/c Be tovtov irapaKoXovcnv 
avTov fiovov, 'O Se yvov^ tov 'HpaKkeiSov ttjv iravovpyiav 
OTL ^ovkoLTO avTov hia^dXkeiv Trpo^ tov<; dWov^ crTpaTT]- 
yov^y irapep')(eTaL Xa^cov tov^ re crTpaTrjyov^ 7rdvTa<; Kal 
TOv<; \o')(ayov^. 12. Kal eirel irdvTe<^ iTreLaS^crav, awe- 
CTpaTevovTO Kal d^iKvovvTat iv he^ia e^oi^res" tov TIovtov 
Bed Tojv MeXtvocpdycov KaXovfievcov QpaKcov et? tov SaXfiv 
Brjaaov. "EvS^a t&v eh tov TIovtov irXeovacov vecov TroWal 
OKeXKovcTL Kal eKirtiTTovcTL • Tevayo^ yap ecTTiv eirl ird/jLiroXv 
T7]<; S^aXdTTT]^. 13. Kal ol QpaKe^ ol KaTa TavTa oIkovvt€<^ 
CTTiXa^ opLadfievoL Ta KaS" avToi)^ eKTTiiTTOVTa eKacTTOL Xtjl- 
^ovTac • T€a)9 S* eXeyov irplv opiaaa^au dp7rd^ovTa<; iroXXov^ 
VTT dXKrjXcDV dTToBvijcTKecv, 14. ^EvTavBa evpiaKOVTO iroX- 
Xal fiev KXlvaiy iroXXd Be Kc/ScoTLa, iroXXal Be /3ifiXoi ye- 
ypafifjiivac, Kal TaXXa TroXXd ocra iv ^vXivoc<; Tev)(^eat vav- 
KXrjpoL dyovcTiv. ^EvTevBev TavTa KaTacTTpe^^rdpLevoL dirrje- 
crav TrdXtv. 15. "EvBa Brj ^ev^r]'^ el')(e CTpdrevjUia riBi] 
irXeov TOV ^EXXtjvlkov • eK Te yap ^OBpvacov ttoXv eTi TrXer 
0U9 KaTa^e^TjKeaav Kal ol del Trei^op^evoL avveaTpaTevovTo, 
KaTTjvXiG-J^Tjcrav Be iv rw ireBicp virep XrjXv^pia^; ocrov Tptd- 
KovTa <TTaBiov<^ d7re)(pvTe<; tt}? <&a\aTT^9. 16. Kal fjLCcr^o<i 


fjLev ovBeL<i irco e<^alveTO • irpo<; Se tov 'Bevocpcovra oL re cTpa- 
TLwrai 7ra7;)^aXe7ra;9 el'xpv o t€ ^€v^r]<; ovKerc OLfC€ico<; Bee- 

\al 7]S7j aa^xphiaL e^alvopro. 


1. ^Ep tovto) Tft3 xpov^ cr')(ehov 7]8r} Bvo /i7]vS)V ovrcov 
a^ncvovvrai Xap/jLLv6<; re 6 Aolkwv koX TIokvvLKO<; irapa Si- 
/Spcovo^' KoX Xeyovaiv on Aa/ceSatfiovLOL^; So/cel arpareve" 
crBat, iirl TLaaa^epV7]v, kol Oi^pcov eiareirXevKev co? 7roXe/i-7^-| 
(TO)v • KoX Belrat TavT7}<; rrj^; (TTparia^; /cat Xeyet ore BapeL/cb<^ " 
€/cd(7T(p earai /jllctBo^; tov /x7?z/09, /cat roc^ Xo^ayol^ Btfjiotpia, 
T0Z9 Be (TTpaT7}yol^ TeTpafMoipia. 2. ^Eirel K rjX^ov ol Aa/ce- 
BatfiovLoiy €uBv<^ 6 ^HpaKX€iB7]<; irvS^ofievo^ ort iirl to GTpd- 
Tev/jba 7]fcov(7L XeyeL tm Xev^rj otl koXKlg-tov yey evrjTai • ol 
jiev yap AafceBaifiovLOV BeovTai tov cTpaTevfJiaTO^, ai) Be ov- 
KeTL Berj • diroBiBov^; Be to (TTpaTevfia ^(apLel avTol^, ae Be 
ovKeTt diraiTriG'ovaL tov pLia^oVy aXX diraXkd^ovTai i/c t^9 

3. ^Afcovcra^ tuvtu 6 ^evS7]<; /ceXeueL nrapop/eiv • koX iirel 
eliTov OTV iirl to crTpuTeviMa rjKOVcnVy eXeyev otl to CTpaTevfia 
diroBlBcoo-t ^tXo9 T€ Koi avijupiaxp^ elvat fiovXeTat, KcCXel re 
avToi)^ iirl ^evla. Kal i^evL^e fieyaXoirpeirco^;. ^evo(f)covTa 
Be ovK i/cdXec, ovBe tcov dXXcov aTpaTrjy&v ovBeva, 4/ ^Epco- 
TcovTcov Be Tcop AafceBacfJLOPicop tc^; dprjp elr] aevo^Syp direKpi- 
vaTO OTL TCL fiep dXXa etrj ov Kafco^y ^iXoa-TpaTicoTT]^ Be • koI 
Bid TovTO %€Z/)6z^ icTTtp avTM. Kol oc eoTTOP • '-4XV ^ Brj/Jia- 
ycoyec 6 dvrjp tou9 dpBpa<; ; Kal 6 ^HpaKXelBrj^^ • TIdpv fiev 
ovp, ecfyr), 5. '^Ap* ovp, e^acrav, firj Kal rjficp ivaPTicocreTat 
Trepl T^9 diray(oyr}<^ ; ^AXK! rjp vjiel^, e<^7] 6 'HpaKXelBr}^, 
avXXe^avTe^ avToi)^ vTroa^V^'^^ '^^^ l^f^cr^ov, oXiyop eiceip(p 
irpocTXpPTe^ diroBpafiovPTaL crvp v/jllp. 6. irai9 ovv dp, e0a- 
(TOPy rifup (TvXXeyelep ; Avpcop vfjudf;, e^rj 6 ^Hpa/cXeiBrj^fy 



irpooii d^ofiev irpb^ avrov^ • koI olSa, ecj^rj, ore iirecSav t'/ia? 
cScoacv acTfievoi avvSpa/jLovvraL Avrrj ijuev rj 'rj/jiipa ovTco<i 

7. Ty S' varepaca ayovcnv iirl to arpdrev/Jia tov<; AaKco- 
va^ Xev^<; re koX 'HpaKXetSTj^;, /cat avWiyerac y arparcd • 
TO) Se AcLKccve iXeyirjjv ore AafceSatfjLovioc^; Bo/cet nToKefieiv 
Tccraa^ipveL tg5 v/jLd<; dhiicrjaavTi • tjv ovv crjre crvv rj/jLiv, tov 
re i')(Spbv rc/JLcop'^G'ea-Be /cat SapecKov eKacTTO^ oXaei tov /^t;- 
v6^ vjjLcov • Xo')(ayb^ Be to BlttXovv • (7TpaT7]yo<i Be to TeTpa- 
ifKovv. 8. Kal oi cTTpaTicoTaL dcrfievoL re ij/covaav koX €vSv<^ 
aviaTaTCL tc^ tcov ^Ap/cdBcov tov 'B,evo(})cbvTo<; /caTrjyopijo'cov. 
Uaprjv Be Kol Sev3^7]<^ ^ov\6/jbevo^ elBevac tl iTpa')(^rjcreTai • 
KOi iv eTrrjKoa) elaTijfceL e')(0)v ipfjbrjvia • ^vvlet Be Kal avTb<; 
eWrjVia-TL Ta ifkeloTa. 9. "Ev^a Brj \eyec 6 ^Ap/cd^ • 'AX?C 
rjfjLel^ fjLeVy 5) Aa/ceBacfi6vLoc, /cat irdXau av rjfjbev Trap* vfiiv, el 
/IT] ^evo^o)v rj/jLci^ Bevpo Treicra^ dirr\yayev • ev^a Bfj Tjjiel^ 
fiev Tbv Betvbv ')(eiiiwva CTpaTevo/ievoi koX vvicTa kol rjjiepav 
ovBev TreiravfjieS^a • o Be tov^ r}[ieTepov^ itqvov<; e')(ei • koI Xev- 
Srj^; eKelvov fiev IBia ireifkovTiKev, rjfJLa^ Be dirocTTepel Tbv 
fJLLoS^ov • 10. &(7Te 6 ye 7rp(OT0<; Xeycov iyo) fiev el tovtov 
cSocfjbL KaToXevaS^ivTa /cat BbvTa Bi/crjv &v rjfjia'^ irepLelXKe, Kal 
Tbv pLLcr^bv dv fJiOL Bokco e'X^ecv Kal ovBev iirl toI^ ireirovrnie" 
voL^ d')(^e(TB^av. MeTa tovtov aKKo<; dvearTTj o/jlolco^; Kal oK- 
Xo9. ^Ek Be tovtov ^evo(^o)V eke^ev S)Be • 

11. ^AXKa irdvTa /juev dpa dv^pcoirov ovTa TrpoaBoKav 
Bel, oiTOTe ye Kal iyoo vvv v(j> vficov aWla^ e')((o iv cS TrXei- 
GTTjv TrpoS^v/jLiav efiavT(p ye Bokco (TweiBevav irepl vfid<; Tape- 
(T')(7)fjbevo^, ^ATreTpaTTO/irjv jiev ye tjBtj ocKaBe d)p/jL7jfievo<;, ov 
fia Tbv Ala ovTOL crvvBavofievo^ vfjbd^; ev TrpdTTecv, dWa 
fjLoXkov uKOvcov iv diropoi^ elvat a)9 aycpeXTJaoyv ec tl Bvvac- 
/jLT]v. 12. 'JETrel 8' '^XS^ov, Sev^ov tovtov'c 7roXXov<; dyyeXov^ 
TTpQ? i/xe Tre/JLTTOVTO^ Kal iroXXd v7rto")(yovfjLevov [loi, el irei- 
cratjjLi vfxd<; 7rpb<; avTbv iXSetv, tovto fiev ovk iTre^etpTjcra 
iToielv, 0)9 avTol v/ieh iirlcTTacr^e • ^701; S' o^ev (pofirjv Td- 
^6(7t' av vfjud*^ el<; Trjv ^Aaiav Bcafirjvau TavTa yap Kal 


/BiXTtara ivo/jLt^ov vfilv elvat /cat v/jid<; TJSecv fiovXojuievov^, 
13. 'Eirel he ^ApicJTap')(o^ iX^cov avv Tpirjpeaiv eKcoXve hta- 
nrXelv rj/ia^y i/c tovtov^ oirep elicos hrjirov rjv^ avveXe^a v/uid^, 
67rco<; /3ovX€va-a[/jL€^a 6 rt ')(^pr] iroielv. 14. Ov/covv vpuels 
aKovovTe<^ fiev ^Apcardp'x^ov iTTiTaTTOVTO^; vfxiv eh Xeppovrj- 
orov TTopevea^ac, dfcovovre^; Se S^v^ov Trei^ovro^ eavrco ov- 
arpareuea^at, 7rdpTe<; fiev iXeyere avv Sev^rj levat, irdvre<^ 8' 
i'y\r7)j>CaaG^e ravrd. Ti ovv ijco evrav^a i^Sl/CTjaa dyaycov 
vfxds ev^a TrdaLV vjuv iSofcec ; 15. ^ETrel ye firjv '\lrevSea^ac 
rjp^aro Sev^rj^ irepl rod /jLca^ov^ el [xev eTratvcb avrov, huKaico^ 
av pie KoX alncpG^e /cat pLiaolre • el he irpoa^ev avrS irdvrcov 
ftdXtara (^lXo<; &v vvv Trdvrcov hLa(f)opa)TaT6^ elpn^ 7rw9 av en 
htfcaico^ Vfxd^ alpovp^evo^ dvrl Sev'^ov v<^ vpLMV alriav e')(OijXL 
irepl S)V 7rpo<; tovtov htacj^epofjLac ; 16. ^AXX! elTTOire dv on 
e^earc fcal rd vpLerepa e')(pvTa irapd Sev^ov re'^yd^etv, Ov- 
Kovv hrjXov TOVTO ye ore elirep ifjuol ereXet ti Sev^rj^, ov')(^ 
ovTog ereXeL hrjTrov 0)9 oyv re epLol hoirj arepolro Kal dXXa 
vfjitp airoTiaeiev ; AXX otfiau eu eotooVj em rovrtp av eoioov 
07rco9 epbol hovs fxelov fir) dirohoir] v/jllv to irXelov, 17. El 
Toivvv 01/70)9 €^€iv oiea^e^ e^earcv vfilv avriica pbdXa pLaraiav 
Tavrrjv rrjv Trpd^iv dpb<^OTepoL<; tj/jlIv iroiricraiy edv irpdrTrjre 
avTov rd '^pTJ/iara. ArjXov yap on J!ev^r]<;, ei e^j^ca n Trap 
avTov, dTTatTrjcrec jie^ Kal aTraiTrjaei fievTot, hiKaico^^ edv fir) 
(Se^aio) Tr]v Trpd^tv avT(p e<f) r) ihcopohoKovv. 18. ^AXXd 
TToXXov fjioc hoKco helv Ta vfxeTepa e'^ecv • ofivvco ydp vfiiv ^e- 
0U9 diravTas koI Trdaa^ pirjhe d epLol Ihia vTrecr'^eTO Sev^rj^ 
e')(eiv • TrdpeorTi he Kal avTo^ Kal aKovcov avvoihe pLOL el eV^- 
opKoo, 19. "Iva he pidXXov ^avpbdarjTe^ avveTropLVVfiL pirjhe d 
ol dXXoL aTpaTrjyol eXa/Bov elXr](f)evac, fir) tolvvv pLr)S' oaa 
Toov Xo'xaywv evtoi. 20. Kal tl hr) Tavra eTTolovv ; ^'fltpirjv, 
& dvhpe^, oaqj pidXXov crv/jL(j)epoLfjiL tovtm Trjv Tore nreviav^ 
ToaovTG) pLaXXov aviov cj^tXov Trotrjaecr^aL OTToYe hvvaa^eir), 
^Eycb he dfia Te avTov opS ev TrpaTTOVTa, Kal ytyvoDCTKoy hr) 
avTov Tr)v yvcofirjv. 21. Ecttoc hf) Tt<; dv. Ovkovv alo-j(yvr) 
ovTco fJLcopm e^aTraTcopievo^ ; Nol pud Ala yo")(yv6pL7)v pLevToc, 

LIB. VII. CAP. VI. 199 

el VTTO TTokefjiiov 76 ovro^ e^7]iraTri^7]v • ^tXct) S' ovtl e^aira- 
TUP ala^iov jJLOL Sofcel ehai rj e^airaraa^ai. 22. ''Eirel el ye 
7rpo9 (j>l\ov^ icrrl (f)v\aKi], iracrav olBa vfjud^; ^vXa^a/jievovs co? 
fir] 7rapa(T')(€iP tovtg) irpo^aaiv Bcfcaiav fir] airohihovai v/jlcv 
a v7ri(T')(€To • ovre jap rjhiKrjaaiiev tovtov ovhev ovre Kare- 
pXaKevaaiMev ra tovtov ovTe fjbrjp /caTeSeiXcdcrafJbev ovSev ecf) 
6 TO rj/jid^ ovTO<; TrapeKoXeaev. 23. ^AWd, ^acTjTe dv, eSeo 
TCL eve^vpa TOTe Xa^elv, (i? fZTjSe el e^ovKeTO eSvvaTO e^aira- 
Tap' JTpo? TavTa Be dfcovaaTe a eyco ovic dp iroTe elirop 
TOVTOV epaPTLOP, el [jltj [jlol TrapTdiracrLP dypd^iiope^ eSoKecTe 
elpat, rj \iap eh e/^e d^dpco-Toc. 24. ^Apajup^aS^Te jdp ep 
TTOioi^ Tial irpdyiiaaip oPTe^ eTvy^dpeTe, e^ ojp v/jlcI^ eyco 
dprjyayop 7rpo9 SevS^rjp, Ovtc eh fJbep UepipB-op, el irpocrioLTe 
TTj TToXec, ^ApL(jTap^o<; vfjid^ 6 Aa/ceSacfji6pco<; ov/c eta elaiepai 
diroKXelaa<^ ra? irvKa^, virai^ptoi Be e^co iorTpaTOireBeveTe, 
fjuiao^ Be yeifjicbp ^p, dyopa Be €')(^pr]crBe (TTrdpta fiep 6pS)PTe<^ 
Ta copta, airdpca Be e^oPTe^ otcop wprjcrea^e ; 25. ""Apdyicr] 
Be r}p [lepeip eirl @paK7j<; • Tpnfipei'^ yap i(pop/jLovo'aL ifccoXvop 
BiaTrXecp • el Be fiipot ti^, ep iroXejiia etpaCy ep^a iroXKol fiep 
lirireh r^aap epaPTioi, iroXKol Be TrekTaaTaL 26. ^Hjup Be 
ottXltlkop fjiep rjp S dS-poot fiep loPTe^ eirl Td<; fccofia^ caco^ dp 
eBvpd/JLeSa gItop Xafjb/Sdpeip ovSep tl d^Bopop • otg) Be Bcdo- 
KOPTe^ dp rj dpBpdiToBa 7) irpo^aTa KaTeXafJuj^dpofxep ovic rjp 
rjfXLP • ovTe yap Ittttlkop ome ireXTacTticop eTi eyco crvpecrTT]' 
/cb<; KaTeXa^op Trap vfiip. 27. JE^ ovp ep ToiavTrj dpdyfcy 
oPTcop vfiSyp fJLr)B^ oPTCPaovp ficaS^op TrpooracTrj(ra<^ SgvS^p 
av/JifLa'Xpp vjbup TrpoaeXa^op, e'XppTa fcal iTrirea^ fcal TreXTa- 
(jTa^ S)P v/Jieh iTpoaeBelaBe, rj KaKO)^ dp eBoKOVP vficp fie^ov- 
XevaBai irpo v/jl&p ; 28. Tgvtcop yap Brjirov KOipcoprjaaPTe^ 
Kal (tItop d^BopcoTepop ep Tah /€cofjLac<^ evpLcr/cere Bed to 
dpayfcd^eaS^ac tov^; 0pafca<^ KaTa airovBrjp fidXXop (^evyeip, 
Kal TTpo^dTcop Kal dpBpaiToBcop fidXXop ixeTeaj^eTe. 29. Kal 
nroXejiLOP ovKeTt ovBepa ecopw/jiep iTrecBrj to Ittttlkop rjfup 
irpoaeyepeTO • reo)? Be S^apcraXeco^ r]fup €(j>eL7roPTO oi iroXefiioi 
Kal Ittttlk^ Kal ireXTacrTCKS KcoXvoPTes /JLrjBa/jii] KaT oXiyovs 


aiTOG-jce^avvvfievov^ ra €7rLT7]B€ta d<f>9^ovcorcpa ^jia^; rrropi^e- 
a^au 30. El Se Br) 6 av/JL7rapi')(a)V vfilv ravrrjv rrjv dacj^d- 
Xeiav fjifj nrdvv nroXvv jma^bv Trpoa-ereKev Tr]<; dcr(})a\eia(;, 
TOVTO Brj TO (T')(eTKiov irdS^rjfia, koX hia tovto ovBafirj oceor^^e 
XPV^^^ ^coz^ra ifMe idv elvac ; 31. Nvv he Brj ttw? d7r6p')(^6- 
crS^e ; Ov dca)(6CjJbdo'avT€^ fiev iv d^^ovoi^ roh eTrcTTjBeioi^, 
TrepvTTOv K e'xpvre^ tovto ei to eKa^eTe irapd Xev^ov ; Td 
jdp Tcov iToXefjLLcov iBajravaTe. Kal TavTa irpaTTOVTe^ ovt€ 
dvBpa^ eireiBeTe vficov avTcov diT0^av6vTa<^ ovt€ ^covTa<; dire- 
^d\6T€. 32. El Be TO KoKov Trpo^ tov^ iv Ty ''Aaia jBap^d- 
pov<; eireTrpaicTO vfuv, ov koX €K€ovo acov e')(eTe koX irpo^ ifcet- 
voo^ vvv dXkrjv evKkeiav TTpoa-eoXTj^aTe /cat rou? iv tj) Evpco- 
iry ©paKa^ i(^ ou? idTpaTevaaa^e KpaTrjcravTe^ ; ^Ejcb fjuev 
vfjLd<; ^Tj/Jbo Bofcacco^ dv &v ifJLol ^aXeTra/z/ere tovtcov too<; »5eo?9 
Xdpov elBivao co? djaS^cov, 33. Kal Ta jjoev Brj vfjbeTepa too- 
avTa. "Ay€T€ Be 7rpo9 Secov Kal tco i/id aKe-y^raaS^e a)9 e^^o. 
^Eyo) jdp 0T€ fjoev TrpoTepov dirrfpa oifcaBe, e^fov fiev eiraovov 
iroXifv 7rpo9 vfjicov dire'iropevofjirjv, e^cov Be Bo vfjid<; Kal vtto 
Tcov dWcov ^EXKrjViov evKXecav • iiroG'Tev6[i7]v Be viro AaKe- 
BaofJLOVicov • ov yap dv /xe eTrefMirov irdXov irpo^ vjjid<;, 34. 
Nvv S' direpxpfJiao Trpo^ [xev AaKeBaofjLoviov^ vc}) v/jlS)v Boa^e- 
^Xrjfievo^y Sev^j] Be dTrrj^^rj/ULevo^ virep vfjL&v, ov rfkiro^ov ev 
Troorjcra<; fie^^ v/jlcjv diro(7Tpo^r}v Kal ifiol KaXrjv Kal Traoaiv, 
el yevoovTO, KaTa^rjcrea^ao, 35. ^TfjLel<; S' vTrep o)V ijco dirr]' 
X^rjixao T6 TrkelcTTa Kal TavTa ttoXv KpeoTToaiv ijJLavTOv, 
TTpaj/jLaTevo/Jbevo^; re ovBe vvv ttco Treiravixao 6 to Bvva/iao 
dyaS^bv vixov^ TOoavTrjv e^ere yvcofiTjv ire pi ifiov. 36. '-4XV 
e^eTe fjoiv fjue ovTe (pevyovTa 'Xa^6vTe<; ome diroBoBpaaKovTa • 
rjv Be 7rooij(T7]Te d XeyeTe, ccTe oto dvBpa KaTaKeKavoTe^ eae- 
€r!^e TToXXa fjuev Brj nrpo v/jlcov dypvTrvTjaavTa, TroWd Be crvv 
vfjiov TTovrjo-avTa Kal KOvBvvevaavTa Kal iv tco fxepeo Kal irapd 
TO fiepo^ • Secbv Be iXecov ovtcov Kal Tpoiraoa fiap^dpcov ttoX- 
Xd Brj cvv vfJLOv G-TTjadfievov ' ottco^ Be ye firjBevl tcov ^EXkrj' 
vcov 'TToXefjoooo yevooaS-e, irdv oaov iyco iBvvdfi7]v 7rpo9 v/xd^; 
BcaTeovd/xevov, 37. Kal yap ovv vvv v/iov e^eaTOV dveiro- 

LIB. VII. CAP. VI. 201 

XrjTTTCo^; TTopevecrS^at otttj av eXrja^e koL Kara ryrjv fcal Kara 
J^aXarrav, ^T/jLel^; Se, ore TroWrj vfitv evTropia (^aiverai, /cal 
ifXelre ev^a Srj eTre^vfielre TraXai, Beovrao re vficov ol fii- 
fycarov hwdfievoiy ficcrS^b^ Se (^aiveraiy '^yefiove^ Be ijfcovcrc 
AaKeBac/JiovcoL ol /cpdrLaroc vojat^o/jLevoL elvai, vvv Brj KaLpo<; 
vfjLLV BoK6t elvai ft)9 Tor^^icTTa epie KaraKavelv ; 38. Ov pbrjv 
ore je ev roh aTTopoc^ rjfiev, & irdvTcov pLvrj/jiovLfCcorarot, dWa 
KOL irarepa ifjue efcaXelre koX del S<; evepyerov piefivrja^^ai, 
viTL(T')(yelcr^e. Ov pievToc dyvco/Jiove<; ovB^ ovtol elaiv ol vvv 
riKovre^ e^' vpid<; • Hocne, S<; iyco olfLac, ovBe tovtoi^ Bofcetre 
fieXriove^ eXvau tolovtoi ovre^ irepl epiL Tavr elircbv eirav- 

39. Xappicvo^ Be 6 AaiceBaipiovLO^ dvaorrd^^ elirev ovtoxtl' 
^AX)C epbol puevTOLy a> dvBpe^, ov BcKaico^; BoKelre rS dvBpl rov- 
TG> ')(a\e7raLvetv • e^o) yap Kal avro^ avray pLaprvprjcrac. 
^ev3^<; yap epcorcovro^ epuov Kal UoXvvikov irepl ^evo^ojvro'q 
TL^ dvrjp elrj aXKo puev ovBev el')(e pLepu-s^aa^ai, dyav Be ^CKo- 
CTpaTLcoTTjv €(j)r) avTov elvai • Bto Kal xelpov avrtp elvai 7rpo9 
'^pLcov T€ T(bv AaKeBaipLOVLcov Kal 7rpo9 avTov. 40. ^Avaara^; 
eirl TOVTcp Evpv\o')(p<; AovaidT7]<^ ^ApKd<; elire • Kal BoKel ye 
piOi, dvBpe<^ AaKeBatpioviOiy tovto u/^a? irpcorov '^pLcbv crparri' 
yrjorai, irapd ^evS-ov rjpLLv tov pLiaS^ov dvairpd^ai rj eKovro^ 
Tj aK0VT0<;y Kal purj irporepov rjpid<; dirayayelv. 41. UoXvKpd- 
Tr}<; Be ^AS^valo^; elirev dvacrrd^ virep 'Sevocpcovro^ • ^Opco ye 
pLijvy e(j)7j, Sy dvBpe^y Kal ^HpaKXelBTjv evravSa irapovra • 09 
irapaka^cbv rd ')(^prjpLaTa a 7}pLei<^ eirovrjaapLeVy ravra dTToBo- 
puevo^ ovre Xev^rj direBcoKev ovre TjpHv rd yiyvopLeyay aX\' 
avTo<; K\eylra<; ireTrarai. '^Hv ovv crcoippovcbpLeVy e^opieSa av- 
TOV • ov yap Bfj ovt6<; ye, €<f)7jy 0pa^ icmvy dXkd '^EWrjv cov 
^'EXKr}va^ dBiKel. 

4c2i. Tavra uKovcra^; 6 ^HpaKXelBr]^ pbd\a e^eTrXdyrj • Kal 
TTpoaeXi^cbv tw Xev^ \eyei • 'Hpiei<^ rjv aco<j)povcopLeVy airipiev 
evrev^ev eK ttj^ tovtcov eiriKpaTeia^. Kal dva^dvTe<; eVl 
TOv<; iirirov^ (p')(pVT0 direkavvovre^; eh to eavTcov aTpaTOTre- 
Bov. 43. Kal evTev^ev ^evS^^ irepLTret ^A^po^eXpLijv tov 


eavTov ep[i7]vea 7rpo9 Uevocpcovra /cat Kekevei avrov /carafieL" 
vai irap eavrai €')(0VTa ')(L\iov^ oifklra^;' koX VTna'xyelTao 
avTM aTTohcixjeiv rd re %ci)pta ra eTrl ^dXdrry teal raXKa a 
VTricT'X^eTO. Kal ev d7ropprjT(p TroLrjad/Jievo^; Xeyec ore aKr]- 
Koe HoXvvLKov 0)9 €6 v7ro')(eLpLo^ earai Aa!cehai[JiovLOV<;, aacj^co^; 
diTO^avolro vnro Oi^pcovo^;. 44. ^EirearTeXXov he ravra fcal 
aXKoL TToXXol T(p 'Sevo^covTC co? Bca^€/3\r]fjLevo<; e'er} kol (j^v- 
XdrreaS^ac Sioc, ^O S' ukovcov ravra Bvo lepela 'Ka/3cbp eBve 
ro) Ad' rep ^aaCkel nrorepd ol "Xwov Kal dfjueivov eirj fieveiv 
rrapa ^ev^rj icj) oh SevSr]^ Xiyet rj aTTcevac avv rai arparev- 
/jLarc. ^Avat>pel he avrS dinevac. 


1. ^Evrev^ev SevS^rj^ /juev dTrecrrparoTrehevcraro irpoacore- 
pco* ol 8e ^^EW7]ve<; ia/c^vrjo-av eh fccofMa^ o^ev e/jLeWov TrXel" 
crra eirLa-rLcrdfJbevoy irrl S^dXarrav rj^eiv. Ai he Kcofjuac av- 
rab Tjcrav hehofievat vrro Sev^ov Mrjhocrdhrj, 2. ^Op&v ovv 6 
Mr]hoadhrj(; harravco/jLeva ra eavrov ev rah fccojubac^ vrro rcov 
^EXKrjvcov ')(aXeirS)<; e(f>epe • /cal Xa^oov avhpa ^Ohpvarjv hvva- 
rcorarov rcov dvcoS^ev Karaj3e/3r]fc6rcov Kal hnrea^; oorov rptd- 
Kovra €p')(erai Kal irpoKoXelraL aevo^covra eK rov 'EWtjvlkov 
arparevjJLaro^, Kal 09 Xaficov rcva^ rcov \o')(arjS)v Kal dX- 
Xou9 rcov emrriheicov nTpo(Tepj(eraL. 3. ^'Ev^a hrj Xeyec Mrj- 
hocrdhr}'^' ^AhtKelrey w 'Sevocl)cov, rd<; i^/jLerepa<; KODjia^ rrop- 
S^ovvre^. IIpo\eyo/jLev ovv vjjlIv, iyco re virep ^evBov Kal ohe 
6 dvrjp irapd MrjhoKov rjKcov rov dvco fiaatXecog, dirievao eK 
rij^ %c6pa9 • et he /it], ovk eirirpey^ofjiev vjitv, dXX edv iroirjre 
KaKco<; rrjv rjixerepav ^(^copav, 0)9 rroXeiJULOV^ dXe^rjaofieSa, 

4. ^O he Bevocpcov dK0vaa<; ravra elirev • ^AXXd crol fiev 
roiavra Xeyovrv Kal diroKpivaa^aL '^^akeirov • rovhe he eveKa 
rov veavicTKov Xe^co, lv elhfj, olol re vfieh eare Kal oloc 7][jbe2<;, 
5. 'Hfjieh fJ^ev ydp, ecpTj, rrplv v/jllv c^iXoi yevea^av eiropevofjbe' 
i5a hid ravrrj^ T7J9 %ft)pa9 orroc i^ovXo/jLeS^a, fjv [lev iMXoc/JLev 

LIB. VII. CAP. VII. 203 

TTop^ovvre^, rjv S* i^ikocfJLev KaiovTe<;, 6. Kal av oirore 
irpo^ r}iJLa<; ek^oL^ irpea/Sevcov, rjiiki^ov Tore irap rjiuv ovheva 
^o^ovfjuevo^ tS)v 7rd\€fJLLcov. ^Tfi€t<; Be ovrc yre eU rrjvhe rrjv 
j(copav, rj €1 irore eXSoore a)9 iv KpevTTOvcov %cwjoa r}vKii^ea^e 
iyK6')(^a\cvcofiivot^ TOt<; Xttttol^. 7. ^Eirel he 7}[uv ^lKol eye- 
vecrS^e koX hC 7}iia<; cvv ^eol^ ^'%^'^^ TTjvhe rrjv ')(copav, vvv hrj 
i^eXavvere '^fza^ i/c rfjaBe T'f]<; %(W/0<X9 rjv Trap' ^/jlcov e')(6vT0)v 
Kara Kpdro<; m-apekd^ere • co? yap avro^ ola^a, oi irokeixLOi 
ou^ iKavol rjorav rjfjid^ i^eXavvecv. 8. Kal ovj(^ ottco^ Bcopa 
Sou9 fcal ev Troirjora^; dvSt &v ev eira^e^ d^tol^ rjiJia^ diroirkii- 
'\fra(T^aCy a)OC diroiropevo/Jievov^ TjjjLa^; ovS* ivavkicr^vai oaov 
Bvvaaai eirLrpeTret^, 9. KoX ravra Xiycov ovre Seov<; alcryx)' 
vrj ovre rovBe top dvBpa, 09 vvv fjiiv ere opa ifkovTovvray irplv 
Be r]jjLiv <^l\ov yeviaBac dirb XycrTeia^; rov /3lov e')(pvTa, 009 
avTo<^ e(pr](TBa. 10. ^Ardp ri Kal 7rpo9 i/J^e 'keyeL<; ravra ; 
€(f)i] • ov yap eycoy en cip')(co, dWa AafceBac/JiovLOC, oh vfiel^ 
irapeBcoKare ro a-rpdrev/JLa dirayayelv ovBev i/xe rrapaKcCke- 
cravre^y S) Bav/xaaroraroc, 6ir(o<; tocrirep dirr]')(^av6iir)v avrol^ 
ore 7rpb<; vfid<^ rjyov, ovrco Kal x^pco-aifjirjv vvv dTToBcBov^. 

11. ^Eirel Be ravra rjKovcrev 6 ^OBpvar}^, elirev ^Eyco 
fjiiv, 0) MrjBocraBe^, Kara t?}9 yrj^ KaraBvofiac viro rfj^ alajru- 
V7]^ aKovcov ravra, Kal el fiev irpoaB^ev i^TnG-rdfJLTjv, ovB^ dv 
a-vvrjKoXovBrjcTd aov • Kal vvv diretfiL • ovBe yap dv MtjBoko^ 
[le 6 /3a(rt\ev^ eiraivoiTjy el e^eXavvoLfxt rov<^ evepyera^. 12. 
Tavr elircbv dva^a<; eirl rov Xirirov dirrfkavve Kal avv avr& 
ol dXKoi iTnrel^ ttXtjv r err dpcov rj irevre, ^O Be MrjBoadBrj^, 
ekvirec yap avrov t) %c6pa iropS^ovfJuivrj eKeXeve rov 'Bievo(j)(oV' 
ra KaXeaac rco AaKeBatfJiovico. 13. Kal 09 Xaficov tou9 
iTTcrrjBecordrov^ irpocrriXBe rco Xapiiivco Kal IIoXvviKqy Kal 
eXe^ev ore KaXel avrov^ MrjBoo'dBr]<; rrpoepcov arrep avrS), 
dirievai eK rr]<; ')^(opa<;. 14. Olfxac dv ovv, e^rj, vfid^ diroXa- 
^elv rfi G-rparia rov cx^eCXofievov fiia^ov, el eliroire on BeBer]- 
rai vfjLcov y) err pared avvavairpd^aL rov ficaS^bv rj rrapd eKov- 
ro^ rj irapd aKovro^ ^evBov ' Kol on rovrcov rv^ovre^ rrpo- 
9^v(jlcd<; dv GweireG-^ai vfilv ^acrc • Kal ori, BiKaia vfuv Bo- 


KovaL Xiyecv • Kal on vTrecr^j^eo-r&e avrol^ Tore airiivai orav 
TCL Bt/caca €')(coG-cv ol crrpaTtcoTat. 15. ^AKovaavTe<; ol Ad/cco- 
re? ravra 6(pa<7av ipelv koX dXka oirola av hvvcovTai icpdrt- 
ara • koX ev^v^ iiropevovro e')(pVTe^ iravra^ rov^ eiriKaipiGV^^, 
^EXS^cbv S' eXe^e Xapfuvo^ • El jiev av re e%et9, S) MrjBoaa- 
S€9j 7rpo9 rjfidf; Xiyecv • €1 Be fiTJ, r]fxel<^ nrpo^ ah e')(oiiev. 16. 
^O Be MrjBoadBT]^ jxdXa Brj t'^e^/xez^o)? ' '-4XV iyco jxev XijcOf 
€(p7j, Kal ^eurS?79 TCL avrd, ore d^iovfxev tov^ ^lXov^ rjfiiv 
yeyevrj/jiivov^; fxr) Kafcco<; irda')(eLV v(j> vfJLcov • o ti yap av rov- 
Tov<; Kafcm TTOcrjre rj/nd^ rjBrf 'n-oielre' rjiierepot, ydp elaiv. 
17. ^Hfiel^; TOivvVy e^aaav ol Ad/ccove^, dirioifxev av oirore 
Tov fJicaSov €')(piev ol ravra vfilv Kararrpd^avre^ • el Be /jlt], 
ep')(pfie^a fjuev Kal vvv ^orjBrjaovre^ rovroL<; Kal rLfMcopTjaofMe" 
VOL dvBpa<; ol rovrov^ rrapa rov<; opKOV^ rjBiKrjaav • rjv Be Br] 
Kal vfiet^ rotovroL rjre ivS-evBe dp^ofieS^a ra BiKaia Xafx/Sd- 
veiv. 18. ^O Be ^evo^wv elirev ^E^eXotre S' av rovrot^, Sy 
M7]B6aaBe^y eTrcrpe'yJrai, eTreiBr) cj^lXov^ ecpare elvac v[xlVi iv 
o)V rfi %c«)pa eafiev, orrorepa av '^^rrj^lacovrav eXS* vpid^ rrpoa- 
TJKev eK rr}<; xdypci^ dmevai el^ 7]iid^ ; 19. ^O Se ravra fiev 
ovK e^T], eKeXeve Be fidXcara fiev avrco ro) AdKcove eXBeiv 
irapa ^ev^rjv rrepl rod fiia^ov, Kal oteaSac av ^ev^rjv rrel- 
aai • €^ Be firfy 'Sevo^covra avv avroj rrepLireiVy Kal av/JUTTpd- 
^etv vTTca'xyelro • iBetro Be ra^ Kcofia<; firj Kaieiv. 20. ^Ev- 
revBev rrefiirovai Bevo(f>S)vra Kal avv avroj ot eBoKovv eTrirr]- 
Betoraroo elvai, 'O S' eXScbv Xeyei irpo^; ^evSrjv • 

21. OvBev drrairrjawVy Si SevSr], nrdpeifiv dXXa BtBd^cov 
Tjv Bvvcopbai ct)9 oi) BtKaco)^ fioL rj')(^ea^r}^ ore vrrep rcov arpa- 
rccorcov diryrovv ae a nrpo^vpiw^^ v7rea')(ov avro2<; • aol yap 
eycoye ou^ rjrrov evofii^ov avii<^epov elvac aTToBovvai rj eKei- 
voi^ diroXa^elv. 22. Ilp&rov [lev yap olBa fJLera rov^ ^eov^ 
eh rb (pavepov ae rovrov^ Karaarrjaavra^y errei ye fiaatXia 
ae eTToiriaav TroXXrj^ X^P^^ ^^^ iroXX&v dvSpooircov * coare 
ovx olov re aot XavS^dvecv ovre rjV ri KaXov ovre tjv ri air 
axpov 7roLi]a7j<;. 23. ToLovrcp 8' ovre dvBpl /xeya jxev [lov 
iBoKec elvai jxr] BoKelv a;)^ap/(7Ta)9 diroirefX'^aa^ai dvBpa^ 

LIB. VII. CAP. VII. 205 

evepyira^;, fiiya 8' ev dfcovecv vtto k^aKLG")(p^L(ov dvS^pcoircov • 
TO Be /jLeytdrTOV fjLrjBafjLco'^ dircaTOV aavrov KaracTTpjcTac 6 to 
\eyoi^, 24. Opco yap to)v fiev dirlaTcov [laTalov^ /cat dBvvd- 
Tov^ KoX aTiiMov^ Tov^ Xoyov^ 7r\avco/jiivov^ • ot S* dv (pavepol 
axTLV d\7]3-€cav dorfcovvT€<;, tovtwv oi \6yoc, tjv to hicovTaOy 
ovhev fjuelov hvvavrao dvvcracr^ao i) dXkcov t] ^ia • 7]v t6 Tova^ 
cro)(^povii^eLV ^ovXoavTao, ycyvaxTKO) to,'^ tovt(ov dTretXd^ ov^ 
rjTTOv (7co(f>povo^ovG'a^ rj dXKcov to ijSr) /coXd^eov • 7]v re T(p to 
V7roa")(yo)VTao oi tooovtoo dvhpe<;, ovSkv pbeiov hoairpdTTovTao i) 
aXKoo 7rapa')^p7]fjia StSovTe^;. 25.;; ^ AvafJLvrjd^rjTO he koX av to 
7rpoTe\ecra<; r/fjitv G'vfjo/jid')(ov^ rjfjid^ eXaySe?. OlcrS-^ oto ov- 
Bev dXXd TTCorT6v3-el<; dXTf^evaecv aeXeye^ eirrjpa^ ToaovTov^ 
dv^pcoirov^ avG-TpaTevcrao-^al t6 /cal avyKaTepydaaa^ai aoo 
dp^Tjv ov TpoaKovTa fiovov d^lav ToXdvTcov, oaa olovtuo Betv 
ovToo vvv dTToXa^elv, dWd TToXkairXaaicov, 26. Ov/covv 
TOVTO fiev TTpcoTov TO TTOCTTevecr^aL ere to /cal ttjv ^adokeiav 
(TOO KaTepyaadjxevov tovtcov tcop j(p7jfjidTcov vtto crov iroirpd' 
GiceTat. 27. "156 Br] d^ajJLvrjc/isrjTO ttw? fjbeya 7770O TOTe Ka- 
Tairpa^aa^ai d vvv fc^aaTpeylrdfjoevo^ ^X^^^* ^Eyco puev ev 
olS" OTO ev^co dv Ta vvv ireTTpayfjueva /jluWov aoo /caTa7rpa')(^ 
^Tjvao rj 7roWa7r\d(Toa tovtcov tcov ')(^p7]/jLdTcov yevia^ao. 28. 
E/jLoI Toivvv [lel^ov fiXd/3o<^ teal aicryoov Bofceo elvao to TavTa 
vvv firj KaTao")(elv rj TOTe fir) \afieov, ocrcpirep j(aXe7rcoTepov i/c 
TrkovcTLOV TrevrjTa yevecr^ao rj Trjv dp')(r]v firj TrKovTrjorao • koX 
oacp XvTTTjpoTepov etc ^aao\eco^ IBocot7]v ^avrjvao rj dp')(rjv /nrj 
fiaaoXevcrao, 29. Ovkovv eiridTaaao jjuev oto oi vvv aoo VTrrj- 
Kooo yevofjbevoo ov (poXia tj) afj eTreia^Tjaav vtto aov ap;)^e- 
a^ac aW' dvdy/cy /cal oro e7n')(eopolev dv irakov iXev^epoo 
yiyvea^aoy el fiy^TO^ avTov^ (j)6^o<; Arare^ot. SO. UoTepco^ 
ovv oceo /jidXXov av (po^eoa'^ao re avTOv^ /cal (}>povecv Ta Trpo^ 
ae, el op&ev aoo tov^ aTpaTOOJTa^ ovtco BoaKeifievov^ co? vvv 
Te fievovTa^ dv el av KeXevoo<;, av^i^ t dv Ta')(y eX^6vTa<; el 
BioL, dXXov<; Te tovtcov irepl aov aKovovTa^ iroXXd dya^d 
Ta')(p dv aoo oiroTe /3ovXolo irapayevea'^ao' rj el /caTaBo^d- 
aeiav firjTe dv dXXov^ aoo eX^eov Bo" diroaTiav e/c tcov vvv 


^e^evrjixevcov tovtov<; re avrol^ evvovaripov^ elvav ^ crol ; 
31. ^AWa fM7]V ovSev ttXt^^ci ye rj/jL&v XetcptdivTe^ virei^dv 
croc, aXXa TrpoararMV airopia, Ovkovv vvv koI toOto /cIpSv- 
vo<; p^rj \dj3cocri TTpoo-Tdra^ avr&v riva<; tovtcov oi vo/jli^ov(tlp 
VTTo crov dScKeta^aL, rj fcal tovtcov KpeuTTOva^ tov<; AaicehaL- 
IMovLov^, eav oi jjuev aTpaTicoTai v7na')(ycovTai Trpo^vfjuoTepov 
avToh (TvaTpaTevea^aiy av tcu nrapa gov vvv dvairpd^coacVy 
ol he AafceSatfjLovLOL Sea to Beta^aL T'r]<; (TTpaTtd^; avvaiveaco- 
CTLV avTol^ TavTa, 32. ^^Otc j6 fjirjv oi virb col 0pa/ce^ yevo- 
fjievoo TToXv av Trpo^vpLOTepov cocev iirl ae rj <tvv col ov/c dBrj- 
\ov ' (Tov fjbev yap KpaTOvvTO^ BovXeia V7rdp')(ec avToc^ • Kpa- 
Tovfjuevov Be gov eXev^epia, 33. El Be fcal T7]<; xd)pa^ rrpo- 
voela^ai 7]Br] tl Bel 6)<; arj^ ovo-7j<;, 7roTep(o<; av oXei aTra^ij 
Ka/ccbv /jloXXov avT7]v elvav el ovtol oi aTpaTCcoTac diroXa- 
^6vTe<; a iyfcaXovcrcv elprjvrjv KaTcCKiirovTe^ ot')(pLVTOy rj el 
ovTOL Te [levoiev co? ev TroXefila crv re aXXoi;? irecpwo TrXeco- 
va<^ T0VT(DV e)(cov avTiorTpaTOTreBevea^ai Beofjievov^; tS)V eirL- 
TrjBetcov ; 34. ^Apyvpiov Be 7roTepco<; av ifKelov dvaXco^eir], 
el TovTOi^ TO 6(})et\6fJLevov aTToBo^elr], rj el Tama Te o<^ei\oiTO 
oKkov^ Te KpeiTTova^ tovtcov Beoc ere /jllct^ overeat ; 35. 
^AXKa yap ^HpaickelBrj, a)9 7rpo9 €/xe eBrjkov, ird/JbTToXv BoKel 
TovTo TO dpyvpiov elvai. '^H jjifjv ttoXv ye ecTTtv ekaTTOv vvv 
croi fcal XajSelv tovto /cal diroBovvai, rj irplv rj/id'^ eX^elv 7rpb<; 
criy TO BifcaTOV tovtov yitepo?. 36. Ov yap dpo^fio^ eaTLV 6 
opL^cov TO TToXv Kal TO oXiyov, aXV r] Bvvapbc^ tov Te diroBc- 
BovTo^ Kal TOV XafJL^dvovTO'^, ^ol Be vvv r/ /cut ev avTov 
iTpocroBo^ TrXeicov ecTTai rj efJiTTpoa'^ev Ta TrapovTa a eKefCTrj- 
(JO, 37. ^Eyco pbeVi ^ ^ev^r], TavTa 0)9 (j>iXov ovto^ croi irpo- 
evoovjJLTjv, oTTco^ GV Te a^io^ Bof€otr}<; elvav o)V oi S^eol gov eBco- 
Kav dya^cov iyco Te /jlt) Bia^^apeirjv ev Ty GTpaTta. 38. Ev 
yap igS^l oTi vvv iyco ovt av i'x^pov ^ovXofJbevo^^ Katco)^ ttoct]- 
Gao Bvv7]9-eLrjv gvv TavTrj ttj GTpaTia ovt av el gov irdXtv 
fiovXolfjLTjv (3or)!^Gac, ifcavo^ av yevolfjbrjv. Ovtco yap irpo^ 
fie 97 GTpaTia Bid/cevTat, 39. KaiToi avTov Ge fidpTvpa gvv 
.Jeot9 elBoGt TTocovfJiaL otl ovTe e%a) irapa gov eirl tocs GTpd- 

LIB. VII. CAP. VII. 207 

TicoTat<; ovBev cure yrrjaa nrcoTTore etV rb cBtov ra eKeivcov 
ovre a v7reG")(ov fJLoc airyrrjaa, 40. "OfjiVV/jCL Si cot, fiTjS" 
d7roScB6vTO<; Bi^aaS^ao dv, el fjurj fcal oi arparicbTac efjieWov 
ra iavTcov crvvaTTokafji/SdveLV. AlG")(^pov jdp rjv rd fiev i/jud 
Bca7r6TTpd')(^^at, rd Be eKeivcov irepuBelv ifxe Kaf<:co<; eypvra 
dWco<; re koX TtjjLco/jLevov vtt eKeivcov. 41. Kairou 'HpuKXel- 
Brj rye \?/po9 iravra BoKel elvai irpo<; to dpjvpcov e')(eLV e/c Trav- 
To^ rpoTTOV • ejco Be^ m SevS^, ovBev vo/jll^co dvBpl dWco<; re 
Kal dp')(0VTi KaXKiov etvai KTrjiia ovBe Xafjiirporepov dpeTrj<^ 
Koi BiKaioavvri^ kol yevvaLorrjTO^;, 42. ^O <ydp raOra e')(cov 
TrXovrel fiev ovrcov ^tXcov 'ttoWcov, ifXovrel Be koX dXkcov 
l3ovkofievcov yeviaS^ai • koI ev fxev Trpdrrcov e')(eL tov<^ avvrj- 
cr^rjCTOiievov'^, edv Be tl crcj^aXfj, ov aTravi^ec rcov fioi^Brjcrov- 
Tcov, 43. ^AXkd jdp el fJLtjre e/c rcov e/xcov epycov KarefjuaBe^ 
OTL aoi eK Tri<^ '\jrv')(fl^ cj^iXo^ tjv, fjLyre eK rcov e(io)v \6jcov Bv- 
vaorac touto jvcovaCy dWd tou? tcov aTpaTicoTcov Xojov^ nrdv- 
Tco^ KaTav6r](T0V • TrapijaS^a jdp koX rjKove^, d eXejov ol n^re- 
yeiv ifjie ^ov\6/jLevoL. 44. KaTrjyopovv yap julov 7r/309 AaKe- 
Bac/JL0VL0V<; a)9 ce nrepX Trkeiovo^ ttocol/jltjv rj AaKeBacjuiovlov^ • 
avTol S' eveKoXovv ifJLol co? fJidXkov jiekoL [jlol 6ttco<; Td ad 
KaXcb<; €')(^0L rj 67rco<; Td eavTcov • e^acrav Be fie Kal Bcopa e^eiz/ 
Trapd (70 1). 45. KaiToc Td Bcopa TavTa iroTepov olei avTov<; 
KaKovoidv Tiva eviBovTa^ fiot irpo^; ere alTida^ai fie e')(eiv 
Trapd GOV rj irpo^Vfiiav TToWrjv irepl cre KaravorjaavTa^ ; 
46. ^Ejcb fjuev olfjiac irdvTa^ dv^pd^irov^ vofii^etv evvouav Belv 
diroKelcT^av tovtco Trap ov dv Bcopa tl<; Xafi^avrj, Xv Be, 
TTplv fiev vTTTjpeTrjaaL tl croc ifie eBe^co ^ySeo)? koI ofifiaat Kal 
cf>covfj Kal ^evioL^ Kal ocra eaocTO vTriC7')(vovfJbevo^ ovk eveTrifi" 
Tfkaao • eVei Be KaTeTrpa^a^ d i/SovXov Kal jejevrjaac ocrov 
ijco eBvvdfiTjv fJueyiaTo^y vvv ovtco fie aTCfiov ovTa ev toc^ 
aTpaTccoTac<; ToXfia^ Trepiopav ; 47. ^AXkd firjv otl aoc Bo- 
^ei aTToBovvao TncPTevco Kal tov ')^p6vov BcBd^ecv ere Kal avTOV 
ji ae ov')(l dve^eaS-ac tov'^ crol Trpoefievov<; evepyecrlav opcovTa 
(TOO ijKaXovvTas* Aiofiac ovv aov, oTav aTroBiBw^, Tvpo^v- 


[lela^ai e/xe irapa roL<; arparLcorac^ toiovtov Trocrjcrat, oloih 
irep KoX TrapeXaffe^. 

48. ^AKovaa^ ravra 6 ^ev^rj^ /carypdaaro ra> alrlco rov 
/JL7] TToXao aTToSeSocr^ai top paa^ov koX iravre^ 'HpaKXelSrjv 
TovTov VTrcoTrrevaav eivao • ^Ejco jdp^ €(f)7], ovt€ hievorf^rjv 
TTcoTTOTe dTToareprjcrai aTToScoaco re. 49. Evrev^ep TrdXcv 
el-rrev 6 ^evo(^cov. ^Eirel tolvvv Stavofj aTroScSovac vvv iyco 
aov Sio/jLUL Sl ijJLov aTroScSovai, koI /jlt] Trepuhelv fxe Scd ae 
dvo/jLOLQ^^ e')(0VTa iv rfj err par ta vvv re koX ore 7rpo<; ore d(pL/c6' 
/jie^a, 50. 'O S' elirev* ^AXkd ovre tols G-TparccoTaL^ earj hC 
€fjL6 aTifioTepo^ • av re fievrj^ irap ifiol j(l\lovs fjiovov^ ottXi- 
Ta9 €')(^cop^ ij(o aoi rd re %ct)p/a aTroScoaco kol raXXa a vire- 
ar)(^6fjL7]v, 51. ^O Se irdXiv elire • Tavra ficv e^^LV ovrco^ ot';^ 
olop T€ • diroirefjLire he rjfxa'^. KoX [xtjv^ e^rj 6 Sev^rj^^ /cal 
da-^aXearepov ye aot olSa bv irap ijiol fieveiv rj drtnevai. 
52. 'O he TrdXtv elirev • ^AXkd rrjv fxev ar]v irpovotav eiraivoi ' 
e/xol he fievecu ou^ olov Te • ottov S' dv iyco ivn/jLOTepo^ w, 
vo/jiL^e fcal (Tol tovto dya^ov eaea^ac. 53. ^Evrev^ev Xeyec 
Sev^T]^;' ^ApyvpLov puev ovic ey<o dX)C rj fiiKpov tCj kol tovto 
aoi hihcofjiL^ TdXavTov /3ov<i 6' e^afcoalov^ fcal TrpofiaTa €t9 
TeTpaKLcr^lXia koX dphpairoha eh ecfcoao /cal ifcaTov, TavTa 
Xa^cov /cal tov^ tcov dhcfcrjcrdvTcov ae 6fJiijpov<; TrpoaXa^cbv 
aTTi^c. 54. TeXdaa<^ 6 'Sievo^cop elirep* 'Up ovp /jltj i^LKvrj- 
Tao Tavra €6? top fxia^op, tlpo^ TdXaPTOp ^rjcrco e')(ecp ; ^Ap 
ov/Cj eireihr} /cal eirifCLphvpop pbol iaTCp, dinovTa ye dfieipop 
(j)vXdTTea^aL irerpov; ; "H/cove<; he Ta^ direiXd^. Tore iiep 
hrj avTov efietpe, 

55. Ty S* vdTepaia d7rehco/ce Te avToc^ a vireo-j(eTo KaX 
Tov^ Tavra eXdaoPTa<; o-vpeTre/Myfrep. 01 he CTparLcoTab recy? 
fiep eXeyop co? ^epo^cop ot')(pLTO a)9 Sev^rjp olicrjaccp Kal a 
viTea-)(ero avrai diroXrj'^6pLepo<^ • eirel he avrop rjtcopra elhop^ 
rja^rjordp re /cal Trpoae^eop, 56. 'Bepo^chp S' errel elhe Xap- 
fuvop re Kal IIoXvvl/cop, Tavra, e(f)7], Kal aeacoo-rac he u/i-a? 
T'p cTTpaTta Kal irapahlhcofic avrd iyco vfxlp* v/jLeL<; he StaSe- 
f^epoL hcdhore rfj crrpaTLa, 01 fxep ovp TrapaXa^opre^ fcal 


Xacj^vpoTTcoXa^ KaraaTijoravTe^; iTTcoKovv, koX iroWrjv eL')(ov 
alrcav. 57. Hevocjjcbv Se ov nrpoafjeiy aXka cj^avepo^ rjv otfcaBe 
7rapaaKeva^Qfjbevo<^' cv <ydp ttco '\^rj(^o<^ avrcp iirrjiCTO ^A^7]vr)crc 
*ir€pl (f)vyr]^. UpoaeX^ovre^ Se avrco oi iTriTTJSetoo iv tc3 
arparoTriScp iSiovro fir) direX^elv irplv av dTrajdjoi to arpd- 
Tevfxa Kol @i/3pcovL irapaholr]. 


1. 'EvTeu^ev BteTrXevaav ek Adji'^aKov* koX diravja TftJ 
S€vo(f)cbvTL Ev/c\€lS7]^ fidpTt^; ^Xidaio^ Kkeayopov vlo^ rod ra 
evvirvia iv AvKeicp fy€ypa(l)6ros> Ovto^ avvrjhero tc3 Sei^o- 
(j)a)VTL OTi iaeacoaro • /cal r}p(OTa avrbv iroaov 'X^pvaLov e^ot, 
2. 'O S' avTcp eirofioaa^ elirev rj jxrjv eaea^ai firjS* icj^oScov 
LKavbv ot/caSe dirLovTC, el [xr] d/rrohoLTo top lttttov koI a d/jL(pl 
avTov el^ev, 3. ^O S' avrco ov/c iirLarevev, ^Enrel S' eTre/JL" 
'\^av AafiylraKTjvol ^evca tc3 'Sevocpcovrc kol e^ve ro) ^AttoWcO' 
VL) TrapearrjaaTO tov EvKkei^rjV IScov Se tcl lepela 6 EvKkei- 
S?;9 elirev on irel^oLTo avrS fxr] elvav ')(^prjfjLaTa, ^AX>J olSa 
ecprj, OTL Kav [xeXkr] Trore eVecrSa^, ^alverai tl i/iTroStov, idv 
fjLTjSev dWo, (TV aavrS. SwcopLoXoyet ravra 6 'Eevoc^Siv. 4. 
^O S' elirev ^E/jlttoSlo'^ ydp aoc 6 Zev<^ 6 W[€iXL')(i6s icrrc' koX 
iiT7]p€T0 el rjhrj Trore ^vaeteVj coarrep ot/coc, e^'^, elco^ecv ijcb 
vfuv ^vea^aL fcal oXoKavrelv. ^O he ovfc €(j)7j i^ orov aTreST]- 
fjLTjae re^VKevac tovtco rep ^ew. ^vve^ovXevaev ovv avTM 
^vea^ai Ikol] a eloo^eL, koX €(j)7] cvvoiaeiv iirl to ^eXnov. 
6. Tfi S' varepaia 6 aevo^oyv irpoeX^cov el<; ^O^pvviov e^vero 
fcal ooiXofcavrec ')(olpov^ rS Trarpio) vofxco • koX i/caXXtipeL, 6. 
Kal Tavrrj rfj rj/nepa d(j)LfcveLTaL Bircov fcal afia Eu/cXe/S?;? 
'XpTJ/jLara SaxTovre^ to) crTparevpiaTi • koX ^evovvrai re too 
'Si€vo(f>c!)VTC Kal LTTTTOV OV iv Aa/xyfraKcp dTTeSoro TTevTrjKovra 
SapeLfccov, vTTOTTTevovTe<? avrov Sl evSecav TreTTpaKevac, ort 
YjKovov avTov 7]8ea^aL tc3 lttttco, Xvadpievoc aTrehoaav Kal rfjv 
TLfjL7)v ovK i]^eXov aTToXaj^elv* 


7. ^EvT€v^€v eiTopevovTO Sea rfj'^ Tp(pdSo<;^ 'kol vTvep^avres 
rrjv ^I8r]p €69 "AvravSpov a(^LKVovvrai Trpcorov • elra irapa 
^dXarrav 'iTopevofievoo ttj^ Avhias eU &rj^7]<; irehiov, 8. 
^Evreifinev St ^Arpafjivrriov koX Keprcovov irap ^Arapvea eU 
Ka'iKOV irehlov i^J^ovres IlepjajJLOV KaraXafi/Sdvovac Trj<; Mv- 

^Evrav^a Srj ^evovrao Si€Vocj)cJ!)V irap' ^EXXdSc rfj Foyyv- 
Xov Tov ^Ep€Tpt€co<; yvvacKL KoX Topyicovo^ KoX Toyyiikov 
fJLTjTpL 9. AvTT] S' avTM (j)pd^6L OTL ^AacSdrrjf; iarlv iv tco 
nrehicp dvrjp TIeparj<^ • tovtov e^rj avrov, el e\!^oc ttjs vvkto^^ 
avv Tpca/cocrioL^ dvBpdac, Xa/Secv av koI avrov Kal yvvalKa 
KoX TralSa^ Kal ra ^^pijfiara • elvac Be TroXXd. Tavra 8e 
Ka^7]y7](To/jLevov<^ eire/jLyfre top re avrrj^ dve-^iov Kal Aa(\>vay6- 
pav^ ov irepl TrXeiarov eiroLelro, 10. "E^cov ovv 6 'Sepo^cov 
TovTov<; Trap' eavrco i^vero, Kal Baala^ 6 ^HXeio^ [idvTL^ 
irapcbv etirev on KdXkiara ecr] ra lepa avro) Kal 6 dvrjp dXco' 
at/xo^ ecr], 11. Aenrvrjaa^ ovv eiropevero rov^; re Xo')(ayov<^ 
Tov<; fidXccrra ^iXov^ Xa/3(ov Kal Tnarrov^ yeyvT] fxevov^ Sia 
TravTo^j 07r(D^ ev iroiiqcrai avTOv^^ ^vve^epyovraL Be avroo 
Kal aXXoL ^taadfievoc eh e^aKoaiov^ • ol Be Xoj(ayol dirrjXaV' 
vov, Lva /JLT} fjberaholev to fiepo^;, co? eroL/ncov Brj '^prj/jbdrcov. 

12. ^Eirel Be d(j>lK0VT0 Trepl fjLeaa<; vvKTa<;, ra fiev irepc^ 
ovra dvBpdTToBa t7]<; rvpcrco^ Kal j^^prjfiaTa ra irXelara dirkBpa 
avTov<^ 7rapa/xeXovvTa<;, w? tov ^AacBdrrjv avTov Xdfiotev Kal 
Ta eKeivov. 13. TIvpyoiia')(ovvTe<^ S' eVel ovk iBvvavTO Xa/3ecv 
Trjv Tvpacv, v-y^rfXr] yap rjv Kal fieydXTj Kal Trpofxa'^^ecovas Kal 
av8pa<^ 7roXXov<; Kal iJba')(^ipLov^ e^ovaa^ BiopvTTetv eTTe')(eiprj<Tav 
TOV TTvpyov, 14. ^O Be toI')(o^ rjv eirl oktoo irXiv'^cov yrjtvcov 
TO evpo<;, ^^Afia Be Tjj '^/Jiepa BtopcopvKTO • Kal w to irpSoTov 
Bcecj^dvrjj eTrdra^ev evBo^ev ^ovTTopco Tt<; o^eXiaKM BiafJiTreph 
TOV firjpov TOV eyyvTdTco • to Be Xolttov eKTo^evovTe<; eiroiovv 
firjBe Traptevav ere da<^aXes elvac, 15. KeKpayoTcov S' avTcbv 
Kal TTvpaevovTcov iK^orfbovacv 'lTa^eXto<; fiev e^cov rrjv eav- 
TOV BvvafjbTjv, €K KofjLavia<; Be OTrXlrac ^Acravpioi Kal TpKdvioi 
l7nrel<^ Kal ovtol ^aauXeco^ /ntcr^o^opoL co? oyBorjKovraj Kal 


aXKoL ireXrao-Tal eh o/crafcocrLov^ • aXXoc S' ifc Uap^evlov, 
aWoL S' e^ 'A7roXko)VLa<; kol i/c rcbv ifKrjCTLOV 'xcopLcov koX 

16. ^Evrav^a Srj copa rjv (TKoireiv ttco? ecrrai 77 d(f>oSo<;* 
Kol Xa^ovres o(tov rjcrav /Soe^; fcal irpo^ara rfKavvov fcal ra 
avSpaTToSa ivTo^ ifkaicriov rrroirjcrdfjievot * ov tols "X^pt^pLaatv 
ovTco Trpoai'^vre^ rov vovv, aXXa fir] <pvj7j elrj rj d<poSo^, el 
KaTakcTTovre^^ rd y^prjfxara aTrlocej^, /cat 01 re TrdXefJLLOi ^pacrv- 
re poo elev koX oi arpaTCcoraL d^vfxorepOL • vvp Be dirrjeaav w? 
ire pi TO)V ')(^p7]fidTcov fJLaj(oviJbevot. 17. ^Eirel he ecopa Foyyv- 
X09 oXlyov^ fiev tol<^ ^'EXKrjva^;, 7roWov<^ Be rov^ eTnfcetfJLevov^, 
e^ep')(eTaL kol avTo<^ /3la t?}? firfrpo^ ^X^^ ^V^ eavrov Svvafjicv, 
^ovkofievo^ fieraa-xelv rov epyov • crvve/3o7]'^ec Be /cat Upo- 
/cX^9 ef 'AXtcrdpvr]^ /cat Tev^pavia^ 6 diro AafxapaTov. 18. 
01 Be irepX ^evocj^covTa eirel Trdvv rjBr] eTne^ovro viro tcop 
To^ev/jbaTcov koX aAevSovcov, TTopevopievoL kvkKw^ otto)? Ta oTrXa 
exotev nrpo tcop ro^evfidrcov, fjLoXc^ Sca^atvovcrc top Kat/cop 
TTora/jiOP, rerpoofjiepoo eyyu? ol ^/uLtcreL^, 19. ^Eprav^a koX 
^Ayacria^ XTvpi^6Xio<^ XoXfiyo^ Tirpcoo-Kerac, top irdpTa XP^' 
POP pLa')(Ofiepo<^ nrpo^ tov^ iroXefiiov^;. Kal Scaaco^QPTat, dpSpd- 
TToSa 0)9 BtaKoata exoPTe<; koI 7rp6/3aTa oorop ^vfjuaTa, 

20. Ti] Be vcTTepaia ^vcrdfjLepo<; 6 aepocj^cop e^dyei pvKTcop 
Trap TO crTpdTev/jLa, ottco^ otl fiafcpoTdTrjp eX^ot tt}? AvSia^j 
MCTTe jjLT] Bid TO iyyv^ ehac <f)o^eco-^aL, aXX' dcjyvXafCTelp, 21. 
O S' ^AcnBdTT]^ dfcovaa^ otc irdXip eir avrop Te^v/juepo^ etrj 
'Biepocl>c!)P KoX ttuptI tS o-TpaTevfJcaTL rj^oi, e^avXi^eTao ek fcco- 
fxa^ VTTo TO Uap^eptop iroXicrixa exovca^, 22. ^EpTav'^a oi 
Trepl aepocfyooPTa crvPTvy')(dpovaLP avTa> Kal Xapu^dpovaip av- 
TOP Kal yvpacKa Kal iralBa^ Kal tov^ lttttov^ Kal nrdpTa Ta 
ovTa • Kal OVTCO Td irpoTepa lepd direct], 23. ''EireiTa irdXtp 
d(piKPovPTao eh Tlepyafiop, ^EpTav^a top ^eop ovk yTcdaaTO 
6 aepocpcop* crvperrpaTTOP ydp Kal ol AdKo^ves Kal oi Xo')(ayol 
Kai 01 aXXoc aTpaTrjyot Kal oi cTTpaTicoTac axTTe e^alpeTa 
Xafi^dpeLP Kal Xttttov^ Kal ^evyrj Kal TaXXa ' coaTe iKapop 
ehac Kal^dXXop tjStj ev iroielp, 24. 'E/c tovtov Ql^pcop 


7rapayev6fjb€Vo^ irapiXa^e rb crrpdrev/jia koX orv/Xfjii^a^ tc5 
aXXft) 'EXKrjvcfco) iiroXe/Jbec irpos Ttaaacpepprjv koX ^apvd- 

25. "Ap'XpVTe'; Se ocSe rr}? ^aarCkeco^ ^copa? oar]v eirrfK^O' 
fiev, AuBLa<; ^ApTi/Jia<; • ^pvyia^ ''Apra/cdfia^ • Avicaovia^ 
fcal KaTTTraSofcia^ Mc^piSdrr}^ • KcXtKia^: I!v6vvecn<; • ^olvl- 
KT]^ /cal^Apa^ia<; AepvT]^' Svpia^ fcal ^Aaavpia<; BeXeav;* 
Ba/3u\c!)vo<; 'Pco7rdpa<; ' Mrjhla^; ^Ap^dKa^ • ^aaiavcov Kal 
^EairepiTwv Trjpi^a^o^; • Kaphov')(ot he koX XaXuySe? kcu 
XaXSaloL Kol MdKpcov€<; Kal KoX'^oo koI MoaavpoLKOL koI 
Kolrac Kol TL/3apr]vol avrovofjuoc • IIacf)Xayovia<; KopvXa<i ' 
Bt^vvcov ^apvd^a^o^ • tcov iv EvpcoTrrj Opafccjp 5'ei^S^?. 

26. ^Apc^/jLo^; Se cj'Vfj.TrdaT]^ t?}? oSov ttjs dva^daecD^ koX 
Kara/Sdcrea)^ ara^/uLol Bcafcoaioc heKairevre^ irapaadyyai yi^ 
Xtob i/carov irevrrjKovra irevre, crrdhia rpiajuLVpca TerpaKia- 
j^iXta e^afcoaia TrevTTJfcovro. Xpovov TrXrfbo^ ttj^ dva^daeo)^ 
Kal KaTafidaeoo^ evLavro^ Kal rpeh fjurfves* 




1. Aapelov, Darius Ochus or JSFothus (j/6^os\ so called because he was an 
illegitimate son of Artaxerxes. He was the second king of Persia bearing 
that name. The following is a tabular list of the Persian monarchs, with the 
length of their respective reigns, from the Medo-Persian union to the termina- 
tion of the empire : 










Cyaxares II. 



Xerxes II. 













Darius Nothus 






Artaxerxes Mnemon 



Darius Hystaspis 



Darius Ochus 



Xerxes I. 






Artaxerxes Longimanus 




Darius Codomanus 


After the disastrous expedition of Xerxes I. into Greece, the kingdom gradu- 
ally declined, until it was subverted by Alexander the Great. Many of the 

kings were weak, cruel, and licentious. Uapva'dridos, Pary satis, both 

sister and wife of Darius. yiyi/ourai. Historical present =:2^'ere boroi, 

S. § 211. N. 1. /TraTSey dvo. Plutarch (Artax. i. 27) mentions several 

other children of Darius. According to Ctesias there were thirteen. 

'ApraleplTjs, Artaxerxes, surnamed Mnemon from his retentive memory. He 
died in the ninety-fourth year of his age, being assassinated, as some say, by 
his son Ochus ; while others affirm, that he died of a broken heart in conse- 
quence of the unnatural treatment which he received from his sons. Kvposy 

Cyrus J generally styled "the Younger," to distinguish him from the elder 
Cyrus whose "history is given in the Cyropsedia. /lev Se. "These parti- 
cles," says Butt. (§ 149. p. 432), " serve to form a connection, like our in- 

214 NOTES. [Book I. 

^eed — hut ; yet are far more frequently employed than these English particles, 
which usually require a strong antithesis, while iikv and 5e only place two, 
propositions or clauses in a connection, which with us is either not expressed 
at all, or at most by hut alone." Cf. Mt. § 622. In this place Se is continua- 

tive, so that the force of fxlv cannot well be given in EngUsh. 'EttcI 5e. 

Here Se is also continuative. Cf. Butt. § 149. p. 431. €$ov\€to rth Trai8e 

ajjL(poT€pw irape7vai, he wished his children both to be present. The article has 
often the force of a possessive pronoun. See more fully K on 5. § 16. For 
the construction, cf. S. § 221. 

2. ouj/ serves in this place to express the external connection between the 

sentences. irap^u irvyxave, happened to he present. Cf. H. § 805. 5. 

6 Trp€(r^vT€po5 Trapd)!/ irvyx^ye is put by prolepsis for rhu irpecr^vTepou irapcTj/at 

irvyxaye. See N. on 2. § 8. Kvpov Se fieraTrefjiirerat, hut he sends (S. 

§ 211. K 1) for Cyrus to come to him (H. § 689. 2). To this sense of the 

mid. voice, airh rrjs apxvs, from the government^ conforms. S. § 235. 

apx'hi beginning^ is here used in a tropical sense to designate the country of 
which Cyrus was satrap. ^'Ssepissime dicitur de natione vel regione imperio 

satrapae subjecta." Sturz. cTroirya-e, aTreSeiJe. The aor. used for the plu- 

perf. Cf. Butt. § 13Y. 3; S. § 211. N". 4; Goodwin, § 19. K 4. The title 
carpdTTTjs seems to have been bestowed upon a governor in his civil, and 

crrpaTTjySsy in his military capacity. Kaa-rcoXov. In the Persian provinces 

certain plains were designated for military reviews, or the transaction of any 
business which required the assemblage of large bodies of men. The plain of 
Castolus was in Lydia. ava^aivu (§211. N. 1) — avi^7\. The histori- 
cal pres. is freely interchanged with the historic tenses. See H. § 699. 

ava^aivei is used of a journey to a celebrated city, or, as in the present in- 
stance, from the sea-coast into the interior. TKra-atpcpvyij/, Tissaphernes^ the 

same who announced to Artaxerxes the revolt of his brother. He commanded 
the left wing of the royal forces at Cunaxa, and for his good conduct on that 
occasion was rewarded with the hand of one of the king's daughters. He was 
mean, perfidious, and cruel, and at last came to an end worthy of his crimes, 

being beheaded by the king for his ill success in opposing Agesilaus. ws 

(piAoVj ''''quern (inductus hominis versuti simulatione) amicum sibi putabat.^^ 
Kriig. Cf. i(\>o^ovvTo &S 4j/edpap ovcrav, V. 2. § 30, where ws has the same 

force. Kol — Se, and — also. rcav *E\K^pa>v, of the Greeks who were in 

his pay. Notice the restrictive force of the article. H. § 527. oirXlras. 

Cf. N. on 2. § 2. Uappd(noy. The Parrhasii were a people in the south- 
western part of Arcadia. 

3* KareCTrj els t))u ^a(n\€iay, became established in the Jcingdom^ i. e. in 
the royal authority, "rex factus est." Kriig. "regno potitus est." Sturz. 
KarccTTj signifies rest in a place, yet has here the idea of motion from its con- 
struction with €ts. Cf. Mt. § 5Y8. a; S. § 236 ; H. § 618. a.- StajSaWet 

rhv Kvpou irphs rhv ade\(l>hj/ us iiri^ovXcifoi avT^, accuses Cyrus to his brother 

Chap. L] NOTES. 215 

of plotting against him, 5m)3aA.\6t, traduces; a tropical signification from 
the primitive meaning of the word, to transport^ carry over, etc. Hence to 
deliver over to any one in words, to inform against one ; from which is de- 
rived the specific signification to accuse falsely, probably from the well-known 
fact, that an informer often calumniates those whom he accuses. d>s = to the 
effect that. H. § S'ZS, a. iiri^ovXcvoi is put in the optative because dia^dw^i 

is the historical present. C. §§592 ; 576. 3 ; S. § 212. 3. *0 de, i. e. the 

king. The article here = to the demons, pron. Cf Butt. § 126. 4; S. § 166. 

T6 /cat, and also, "When re and koI are joined in the same member of 

sentence, re is copulative and Koi augmentative." Vig. p. 195. Cf Butt. 
§ 149. p. 431. The king not only lent an ear to the false accusation made 

against his brother, but even went so far as to apprehend him. ojs aTro/cre- 

vaVf in order to put him to death. The fut. part, with ws marks intention or 
purpose. Cf Mt. § 668; H. §§ '789. d; '795. e. For the facility with which 
the Greeks could avail themselves of participles, where we should be obHged 

to employ verbs, cf Butt. § 144. 4 ; S. § 225. 1. e^airrjcaixeyr] aurov, hav- 

ing hy her entreaties obtained his pjardon ; lit. having begged him off for her 
own sake. For this reflexive signification of the middle voice, cf. Mt. § 492. 
6; S. § 209. 2; H. § 689. 2. Parysatis had an unbounded influence over 
Artaxerxes. avrhy belongs also to airoirefMirei. 

4. 0)5 aTTYjX^ej when he went away. The pluperf. {ivhe7i he had departed) 
was properly required here, but the relation of time being apparent from the 
context, the aorist is employed as the more favorite tense; Cf. Butt. § 137. 

K". 1; S. § 211. N. 14; H. § 706. See K on § 2. 'dircos fi-fiirore in, how 

never after, that never for the future. M t^j ade\(p$, in the power of his 

brother. For this use of €7rt, cf Mt. § 585. b; H. § 640. c. avr iKeiyov, 

instead of him. fxev 5^, and in truth, fikv has here the sense of fji-fju. See 

H. § 852. 13. virripx^ t$ Kvpq), favored Cyrus, i. e. espoused his cause and 

favored his designs. 

5* offTis — wdpTas. A plural antecedent is often followed by the relative 
singular, in order to individualize the expression (Mt. § 475. a; C. § 497. 
N. 1), when any one of the preceding number is referred to, without being 

specifically designated. Cf. Mt. § 475. a. rcou irapa ^a(ri\4cos, lit. of those 

from the king, i. e. the king's courtiers, or messengers. Kriig. says, that by 
a kind of attraction, ruu irapa ^aciXeojs = tSov irapa fiaciX^? irapa ^aa-iXecos, 

Cf Mt. § 596. ovTQ) ^lari^ELs, thus disposing them (by his favors). 

Ka\ T<av Trap' eavra) de ^ap^dpcov iireficKeTTO ws, is put proleptically for 

iirefxeXeiro us ol ^dp^apoi, K. r. \. See N. on 2. § 21. For the construction 
of the gen. cf H. § 576 ; C. § 376. 5. The Greeks were in the habit of calling 
all other people barbarians. ^vvolkcos exoieu aur^, might be favorably dis- 
posed towards him. e%€iy with adverbs literally signifies, to have one's self, 
to be circumstanced = ehai, to be ; e. g. naXoos ex^h ^t ^^ ^'^^^ / advvdrcos ^x^lu, 
to be unable. Cf Butt. § 150. p. 445 ; S. § 195. 1 ; H. § 792. b. He wisely 

216 NOTES. [Book I. 

began his warlike preparations, by making his subjects good soldiers and zeal- 
ous friends. 

6. The course which Cyrus adopted to strengthen his army by invitino* the 
Greeks to join his standard, was well planned, and in the issue would have 
crowned his arms with success, had he not fallen at Cunaxa in the moment of 
victory. The manner in which he eluded the sagacity of his enemies, while 
raising these forces, shows him to have been a consummate politician as well 

as an able commander. dvpafiiv, force, abstract for concrete. The article 

is here employed, either because the achievements of the Greek forces are the 
principal theme of the subsequent books, or from the notoriety of their con- 
nection with the expedition of Cyrus. Cf. S. §167. ^^poiCcu, The im- 

perf. denotes continuance of action. S. § 211. 5. &S ixdhicrra idwaTo 

iTriKpv7rT6iii€vosy as secretly as possible, dis with the superlative, is often joined 
with words signifying ability, possibility, etc. Cf. Mt. § 461 ; S. § 159. 6. 

The reason for this secrecy is given in the next clause. oVt like ojs 

strengthens the superlative. oirScras iKacrois, The order is irapiiyyaXe 

Tots (ppovpdpxois iKOLcrrois t^v <pvXaRwv 6'ir6<xas cTxe k. t. A. Cf. V. 4. § 30, for 
an example of the same construction. ^uAa/cas, guards, abstract for con- 
crete, a figure of such frequent occurrence as to require no further notice ex- 
cept in special cases. uv^pas U^Xoirovvriffiovs, Peloponnesians. S. § 156. 

K 5. Reference is had especially to the Arcadians, who, as Prof. Boise re- 

marivS, were employed more than any other Greeks as mercenaries. d;s 

iiri^ov\€voj/ros Ti(T(Tad)epj/ovs, under pretence that Tissaphernes was plotting, 
or because (as he pretended) Tissaphernes was plotting. Kriig. says, that ws is 
used here, de re quce prcetextitur, and makes ws iirt^ovXevovTos = Trpo<pa(nC6jJLe' 
vos oTi iTTi^ovXevot. For the construction of ojs with the particip. cf. Mt. § 568 ; 
Butt. § 144. K 14 ; S. § 225. 4. The student should carefully mark the uses 

and significations of this particle. yap in the next clause introduces the 

reason why Tissaphernes might be supposed to have designs upon those cities, 
viz., because they anciently belonged to him, but had then revolted to Cyrus. 
yap, for, "never stands at the beginning of a proposition, but instead of it Kal 
yap is employed like etenim in Latin. The proposition, of which that with 
yap assigns the cause, is often omitted, it being so easily understood that it is 

passed over by the speaker in the vivacity of his discourse." Mt. § 615. 

^cav' The imperf. is frequently used for the pluperf. when it signifies the 
long continuance or frequent repetition of an action. Cf. II. 1. § 6 ; VI. 3. 

§ 22. rh apxcuou, formerly, long before. The neut. art. is put adverbially 

with adjectives and substantives. iic ^atriXicas, by the Icing. With passive 

verbs e'fc is used instead of hirb with the genitive. S. § 231 ; H. § 624. c. 

MtX^rov, Miletus was a large and flourishing city in the northern part of 
Caria, opposite the mouth of the Maeander. 

7. irpoaiff^Sfjicj/os ra avrb. ravra /SovXevoficvovs, perceiving beforehand that 
(certain of the citizens) were forming the same design. For the construction 

Chap. I.] ^ NOTES. 217 

of ^ov\€voiiivovs, cf. S. § 225. 7. By supplying nvas and joining it with 
^ovXevoiiivovs to ej/ MiK'fjTcp, the statement will harmonize with the one made, 

9, g 9, aTTocrrivaL irphs Kvpou explains ra avra ravra in the preceding 

clause. Cf. Mt. § 532. d A word or clause thus added by way of explana- 
tion is called ejjexegetical. robs ixev — rovs 5*, some — others, viroXa^ 

^ooy, receiving^ i. e. taking under his protection. tovs (pevyovras, the exiles. 

(pevyo) among other significations has this, / ain an exile. Hence the pres. 

part, (pevyojy =: one who lives in exile^ an exile. Kordy^iv, to restore. Karoi 

in composition often signifies return or restitiition. Cf. Yig. p. 246. tovs 

iKTreTTTcaKOTas, those ivho had been ha^iished = the exiles. ^AAt; irpScpaai^, 

jpiMer pretext. r--""^ 

8. i]^iov a^eXcphs thu avTov, he thought it was Jit {a^ios in the verb), inas- 
much as he loas his brother. d56A</)bs Sv avTOv Bo^rjval ot , for do^val oi 

d^eAc^oJ vvTi avTov, a^eX<phs is in the nominative by attraction with the 

omitted subject of tj^iov. doprjvai of, should be given to him^ i. e. placed 

under his command. ixaTO^oy ij, rather than. ravra. S. § 182; H. 

§ 549. wgj^ so that, here takes the indicative because the result is to be 

denoted as one of certainty. S. § 218. 3 ; H. § TYl. i'jri^ovX'fis, snare, 

plot. al(r^oivo]j,ai is more usually constructed with the accusative. Cf. Mt. 

§ 349. Obs. 2. avrSy, i.e. Cyrus. TroAe^uouz/ra, bg carryhig on war. 

The participle frequently expresses the means by which the principal action is 

performed. Cf. S. § 225. 3 ; H. § 789. b. a}x(p\ ra <Trpar^vp.ara ZairavaVy 

tcotdd expend his treasures upon his troops. So Sturz, Bornemann, and Pop- 
po. ovdev '//'x^-ero, was not displeased = was highly pleased. The affirma- 
tion of a thing by the denial of the contrary, is a rhetorical figure of frequent 
occurrence called litotes. It could not be otherwise than grateful to the king 
to learn, that his ambitious brother was expending his strength and treasures 
in petty strifes with the satraps of his realm. For the construction of ^X'^^'''^ 
avrSiv TToXeiiovyrwv, cf. S. § 193; H. §§ 611. a; 800. 5 ; C. § 617.5. This 

verb is sometimes followed by the dative. Cf. YII. 5. § 1. ovSej/, in 

nothing^ is the accus. synecd. and stronger than ov, not. Kal ydp, for 

alsoy introduces another reason for the unconcern of the king. yiyvofLe- 

vovs — efc ruiv irSXecov, accruing from the cities, rcou ttSKccow wv stands for 
rCov ttSx^wv as. The relative, which in respect to its own verb should be put 
in the accusative, is put by attraction in the gen. or dat. according to the case 
of the noun or pronoun to which it refers. Cf. Butt. § 143. 13 ; S. § 175. 1 ; 
H. § 808. These cities were the ones taken from Tissaphernes. In the next 
clause they are spoken of as still being held by him, inasmuch as they had 
been given him by the king, and were only temporarily in the possession of 

9t ovTco, for him. This dative is called dativus co7nmodi or dative of ad- 
vantage. So also there is the dat. incorn. or dative of disadvantage. S. § 201. 

1; H. § 597. 1. XeppovfjG-caf i. e. the Thracian Chersonesus. — rg Ka- 


218 NOTES. [Book L 

ravTiircpas, When the noun is followed by the adjunct, the article is repeated, 
and if the adjunct be an adverb, it thus becomes an adjective. Cf. Butt. 

§ 125. 3. 6; Mt. § 2Y2. a; K. § 245. 3. 'A^{,dov. Adverbs of place are 

followed by the gen. H. § 589. Abydos was a city of Mysia lying S. E. of 

the Hellespont. It was the scene of the fable of Hero and Leander. rSpde 

rhv rpSirov, in this manner. The accus. has here an adverbial force. H. 
§ 552; S. § 182; K. § 278. R. 3. ode generally refers to what is yet to be 
spoken of; ovrosy to what has been already mentioned. H. § 679. r6vd€ is 

formed from the article by appending the enclitic Se. <pvyds, an exile. 

The reason of his banishment is given, II. 6. §§ 1-4. Tiyda-^rj (mid. in sig- 
nif. C. § 554. j3; H. § 413. c) expresses the idea oi admiration^ a little more 
strongly than its equivalent i^av/jLaae, For BlBaxrij/ in the pres. after this aor. 

see N. on § 6 (end). re — Kai, both — and. dapciKovs, The daric was a 

Persian gold coin, " stamped on one side with the figure of a crowned archer 
kneeling upon one knee, and on the other with a sort of quadrita incusa or 
deep cleft." It is supposed by some to have received its name from Darius 
Hystaspis. It appears from V. § 18, that 3000 darics==ten talents. A 
talent contained 60 minse or 6000 drachmss (c£ N. on 4. § 13), which would 
make a daric = twenty drachmae, or $3.5186, computing from the value of the 
old attic drachma (cf K on 4. § 13), and $3.3044, taking the later value of the 
drachma as the standard. Hussey (Ancient Weights, &c. YII. 3) estimates 
the daric as containing on an avarage about 123.7 grains of pure gold, and 
therefore — ^^'^'^^ of a sovereign, or about 1/. Is. lOd. 1.76 farthings = 
$4,871, thus making the coin worth considerably more, reckoned by com- 
parison with gold money of modern times, than if computed from the drachma. 

Cf. Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 314. airh tovtojv r&v xpW^'^^^- 

MatthiaB (§ 572) says, that airh generally expresses that from which something 
proceeds as being its effect. It marks also, the mediate origin or instrumen- 
tal source of an action. The gold which Clearchus received, was a mediate 
instrument in raising the troops, while Cyrus who furnished it was the primary „ 

cause. I-I. § 623. c. to7s 0pa|i, dat. after iiroX^iJLei. S. § 202. 1. So 

Yirg. Ec. y. *' solus tibi certet Amyntas." 6p/j.6/jL€yos expresses repeated 

action, sallying forth^ making excursions. vir\p 'EW'!](nroyroVy on the 

Hellespont, virep in the same sense is followed by the gen. II. 6. § 2 ; YII. 

5. § 1. Cf. Mt. § 582. uxpiXei Tovs "'EWTjyas. The Greeks here spoken 

of inhabited the country bordering on the Hellespont. Cf. 'EWrja-iroyTucat 

TToXciSy infra. ^Kova-ai, of their own accord^ willingly. The adject, is often 

used for the adv. to denote time (see K on II. 2. § 17); place (see virai^pioi^ 

in the open air^ Y. 5. § 21); or manner^ C. § 457. 5* au ovtw^ and thus 

also, av in its disjunctive use signifies a repetition of the same thing. Cf. 

Butt. p. 436. T peeps jj.€j/oy eXdy^avQV avr$, was secretly (i. e. unknown to 

the king) maintained for him (see N. on avr$). For the use of the particip, 
with ixdvbavevy cf. N. on 1. § 2. > 

Chap. H] NOTES. 219 

10. feVoy, lit. a stranger^ but here taken in the sense of one who has 
formed a league of hospitality with another ; a thing which in ancient times 
was frequently done by persons hving in different cities and countries. Cf. 

Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 490. ets dLCx^^'^ovs, to the number 

of 2000. €ts .... {jLia^ov, pay (sufficient) for two thousand mercenaries 

and for three months. The term ^€vol was applied to foreign troops or mer- 
cenaries, the practice of hiring whom was quite common with the Persian 

kings and satraps. cos ouro) irepLyct/ofievos tiv {=^ on outcos hu 'TrepLyej/oiro^ 

that thus (i. e. with the assistance of these mercenaries) he might subdue, cos 
followed by a part, introduces a reason for what precedes, and may be ren- 
dered, in the expectatioii that. Cf. Mt. § 568. 1. TrepX gives to yiyvofxai the 
idea of superiority^ conquest. Cf. Tig. p. 255. The participle with &y has the 
force of a potential optative. Cf. Butt. § 189. 5 ; C. § 615. 2; S. § 225. 4; 
H. § 803. a. Sometimes it imparts to the participle the sense of the hypo- 
thetical indicative. H. § 803. b. irpocr^^v — irpiv, priusquam^ before — that. 

/caroAOcrai, sc. rhv it6\c}iov, to terminate (the war). 

11. a?s — ^ovXSfjieyos^ (pretending) that he wished. Cf. K on § 6. ds Uei- 

ci^as =■ into the country of the Pisidians. Pisidia was a mountainous country, 
having Phrygia on the west and north, Isauria on the east, and Pamphylia on 

the south. Its inhabitants were never fully subdued by the Persians. o^s 

irpdyixara rcHy Ueiaidcjy, because (as he said) the Pisidians were infesting. 

irpdy/jLara irapix^t-v tlvX = negotia facessere alicui, to. give trouble to one. 

'2,rvii<pdXLov, Stymphalus was an Arcadian town on the confines of Achaia. 

kgX Tovrovsy these also. For the furtherance of his designs, Cyrus seems 

to have formed the league of hospitality with many of the leading men of 

Greece, especially cf the Peloponnesus. ^s iroX^ixiia-cav, Cf. X. on § 3. 

ws is here used de re prcetcxta. 


1. 'Eirei 5' coo/cet ^ori avru, when noiu it seemed good to him ■=: when he 
had now determined. iooKei = KaXhy eSo/ret. Cf. II. 1. § 2. For the subject 

of eoc^/ce£, cf. S. § 153. a; H. § 493. c. ixvcc, upward^ i. e. into the upper 

countries of Asia, or those removed from the seaboard. Cf. N. on 1. § 2. 

tV fj.€V TTpocpacriu iTroLcTro ojs — ^ovKofx^vos, he pretended that he wished^ 

or that his design was. Krliger says, that /jlcu here responds to something un- 
derstood^ viz. ry 5' aXTj^ela M rhu (^acnXea 6 croXos '?]v. e/c, out of de- 
notes internal separation, clttS, that which is external. a?y in us i-Jtl rov- 

rovs is used de re prcetexta. to re ^ap^apinhy Koi rh *'E,Xkr]viK6v. The arti- 
cle is repeated, because the reference is to different objects. C. § 488. 6. Cf. 
tS>v 'EAA^;/ajj/ Koi tmu ^ap^dpccp, § 14. ij/rav^a. Zeune interprets : illuc, 

220 NOTES. [Book L 

in ilium locum uhi sitnt Pisidce, Weiske: illic^ in sua ditione. Kriiger 
thinks that Sardis is meant, and refers to § 4. irapayyiWei is here fol- 
lowed by the dat. with the infin. (rwaWayivTi^ having become reconciled^ 

either by asking pardon, or, as here, by granting it. 6 eixe a-rpdT^vua. 

The antecedent is often, in case of attraction, placed after the relative and in 

the same case. S. § 175. b; H. § 809. airoire/ji^pai. Aristippus sent Me- 

non as his substitute. See § 6. hs avrtp TrpoecT^/ce/, wJio commanded for 

him. See N. on avrw, 1- § 9. Trpoea-r^/cet has the signification of the imperf. 

Cf. Butt. § 107. II. 2; S. § 211. N. 6. eV rah Tro'Xecrt (spoken of 1. § 6) 

has the position and force of an adjective. S. § 169. 1 ; H. § 534. a. — 

^sviKov, sc. (TTpaTevfjLaTos, KajBoyra. In the preceding clause it is \a- 

pSurt. If the leading verb by itself governs another case than the accusative, 
either that case or the accusative may accompany it, when the infinitive fol- 
lows. Cf. Mt. § 537 ; S. § 222. 3. a ; C. §§ 627. )3 ; 459 ; also N. on II. 1. § 2. 
In determining the case, regard seems to have been had mainly to the posi- 
tion of the word in the sentence. Here Xa^oura is so near to riK^iv, that it 
would have been awkward to have written it Xa^Svri in agreement with 

2* h\ Kai^ and also. troXiopKovvras* Cf. 1. §7. iKiXevffe. Cyrus 

summoned (iicdxea-e) his troops from Miletus ; but the exiles over whom he had 
no authority, he incited (e/ceAeuo-e) by promises to join him in his expedition. 
6t KaXias Karawpd^eisj/ icpi" vL icrpaTevero, if he was successful in the ob- 
ject of his expedition. Karairpd^eiev, 1 aor. opt. act. -^ol. for Karairpd^ai, a 
form often found in this author, and therefore requiring no further notice, icp' 

a, i. e. ravra e(|)' a. Cf. S. § 172. 4. irava'aa-^ai. The aor. is here used for 

the fut. to denote the certainty of the action. Cf. Mt. p. 845 ; S. § 201. N. 3 ; 

H. § 876 ; Goodwin, § 23. N. 2. See also II. 3. § 20 ; VI. 5. § 17. ^plv— 

KardyoL refers to future time. S. § 220. 2. oUade. The enclitic Se is 

appended to an unchanged form of the accus. S. § 134. N. 3. iraprja-au 

els 'l^dpdsis, came to Sardis. Cf. N. on Karicrti, 1- § 3. 

3* Hej/ms iilv 5:^, so then Xeoiias. ficy d^ is used in entering upon a sub- 
ject after something premised or prefatory. Cf. Yig. p.. 202. IX. ; Hoog. 

p. 107. III. Trapeyivero, sc. ayrw, i. e. to Cyrus. By its construction with 

els, motion is implied in Trapeyeuero. See K on Kar^a-Trj, 1. § 3. robs e/c 

ruj/ irSXecaj/, those in the cities^ lit. from the cities (see N. on 5. § 2), the prepo- 
sition conforming to the idea of motion contained in Xa^doj/. See N. on ruy 
irapa ^aaiXecos, 1. § 6. With rovs e/c rcou irSXecay, the noun SirXiras is in ex- 
planatory apposition. The Grecian infantry was composed of, 1. SirXlrai, 
heavy armed, who in addition to their full armor were distinguished for a 
large shield {oirXou) which they bore ; 2. ireXraa-tai, targeteers, bearing lighter 
arms and small round bucklers {irixrai) ; 3. y\nXoi, light armed, who used mis- 
sile weapons and were employed chiefly as skirmishers. Cf. Fisk's Man. Clas. 
Lit. p. 521; Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 90. exwj', in this and 

Chap. IL] NOTES. 221 

eimilar places, may be translated by the preposition with. ets TerpaKKT' 

Xi^iovs, to the number of four thousand. yufiyr^ras, light armed^ from 

yvfJLvos, pp. naked or poorly clad. Hence it was applied to the light armed 
soldiers, who were naked in respect to the shield and thorax which protected 
the oTTAtrat. ois irevTaKoa-iovs, about five hundred. a;s joined with numer- 
als signifies nearly^ about. 6 Meyapevs. Megaris was a small district situ- 
ated between Athens and Corinth, of which Megara was the capital. els 

rpiaKocriovs .... irapeyej/ero. I have followed the reading which from four of 
the best MSS. has been adopted by Dind. and Poppo. The more usual read- 
ing is €is eirraKoaiovs ixwv &pBpas irapeyej/ero, and is followed by Born., Krlig., 
and Long. It must be confessed that this would make the sum total agree 
with that of Xenophon given in § 9, but the MS. authority upon which it rests 

is too doubtful to warrant its adoption. ^u Se koI outos k. r. \. The verb 

conforms in number to outos its nearest subject. It is understood with 6 2w- 
KpdTTjs. Cf. H. § 511. h; S. § 150. 2. a. 5e is here a general connective, 
while Koi — Kal, both — and^ connect ovros and 6 "^ojKpdrTjs. tcoj/ crpar^voiii- 
vwv follows ^i/, because the sense of the verb is limited to a part. S. § 190; 
H. § 5Y2. a. 

4f OSrot fikv ds /c. r. \. Some auxiliary forces joined him on the march. 

Cf. infra, §§ 6, 7". SapSety, Sardis^ the capital of Lydia, situated at the 

foot of Mt. Tmolus, on the river Pactolus. Cyrus made it the capital of his 
satrapy. It is celebrated also as being the seat of on-e of the seven churches 
in Asia. 5e in the next sentence is adversative^ i. e. it introduces some- 
thing opposed to what has gone before. Diodorus attributes to Alcibiades the 
betrayal, of the design of Cyrus, and both Plut. and Corn. Nep. repeat the 

same in their histories of his life. ixei^ova irapaa-Kevt]!/, having thought 

the armament to be greater than asif{— than as though fitted out) against the 
king, fxei^ova. The Attics not unfrequently use the uncontracted form of the 

comparative. d'S PacriX^a, to the Icing. u)s=z els. It is never placed 

before nouns denoting inanimate objects. S. § 13G. N. y idvyaro rdxt- 

crra = cos idvj/aro rdxt(Tra. 

5. Kal PacriXevs /jlIu 5^, and then indeed the king. irapd^ from^ is em- 
ployed when the idea of receiving is intended, especially with verbs of hearing, 
learning, saying, communicating, etc. H. § 647. aTrb and e'/c have a more 

local sense. c^pfxaro. This word signifies to incite^ iinpcl^ and intrans. to 

rush on. It happily expresses the haste with which Cyrus commenced his 

long and perilous expedition. cra^fjiovs, day^s marches; lit. stations^ 

halting-places^ where travellers or soldiers rest for the night. It is the accus. 
of space (H. § 550. b), irapaffdyyas being subjoined to give more definite ex- 
pression to the distance passed over. irapacdyyas^ parasangs. The pre- 
cise length of the Persian parasang is difficult to be ascertained. Xenophon 
reckons it at 30 stadia, smce he says (II. 2. § 6), that 1G,050 stadia = 535 
parasangs, and 1605 -~ 535 = 30. So Herodotus, II. 6, Uyarai dh 6 irapa- 

222 NOTES. [Book L 

G-dyyjjs TpffiKoj/ra crddia. According to Strabo, some reckoned it at 60, 
others at 40, and others at SO stadia. Major Rennell estimates it at 2.78 
miles, and Ainsworth a little more than 3 English miles. Col. Chesney re- 
gards it as also a road measure, founded upon the rate of travel per hour, and 
varying with the nature of the country. Thus the route from Sardis to Thap- 
sacus is 853 geographical miles, which gives 2.608 miles to each of the 327 
parasangs. But from Thapsacus to the mounds of Muhammad, 36 miles from 
Babylon, the distance is 402 geographical miles, which, divided by the 208 
parasangs, will give 1.98 miles for each parasang. The mean of both is 2.294 
geographical miles. As it respects the koI before Suo, the general rule is that, 
if the smaller of two numbers stands first, the two are joined by /ca/; but if the 
greater precedes, the conjunction is omitted. So we say two and twenty^ or 

twenty-two. Here there is a deviation from this rule. Cf. Mt. § 140. rhu 

Maiaj/dpou irorafjiSy. The Maeander has its sources near Celsanse (cf. § 7 be- 
low), and fcfifening a common boundary between Lydia and Caria, falls into the 
-^gean sea, below the promontory of Mycale. Its windings are so numerous, 
that it has become a common epithet for whatever is winding or mazy. Its 

modern name is Mendere. irXe^pa, The irXe^poy = 100 ft. iirTJu 

i^Qvy/xeyri. A part, with elfxl or its compounds is sometimes used instead of 
the verb of the part. S. § 89. 1. Cyrus crossed the Maeander probably above 
the junction of the Lycus. 

G^ ds Ko\ocr(rds. Colossse was a city of Phrygia Major, on the river Lycus 
near its junction with the Mseander. To the church planted there, Paul ad- 
dressed one of his epistles. The ruins about three miles north of Khonos are 

supposed to be the site of Colosse. iroKiy olKovixiv7]Vy an inhabited city. 

This epithet is added, because on the route of Cyrus were many towns wholly 

or partially deserted. kcll TJKe, For icai, we have ey ah, 2. § 10, and ip 

5e ravrais, II. 5. § 1. — — AoXoTras Kot Alpiuyas kcI 'OAuj/rMous. The Dolo- 
pians and ^nianes were Thessalian tribes separated by Mt. Othrys. The 
Olynthians were a people of Macedonia. It was probably to await the arrival 
of these forces, that Cyrus tarried so long at Colosse. 

7. KeXaivds, Celcence^ a city lying in the south-west part of Phrygia, and 

formerly its capital Paa-iXcia, an adj. from ^aciXeios, ov, here used as a 

subst. plur. for sing. irapddeicros. Dr. Robinson (Lex. N. T.) remarks, 

that "this word seems to have had its origin in the languages of Eastern Asia, 
and has the general signification, a garden planted with grass, herbs, trees, 
for ornament and for use, and is applied to the pleasure (gardens and parks 
with wild animals around the residences of the Persian monarchs and princes." 
That these paradises were frequently of great extent is evident from the fact 
that Cyrus reviewed his army in this one (cf. § 9), and in another (II. 4. § 16) 
tlic Greeks heard that a large army was assembled. aTrb 'itttov, on horse- 
back ; lit. /rom a horse ^ as Prof. Boise Avell remarks, "because the attention 
of the hunter is directed from the horse tov/ards the game." So ex equo pug- 

Chap. IL] NOTES 223 

n<zre. Li v. I. 12. See N. on ix tup ^aaiX^iav below. yvfjivdcraiy to exer- 

cise^ lit. to exercise naked^ as was done by those who practised in the public or 
private gymnasia, unless, as in some instances was the case, they were merely 
covered by the short x'tc^j/. With kavrhv this verb may be rendered, to exercise ; 

with Tohs 'iinrovsy to train. oTrJre — ^ovKoito, When reference is had to a 

past action not limited to a precise point of time, but repeated by different per- 
sons, or in different places, the optative is put with oirSr^ and other particles 

of tune. Cf. Butt. § 139. p. 373 ; Mt. § 531. St^ -TropaSetcrou, through 

the middle of the park. S. § 169. N. 3; H. § 536. cfc riav ^aaiXdoou, in 

the palace^ i. e. in the inclosure of the palace, ck is used by accommodation 
or attraction, because the source (iniyaX) is not only a spring but a running 

8. 5e Kaiy and also. fieydXov ^affiXews, of the great king, a title given 

Kar €|oxV by the Greeks to the Persian kings. Xerxes, on his return from 

Greece, is supposed to have built the palace here spoken of. iirl raTs 

Tzriycus, near the sources. iirX here denotes close proximity. Cf. iirX ^aXdcrcrriy 
Y. 3. § 2. virh rr/ aKpoir6\€i, under the citadel. Xerxes also built a cita- 
del, which, as it appears from this passage, overlooked the palace and served 

for its defence. e^jSaAAet is an act. trans, used as a neut. ; kavrht/ may in 

such cases be supplied. Cf. Mt. § 496. cvpSs ia-riv k. t. A. The full 

construction is, evpSs icriv cvpos ^iKotn KOi irivre irodcaVf the breadth is the 

breadth of twenty-five feet, iro^ajv, gen. of measure. H. § 567. Xcyerai 

^AttoWoou iKde7pai Map(rvay is proleptically put for Aeyerat ^AirSWcaya cfcSeTpoi 

Mapa-vav, Cf. § 21 ; 8. § 7. ipl^oj/ra refers to Marsyas, and at to Apollo. 

"The personal pronouns of the third person (ou, oT, etc.) are in Attic always 

used as indirect reflexives." H. § 671. a. irepi arocplas, concerriing clever- 

ness or skill, i. e. in a trial of musical skill. Pindar and other ancient poets, 
called every art aroipia, and poets, musicians, painters, etc. (rotpitrrai. For an 
explanation of this fable of Marsyas and Apollo, cf. Anth. Clas. Diet. 

9. riTTTj^els, having been vanquished. 1 aor. part. dep. pass, of Tirrdofiat. 
Reference is had especially to the defeat he sustained at Salamis, which caused 

him to hasten precipitately across the Hellespont. TjfXEpas rptdKovra. Cf. 

N. on § 6 (end). Kpyjras. The Cretans were celebrated for their skill in 

archery, and, in later times, for their gross immorality and odious vices. 
Cf. Polyb. 4. 17, and also Paul's quotation (Tit. 1:12) from Epimenides, one 

of their own poets. "Ajua Se koI ':$(aoria5 Traprjy, and also at the same time 

Sosias came. iliraffiv naX api^jxbv ruu 'EAA-^rcyy iiro[7](rav = i^'fjraa's koI 

ripl^fjLTjcre rovs "EAAT/yqy. This form of periphrasis is quite common. Cf. 

§ 14 ; 7. § 20. iysyovTo, came or amounted to. at cu^Trayres, joined 

to numerals, signifies all together, in all. < afjKpl rovs ditrxtXlovs, about 

two thousand. The article distinguishes this approximate round number from 

the unstated precise number. See H. § 528. Celaenae appears to have 

been the rendezvous for the army. Having now been joined by most of hia 

224: NOTES. [Book I 

forces, Cyrus proceeds with increased despatch, and by forced marches en- 
deavors to reach the king, before he would have time to assemble a large 

10. UeXras, Peltce. The site of this place was N. of the Mgeander, in the 

valley and plain formed by the W. branch of that river. tr AvKaia. 

*'Sacrificiis factis Lycsea celebravit." Kriig. "Lupercalia institutis sacrLBiciis 
et ludis celebravit." Hutch. These games were called Lyccean, from Mt. Ly- 
cseus in the S. W. angle of Arcadia, where the Arcadians insisted that J upiter 
was born. The same mountain was also sacred to Pan. From the well estab- 
lished worship of Pan in Arcadia, it it probable that these games were institu- 
ted in honor of him. This is also confirmed by the fact, that these festivals, 
when introduced into Italy by Evander, were changed in name only (being 

called Lupercalia), and were still sacred to Pan. aycoya, contests^ games, 

(TTXcyyi^es, flesh scrapers, used in baths for rubbing off the sweat and 

filth from the body. Schneid. and after him Kriig. understand by this word, 
a kind of ribbo7i or fillet But as Poppo justly observes, this would be a far 
less pleasing gift to the Grecian soldiers than the strigiles, flesh scrapers, 

which they were accustomed to use in the bath. Kcpaficoj/ ayopdvy the 

market place of the Ceramians, is identified by Major Rennell with the modern 
Kutahiyeh, but Ainsworth with Hamilton finds the site at Ushak. The Cera- 
mon Agora appears to have been situated in the north-east boundary of 
Phrygia, and according to Rennell due north of Celasnae, and must not be 
confounded with a place of the same name in Mysia. Cyrus seems to have 
passed through these cities so much out of his route, in order to take in provi 
sions and stores for his long march. Col. Chesney finds the reason for these 
two retrograde marches, in the necessity of rounding a difiicult portion of the 

Taurus. From Ceramus he pursued a more direct course to Babylon. 

irphs rfi MvcTiij, next to Mysia, 

11. Kavarrpov ire^loi/, Plain of Caystrus, i. e. the plain in which the city 
Caystrus was situated. Rennell conjectures, that its site was near that occu- 
pied by the modern Sakli, a town where the roads from Constantinople, Brusa, 
and Smyrna, pointing towards Syria, meet. He also remarks, that Cyrus had 
now entered the first of a series of valleys, formed by several parallel ridges 
connected with the greater chain of Taurus on the N. E. side, or that towards 
Phrygia and Cappadocia, which he quitted at the Pylas Ciliciae. Hamilton 
finds the site of Caystri Campus near the village of Chai Kiui, but Ainsworth 
locates it further west, at a place called Surmeneh, although he does not insist 

upon this in opposition to Hamilton's view. axpeiXero, was due, 

fiia-^hs irXeov, The gender of the adjective has reference to the gender im- 
plied in the substantive. Cf. S. § 15Y. 3. b ; H. § 522. eVi ras ^vpas, to 

the gates, i. e. to the headquarters of Cyrus. iXiridas \4ycov Sr^ye, he con- 
tinued expressing hopes (that he should soon be able to pay them). For 
the construction of hdyco with the participle, cf. Butt. § 144. K 6 ; S. § 225. 

Chap. IL] NOTES. 225 

8 ; H. § Y98. 2. ^rjXos ^v avidofievos {he was evident being troubled) = St)- 

\ov ^y ^Kuvov aviucrbai =: 5'/]Aov ^v on tjviutoj it was evident that he was 
troubled. By a species of attraction, S-^AJy ia-riv loses its impersonal form, 
and takes the subject of the following verb as its own subject. The verb in 
the dependent clause becomes then a participle. Cf. Mt. §§ 297; 549. 5; 

Butt. § 151. I. Y; H. §§ Y97; V'/Y. a. ou yap ^v irphs rod Kvpov rpSirov, 

for it was not in accordance with the character of Cyrus^ or more briefly, it 
was not the character of Cyrus, irphs has in this place the signification of 
congruity. Cf. Sturz Lex. Xen. The gen. of quality, custom, etc. is some- 
times found without the preposition. Cf. Mt. § 316. ^x^^^^ agrees with 

iKuvQv understood, the subj. accus. of oLTTo^L^ovai, H. § 'TH. This clause is 
the subject of ^v. 

12. a<piKve7rai 'ETruafa. Kriig. surmises that she was sent by Syennesis. 
Wessel. ad Diod. XI Y. 20, observes, that Sueyj/ecns was a name common to 

many of the Cilician princes. It was probably a title of dignity. yvvfj, a 

woman; here a quarried woman^ wife. 5* ovv, at any rate^ certainly y intro- 
duces a fact actually known, as opposed to the preceding statement, which 

rested on mere report. II. § 866. 2. rcTrdpcov fjLTjvwv, gen. of measure 

(H. § 567), introduces the consequence of the munificence of Epyaxa, viz. the 

pa}Tiient of the troops. 'Ao-Trej^Siovs, Aspendians. Aspendus was a popu 

lous city of Pamphylia, W. of Cilicia, situated on both banks of the river 

Eurymedon. Here Thrasybulus the Athenian general was slain. cAeyero 

Se Kcd a-vyy€vi(T^ai Kvpov. The subject of the infinitive may be changed into 
the subject of the principal verb (cf. iroLTphs /jlIv d}j \eyerai 6 Kvpos y^vicrbai 
Kafi^ixrecoy Cyr. I. 2. § 1), or remain unaltered, as in the present instance. 
Cf. Mt. § 537 ; II. § 777. <rvyyej/i(r^at. An euphemistic expression. 

13. Ovfj-I^piay. Hutch, thinks that this is the town which, in Cyr. YI. 2. 
§ 11, is called OvfjL^papa. Ainsworth identifies it with the modern Ishkali. 

Col. Chesney locates it at or near the present town of Ak-Shahir. irap^ 

r^v 6d6v, along the way. When it expresses the idea of rest or position, irapSt 
is usually followed by the dative, but when the idea of previous motion is im- 
plied, it is followed by the accusative. Butt. (§ 147. p. 418) says that irapa 
Tov, in answer to the question where^ must be rendered %, by the side of the 
same as when followed by the dative. In such instances, however, a previous 
coming to the place is strictly implied. The idea is that Cyrus passed this 

fountain on his march to Thymbrium. MiSou, gen. of Mi5ay, limits Kpi\pf) 

understood. Render : a fountain which was called the fountain of Midas^ or 
Midash fountain. C. § 704. 2. How this Phrygian king had for a time the 
power of converting into gold whatever he touched, and how his ears were 
changed into those of an ass, the student is referired to the Clas. Diet. Some 
have supposed that he was king of the Bply^s in Tl^ace, and having migrated 
with his subjects to Asia Minor, the place where they settled, by a slight alter- 
ation of the letters was called Phrygia. Those who adopt this opinion make 


226 NOTES. [Book I. 

Thrace the scene of the story of Midas and Silenus. icj/ fu at whic\ where. 

The datiVfe eM r$ in a local sense, expresses particularly the idea of close hy. 

Butt. § 147. p. 416. 'rhv Scirvpoy, the Satyr ^ i. e. Silenus. oivep Kepd- 

eras avr^y, having mixed it with wine, or, according to our mode of expres- 
sion, having mixed wine with it. K€pd(ra5 denotes the means (S. § 225. 3 ; H 
§ 789. b), and is the 1 aor. act. part, of KepdyyvfjLi. Cf. S. § 133. K. 

14. Tvpia7ov, Tyriceum, a Phrygian city on the confines of Lycaonia, iden- 
tified by Hamilton and Col. Chesney with Ilghun, beyond which town is a plain 

adapted for a military review like the one here spoken of. ^ovK6ixivos, 

willing, i. e. consenting. 

15. ws vSfjLos avTois els ftc^x'?^* sc. rdTrecr^ai, as they were accustomed to be 
marshalled for battle, avToh depends on ^v understood, tis imparts the 
idea, whe7i they were about to enter into battle. See N. on els ^affiKelav^ 1. 

g 3. ffrr^vai, to stand {in marshalled array). eKatrrov, sc. (rrpaT7)y6j/, 

Reference is had to the generals, such as Clearchus, Proxenus, Menon, etc. 

Tovs iavTov, the troops belonging to himself, his own troops. S. § 168. 

2; H. § 493. a. iirl Terrdpooy, i7i fours, four deep. H. § 641. c. The 

depth of a battalion is its extent from front to rear, and is determined by the 
number of men in each file, or the number of ranks. The number of men in 

a rank constitute the width of a battalion. rh fieu Senior, the right wing. 

It does not clearly appear why Menon had this post of honor given him in 
preference to Clearchus, unless it was done to flatter his pride and keep him 
in good temper. In the battle* of Cunaxa, Clearchus commanded the right 
wing. rh Se evu>yvfjiou, the left wing, evcoyvfios (eu, oj/ofia) is euphemisti- 
cally used for apia-repos, left, sinister, a word of ill omen. ol eKeivov is a 

varied expression for ol cvv avr$, rh 5e fieirov, the centre, Cf. S. 

§ 158. 2. 

16. ovy is here continuative, i. e. it marks the external connection between 

the two sentences, and may be rendered, then, so then. irapiiXavvov, rode 

by. iXavyco literally signifies to drive, impel forward, and is used in connec- 
tion with horses and chariots. With Karct, rd^ecs it may be rendered marched 
by. The '/At? was a troop of horse, drawn up by the Thessalians usually in the 
form of an egQ. An 'lXtj numbered 64, although the term is often used for a 
party of horse of any number. Two such troops constituted the iiriXapxia, 
and eight of them the iinrapxia' Pour of the last named made up the reXos 
of the cavalry =r 2048 men, and two reXr] the eViTayjita = 4096 men. A rd^ts 
was a division of infantry =128 men ; a a-vj/rayfia or two rd^eis = 256 men ; 
a ireyraKoa'tapxla' or two (TwrdyiLLaTa = 512 men; a x^^'-^PX'-^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ t^® 
last named = 1024; a fiepapx^a or reXos twice the preceding, or 2048, which 
doubled made a <})d\ay^ = 4096 men, the commander of which was called 
o-TparriySs, Divisions, however, of very difibrent numerical strength were at 
various times designated by the name (pdXay^. Cf. Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. 
Antiq. p. 91. -,: dra 5e rohs *'E\\7]ya5. It was a compliment to the Greeks, 

Chap. II.] NOTES. 227 

that instead of having them march by him in review, he rode along their ranks 

accompanied by the Cilician queen. i<p* apfxaros, upon a chariot. M 

with the gen. has the general sense of rest upon; with the dat., at or 6y, al- 
though they frequently coincide in signification, and are to be translated by 
the same English prepositions. A careful examination will show, however, 
in almost every case, that the gen. maintains its ground meaning of that from 
which the motion proceeds, or to which a thing belongs ; the dat., that in or 
by or with which an action is performed; the accus., that towards which mo- 
tion is directed. See H. § 617. apixafid^Tjs, The harrnamaxa was a four- 
wheeled carriage, covered overhead and enclosed with curtains, used for the 
conveyance of females and children, and oftentimes men of high rank, when 
they wished to consult their ease and pleasure. It was in a magnificent har- 
mamaxa, the construction of which occupied two years, that the body of Alex- 
ander the Great was conveyed from Babylon to Alexandria. Kpdvr], hel- 
mets, accus. plur. of Kpdvos — €os. Sometimes the helmet was made of leather. 
Cf. KpdyT] a-Kvriva, Y. 4. § 13. When the leathern basis of the helmet was 
strengthened or adorned with bronze or gold, it Was called xaA./c^p???, XP^^^'-V^ 
etc. When the basis was wholly metal, the helmet received the epithet, 
Kpdvt] x^^f^^y I^^-t* cassis. It was usually adorned with a crest {\6(l)os) of hair 
or a tuft of feathers, according as the wearer wished to look terrible or hand- 
some. x^'^^^°^^9 ^^*^^*^5« This was an inner garment, reaching usually to 

the knees, and kept in its place by a girdle. KurjiMdasj greaves. These 

extended from the foot to the knee, and were made of brass, or some more 
precious metal. The Roman ocrece were usually plated with iron, and in later 

times were placed only upon the right leg. aa-irldas, shields. The Grecian 

shield was usually round, and made of hides covered with plates of metal. 
For a fuller description of the shield, cf. Man. Clas. Lit. § 139 ; Smithes Gr. 

and Rom. Antiq. p. 245; Hom. II. 18; 478, with Flax. lUus. iKKeKo^ap- 

p.ivas, blemished, from /ca^-a/po?, to cleanse, and e/c, from. 

17» (TT'fja'as rh apfia^ having stopped his chariot. H. § 416. 1 ; S. § 133. 

I. (pdKayyos, phalanx, here referring to the army drawn up in array. 

Cf. K on § 16. (TT'fia'as — irefirpas. The conjunction is frequently omitted 

between participles. See Mt. § 557. 3. irapci. with the accus. denotes mo- 
tion to a position 5y or along side of. See K on irapa t))v 6^6v, § 13, and N". 

on 4. § 3. irpo^aXecr^ai ra owXa, to present their weapons, i. e. hold them 

forward as if they were going to fight. iinxfapricrai^ to advance, as though 

against the enemy. ia-dXiTLy^e, sc. 6 (raXiriyKT'fjs. S. § 152. 2. b; H. 

§ 504. c ; C. § 546. icrdXTny^e is an early form of the 1 aor. A later form 

is ia-dKirLa-a. Cf. Butt. § 114. p. 257; S. § 133. X *Ek Se rovrov, then,^ 

upon this. irpoXovTcov, sc. avrcau. The part, in the gen. often stands 

alone, when the subj. can be supplied from the preceding context. Cf. S. 
§ 226. h ; H. § 791. a. For the construction of vpotoprcav in the gen. abs. 
instead of irpo'Cova-L in agreement with (rrparid^rats, cf. Mt. § 561. airh rod 

228 NOTES. [Book I. 

avTOfidrov^ literally, from self -moved action, i. e. of their own accord, of them- 
selves. . airh here denotes cause. H. § 623. c; Mt. § 573. p. 996. ^pSfxos 

iyivero ro75 crpariioTais, the soldiers began to run; literally, a running carne 

to he to the soldiers. S. § 201. 3 ; H. § 698. 2 ; C. § 408. eVl ras ctktj- 

vas of the Persians, for in the next section we find the Greeks returning to 
their own quarters (cttI tcls CKrjvas ^\^ot^). 

18. <p6^os, sc. ^y. fiap^dpwv limits ^KKois in reference to the Cilician 

queen, and the market people who are particularly mentioned although in a 
different construction. Hence Koi — koI and re — koI serve as connectives, as 

though the construction were koI 'dWois Koi tJ Ki\i(r<rr) k. t. A. i<pvy^v 

iK TTJs apfjLafjid^Tjs, fed away in her harmamaxa. So Zeune, Weiske, and Krii- 
ger. Cf. Mt. § 696. But Lion, Schneider, Bornemann, and Poppo, interpret, 
leaped from her harmamaxa (which was drawn by oxen or mules), in order to 

accelerate her flight. at iK rrjs ayopas — i(p^vyov = at iv ry wyop^ €/c ttJs 

ayopas ecp^vyov, those hi the market (i. e. the market people) began to fee away 
from the rnarket ; or more briefly, those in the market began to flee away. Cf. 
lY. 6. § 26 ; Y. 7. § 17 ; YI. 2. § 18, et sjepe alibi. The lyoph, was a place 
in the camp, where the sutlers or victuallers exposed their commodities for 
sale, '^(pevyov. The imperf. tense here marks the commencement of an ac- 
tion. crvv yeXcori, on account of the flight of the barbarians. tV ^^At- 

TTporvra, the splendor, viz. of the arms and uniform. r^rjv rd^iv^ the order, 

martial appearance. Kvpos 5e riff^t]. The terror with which this sham- 
fight of the Greeks struck the barbarians, gave to Cyrus an earnest of victory 
over the undisciplined hosts of his brother. rlv .... <p6fiov. The inter- 
mediate words have the position and power of an adjective. S. § 169. 1 ; H. 
§ 634. a. On the force of ets, see Ns. on 1. § 3 ; 2. § 15. 

19. ^iKoyiov, Iconium. Luke (Acts 14 : 6) seems to locate this city in Ly- 
caonia, although, as Bloomfield observes, if the article before ttoAcis Trjs AvKao- 
vias be allowed its force, it would appear otherwise. Strabo reckons it as a 
city of Lycaonia, but as the boundaries of these provinces were continually 
changing, it is probable that subsequent to the time of Xenophon, it became a 
city of Lycaonia. That it was a city of much repute is seen from Pliny's re- 
mark, urbs celeberrima Iconium. It was also very celebrated in the time of 

the Crusades. AvKaoviasy Lycaonia. This country lay S. E. of Phrygia, 

and was included in the basin formed by the Taurus and its branches. It was 

made a Roman province under Augustus. diapTrdcai denotes the purpose 

of iircTpeype. ws iroXefxiau ovaav^ because it was hostile. Kriiger says, 

that ws is here used, de re quam quis causam esse dicit. The Lycaonians as 
well as the Pisidians, did not acknowledge the authority of the Persian kings. 
Hence their country was given up by Cyrus to be plundered. 

20. tV raxia-TTiv odSy, the shortest way. The Cilician queen took the 
direct route to Tarsus by the S. E., while Cyrus with the main army took the 
N. E. route, which was circuitous and more than twice the distance, in order 

Chap. II.] NOTES. 229 

(as Rennell remarks) to cross the Taurus at Dana or Tyana, where, by the con- 
traction of the ridge, a very short passage was afforded into the plain of Cili- 
cia. It will be seen that the marches between Iconium and Dana were very 
long. This may be accounted for, in his wish to be at the Pylae Cilicise in 
season to take advantage of the diversion, intended to be made in his favor by 
the fleet and the detachment of Menon. This desire to secure the co-operation 
of his fleet will account also for the long marches between the river Pyramus 

and Issus (4. § 1). a-rparKoTas ovv Mcj/wi/ fix^. Under cover of being a 

guard of honor to Epyaxa, a body of troops was thus introduced into the heart 

of Cilicia. Its effect upon Syennesis is given in the next verse. Kairirado^ 

Kias, Cappadocia^ an interior country of Asia Minor, N. of Cilicia, celebrated 
for the excellence of its wheat and horses, and the dullness and vice of its in- 
habitants. The Greeks regarded the Cappadocians as the worst of the three 
Kappas, or nations, whose names began with that letter ; the other two being 
the Cretans and Cilicians. The character of the Cappadocians is satirized in 
the Epigram : 

Yipera Cappadocum nocitura momordet ; at ilia 
Gustato periit sanguine Cappadocis. 

iv S, sc. xp^^V- <poiviKia'T'l]v. Larch, renders this, vexillarium^ 

standard-hearer. Y oss.^ pur pui^ce tinctorem; (Kriig. adds) ve^ einn qui pur- 
puris tingendis prcefectus est^ quod munus apud Persarum reges honorificum 
fuisse colligeris. Sturz says that Brod. has best rendered it, unu7n e regiis 
familiaribus punica veste indutum non purpurea. It is worthy of remark, 
that Hesych. has inserted this word in his Lex. without any interpretation. 

dwdcTTrji/, a high officer ; literally, one in power. airta(rd/jL€V05 iiri^ov- 

Xeveiu avT$^ having accused th-em of plotting against him. iiri^ovXeveiy 
avT$ is the gen. denoting the crime. S. § 194. 4; H. § 577. b. 

21. KiXiKiay, Cilicia. This country lay S. of Cappadocia, W. of Syria, and 
E. of Pamphylia. It was divided into two parts ; the western of which was 

called Trachea {rpax^'ta, rough)^ the eastern, Campestris {iredij/^, level). ?; 

5e ela-poX-f]^ the pass. Cf. N. on § 22. a}jL'i]XO'VOS etVeA^eti/ (TrpaTcvfiaTiy 

inaccessible to an army. Kriig. observes that aix'fixayos ciVeA^-eTy is put by at- 
traction for Tiv a.fjL'fixavoj/ ^v eiVeAid-ety. Col. Chesney remarks that this is 

one of the longest and most difficult passes in the world. \e\oLTroos et'??, 

had abandoned. Cf. N. on iirrju i^^vyixivt]^ § 5. cttcI yff^^ro to t6 MeVw- 

vo$ orTpaTevfjia on ^Stj. • This reading is found in the best editions. Dindorf, 
however, edits ya-^ero on rh Meycovos (rrpdrevfjLa ijdTj. As to the construction, 
Mt. (§ 296) says, 'Hhe subject of dependent propositions is often wanting, be- 
cause by attraction it is construed with the verb of the principal proposition." 
This arrangement, which is designed to give the substantive a more prominent 
and emphatic position, is called prolepsis. Cf Butt. 151. p. 447; H. § 726. 
— — •?* is varied from ^Xr) to give definiteness to the expression. e^crw, 

230 NOTES. [Book L 

within in respect to Tarsus the capital. opcoou., an uncontracted form of 

the gen. plur. frequently used by the Attics. Cf. Mt. § 78. Obs, 1 ; Butt. 

§ 49. N. 3. Kol on rpi'fipets ^kov€ 'ireptir\€ov(ras aTr* 'Icoi/ias ets KiMkIup 

TafjLuu ^xovTo. ras AaKeBaifiopiooj/ Koi avrov Kvpov, The order is, koI otl 
(=: ^Lori^ i. e. hia tovto on, on this account^ because), iJKove Tafi^y ^x^^'^^ 
(zrr oTi Ta/jL^s elxe by prolepsis, see N. above) rpi-fipets ras AaKedaifjiovlcou koI 
avTov Kvpov irr€pnr\€ov(ras air* 'Icoyias els KiXiKiay, Kriiger says that the 
writer intended to have joined iJKove with rpi^peis 'irepnrXcova'as, but wishing 
to name the admiral of the fleet, he connected it with Tafxdoy. Cf. Thucyd. 

III. 26. avTov Kvpov. When avrhs is followed by a proper name, the 

article may be omitted, especially if the article can be dispensed with, the pro- 
noun being omitted. If avrhs is followed by a common substantive, the arti- 
cle usually is retained. Cf. Mt. § 265. 1 (end). 

22t ave^T} iirl ra opr], went up on the mountains. Notice the force of apa- 

and iiri. ou ot KiXiK^s i(pvXaTToy, where the Cilicians kept guard (H. 

§ 701 ; S. § 211. N. 10). Schneid. remarks, that the Cilicians always kept a 
guard in this place for the defence of the country. But that this should be 
done in time of peace, or that a standing guard should be quartered in tents, 
Kriiger thinks to be quite improbable, and therefore gives to i<l>v\arToy the 

sense of the pluperfect. irediov [xiya. See above, § 21. iTrippvrov. 

Cilicia Oampestris was watered by the Pyramus and Cydnus. Cf. N. on § 23. 

depdpcop depends on ^^nrXewv, C. § 357. a; S. § 200. 3; H. § 584* b. 

e/x7r\ewj/, neut. accus. of cfxTrXecas. There seems to be little difference 

between jxeXipT], panic, and Kcyxpos, millet, except that the former bears its 
grain in ears, and the latter in bunches, whence the Lat. millium, as if one 
stalk bore a thousand seeds. " The plain of Adana, as it is now called, is still 

remarkable for its beauty and fertility." Ainsworth. "Opos 5* avrh irepii- 

X6t K. T. A., but a strongly fortified and lofty mountain environs this (i. e. Cili- 
cia Campestris) on every side from sea to sea (e/c — els. See § 18, end). To 
this region, so entirely encircled with high and rugged mountains, there were 
but three passes : Pylae Ciliciae, in the range of Mt. Taurus, through which 
Cyrus entered ; Pylge Amanicae, so called from Mt. Amanus on the Syrian side 
of Cilicia ; Pylse Syrige, a pass leading from Cilicia into Syria, south of the 
Pylse Amanicse and near the sea. Cf. 4. § 4. Through the Pylas Amanicas, 
Darius led his army into Cilicia, not knowing that Alexander, about the same 
time, had passed through the Pylse Syria?, and was therefore in his rear. 

23. Tapa-ovs. This city, situated on the banks of the Cydnus not far from 
its mouth, ranked with Athens and Alexandria in learning and refinement. It 

is celebrated in ecclesiastical history, as being the birthplace of St. Paul. 

^(Tap — (SacriXeia. The general rule, that the nom. neut. plur. has the verb in 
the sing., is often transgressed by the Attics themselves. Cf. 4. §§4, 10; 6. 

§ 1; 8. § 10, et sa3p. al. ^cVtjs Se ttjs TcShccas, tlie midst of the city; lit. 

the middle city. H. § 559. e ; C. § 456. Cf. jueVas p^KTas, midnight. 

Chap. U.] NOTES. 231 

'7. § 1 ; rh ^AAo arpdr^vixa, the rest of the army^ § 25. Ki55j/oy, Cydnus^ 

a river remarkable for the coldness of its waters, which almost cost Alexander 
his life, and, according to some writers, proved fatal to Fred. I. of Germany, 
who bathed in its stream. This was the river up which Cleopatra sailed with 

such magnificence to meet Anthony. Zvo irXi^pcov limits iroTafxSsy a river 

of one plethrum in breadth (accus. synech.). H. § 567. The Attics use Zvo 
indeclinable. Cf. Butt. § 70. 2 ; Mt. § 138. 

24. 4^iKnrov — ets x^p'^^^- With a verb signifying removal from a place, 
the accompanying motion to a place is frequently expressed by eiy. Cf. Mt. 
§ 578. So we say, he left for Boston; they started for the West, Kriiger, 
referring to lY. 1. § 8, where it is fully written, makes i^iXmov — ets x^P^ov 
— iK\nr6i/T€s '4(p^vyov 6<s x^p'^^^' Ainsworth says that the fastness here allu- 
ded to, has been identified with the Castle of Nimrod in the adjacent moun- 
tain. TcX^^v at ra /caTTT^AeTa exovres. Supply ovk i^iXi'jroy, These inn- 
keepers stayed behind, either because there was some chance of gain, or, as 
Bornemann suggests, because their occupation, as keepers of caravansaries for 

the entertainment of travellers, would protect them from ail injury. 5e 

Kaiy and also as well as the inn-keepers. '^SXois, Soli or Soloe, a city of 

Cilicia Campestris, near the mouth of the river Lamus, said to have been 
founded by an Athenian colony. The gradual corruption of their language 
gave rise to the term solecism. 'l(r(ro7s. See N. on 4. § 1. 

25. TTporepa Kvpov iriyre i][X€pas, For the reason of fhis, cf. N. on § 20. 

virep^oXy, passage over. rcav opSsv is the objective gen. after vir^p^o. 

\y. rcoy els rh iredioyy sc. Ka^rjKSyrojy, those (extending or sloping down) 

to the plain. The event here spoken of took place when they were descending 

into the Cilician plain. apirdCoyTas agrees with the omitted subject of ko- 

TaKOTTrjyai and denotes time, while plundering. virh with the genitive after 

passive verbs denotes agency. H. § 656. b. rh &\\o CTpdrevfjia, the rest 

of the army (see N. on 7. § 8). Notice the difference between this and aWo 
cTTpdrev/jLa, another army. clra irXaycafxcyovs airoXea-^atf thus (i. e. in con- 
sequence of having lost their way) wanderi7ig about they perished. For this 
construction of elrai. with the participle, cf. Butt. § 144. N. 13. 

26. ^L'f)pTra(ray, pillaged. This verb properly signifies to snatch asunder^ 
as is done when one is eagerly endeavoring to get possession of any article. 

lj,€T€Tr4pLTreTo rhy 'Xvivyeffiy, sent repeatedly (notice the force of the im- 

perf.) /or Syennesis. irphs gives the pregnant sense, to come to him. See 

N. on els, 1. § 3. ovdevl limits els x^^P^^ eA^ety, and eavrov follows the 

comparative Kpeirrovi, Cf. S. § 198. 1. els x^^P^^ e?s^e7y, lit. to go into 

hands^ i. e. to put one's self in the power of any one. leytxi. Repeat els 

X^7pas from the preceding clause. eXa^e refers to Syennesis. 

27. els r)]y (rrparidy, for the army, a form = to the dat. com., only 

more emphatic. h yofiiCerai irapa Pa(ri\e7 rlfjua, which with a king 

are regarded valuable^ or which in the estimation of a king are of great 

232 NOTES. [Book I. 

value, ffTp^Tcrhv xpjcouj', a golden necklace. The clause, r^^v x^P^^ f^V" 

K€Ti a(papTroL^G(T^ai^ is one of the objects of eSwKe. ^v irov iyTvyxoii/Qocriy, 

wherever (the Cilicians) could find (them, i. e. ra rjpvaafiiya avdpdiroda). 


!• at ydp. The particle yap is here causal, i. e. it introduces the reason 

why the army tarried so locg at Tarsus. -^vk i<t>a(Tav livai^ refused to^ o. 

In absolute negations, ov and the verb or subst. form together an idea directly 
opposite to that of the verb or substantive alone. Cf. Mt. § 608. 1 ; Butt. 
§ 148. N. 2. Tov irpScco. As we say, a step further. The gen. is em- 
ployed whenever the sense of a verb is limited to a part. Cf. Butt. § 132. c. 
See also the Homeric phrase, ^eeiv Tredloio, Pres. Woolsey with Kiihner 
ranks this among the examples of place, which Matthia3 has given, § 37Y. See 
also H. § 590. a. Kriig. makes it = is rh irp6<rw. ffS?? implies that, pre- 
viously to this time, they did not suspect the real object of the expedition, or 

at least that the suspicion had not become general. cttI ^aciXia Uvai^ that ^ 

they (he^ Cyrus. Kriig.) were marching against the king. iirl rovrcpy for 

this purpose^ i. e. to go against the king. irpiaros Se KXeapxos k, t. A. 

Here we see in ftlearchus the stern leader which he is described to be, 
n. 6. §§ 1-15. We also see to what a pitch of exasperation his soldiers were 
raised, that they should dare to throw stones at a general, whom Xenophon 

says they feared more than they did the enemy. ejSf c^fero, attempted to 

force. This conative signification of the imperfect (cf. Butt. § 137. K 10; H. 

§ 702) is also found, lY. 4. § 19; V. 4. § 23. e/3aA\oy, sc. rots \ibois 

(fully written, Y. 7. § 19), were throwing (on the imperf. see N. on 2. § 26) 
sto7ies at him. 

2* K\4apxos Se t6t^ fxey fiiKphy i^etpvys rod ^); Karairerpco^rjyai, Clearchtcs^ 
then barely escaped being stoned. A verb implying in itself a negative, is con- 
strued with another negative, on the general principle in the Greek language, 
that one negative strengthens another. Cf. Butt. § 148. N. 9 ; Mt. § 534. b. 
Obs. 4. rod KaTaireTpco^TJvai is the gen. of separation. For the use of the 

aorist infin., see K on lY. 3. § 15. Bind, edits rh /jl^ Karairerpco^riyai, 

^uvfjo-erai is relatively future, that is, future in reference to the action denoted 

by eyyw. iKKXrja-iav, an assembly. Either legally or tumultuously gath- « 

ered together; here the former, as they were summoned by their general. 
The aorist and imperfect are here intermingled, as the attention is directed at 
one time to the accomplishment, and at another, to the continuance of the ac- 
tion. clra, then^ denotes sequence in the order of things. eAeJe roid- ^ 

5e, he spake as follows^ or somewhat as follows. — 

ft^ 3^aujuc{^€T6, do not wonder. The indicative would have been oh 3-aw- 

Chap, in.] NOTES. 233 

fid(€T€j you do not tconder. ort xa^^^w^ <^epa>, that I am very much trou- 
bled. Cf. Yig. p. 107. Toh Trapova-L irpdy/ma-iu. The dat. is put with 

many passives and neuters, expressing the cause, occasion, or object of the 
preceding action. Cf. Mt. § 399; S. § 203; H. § 611. a. Sometimes iirl is 

employed with this dative. See Bos. El. p. 212. (pevyovra 4k tTjs irarpi- 

dos, being an exile from, my country. Cf. N. on 1. § 7. As (p^vyoyra alone 
expresses the idea, an exile from one^s country ^ in consequence of the addition 
in this place of e/c rrjs irarpidos, Kriiger conjectures that it should be (pvySuTa^ 
or that it is put by a kind of attraction for (pvyovra e/c rrjs irarpidos Kcd (pev- 

yoyra. ra ^AAa, in other respects^ i. e. in other ways than the one here 

mentioned. Butt. (§ 150) makes rd re 6.\\a — Koi = as in other respects — so^ 

also especially. els rh Wiov,for my own private use. d\A' ou5e Ka^}- 

dvird^-na-a, nor did I waste it in pleasure. aKKk adds emphasis to the nega- 

4« €Ttjxcopovfji7]v (so. avTovs) has the sense of, / took vengeance upon^ 1 

punished. Followed by the dat. its translation would be, I avenged. ^ov- 

\ofj.€yov5 = who were wishing. S. § 225. 2 ; H. § 785. a.y^* uy ev cTra- 

^oy utt' iKeiyovj in return for the favors I received from him; or, because that 
I had been well treated by him. ay^' wy=ayTl rovTOjy vL (S. § 172. 4), or, 
ayrl Toirov, on. Cf. Butt. § 147. p. 412. 

'ETrei 5e, but since, dh is here adversative. (rv/j.'Tropevear^aiy so. fiol. 

irpo^oyTa agrees with fxe understood the subject of xp^o"^^*- ^f- S- 

§ 221. 3. a, jU€.y vfjLcoy Uyat, to go with you (homeward). Schneider, at 

the suggestion of Porson, has substituted this reading for iie^* v/xwy ctyai, to 
side with or help you. This correction makes it harmonize with iyta <rvy vfuy 

€\f/o[jLat, § 6, which seems to be a repetition of the same idea. El fily S??, 

whether indeed. €t is often used in an indirect question with the indicative, 
especially when dependent upon a verb implying doubt or uncertainty. Cf. 
Butt. § 139. p. 380. See also the use of the conjunction si. And. and Stod. 

Lat. Gr. §261. 2. R. 1. ody "serves to make reference = as /or that 

matter, or however.'''* Woolsey. Cf. Y. 6. § 11. on "hy dcrj, whatever may 

be necessary, is the object accus. of irela'cfiaL (fut. of irdcrxoij)' With deri sup- 
ply irda-x^ty, Koi ovirore, and never. Kal is here confirmative, i. e. it in- 
troduces a reason for the position taken by Clearchus, and therefore serves to 
confirm his previous declaration. The phrase may be rendered, yes, never 

shall any one say, etc. ayaycl^y, having led, or when I had led. The time 

of this participle is prior to that denoted by trpo^ovs. eh rovs ^ap^dpovs 

= els ^ap^dpcoy X'^P^^' ^^' ^'^ Kap^ovxovs 6.yoi, III. 5. § 15. See also lY, 
7. § 1 ; Y. 5. § 1, et saepe. al. The same mode of expression is employed 
by the Latins. Cf. " relinquebatur una per Sequanos via." Caes. Bel. Gal. 
I. 8. 

6« aAAo iirel, but now since. The train of thought, partially interrupted by 
the sentences commencing with el fiey Si^, and koI ovirore, is here resumed. 

234 NOTES. [Book I. 

ird^ec^at, to be persuaded^ to believe^ to obey^ the last of which is its 

meaning here. cvv vfjuy ei|/o^at. This verb with rrui' signifies, a latere 

sequi^ to accompany/; without cw, usually, a tergo sequi^ to follow. Cf. Mt. 

§ 403. a. vofii^io yap ic. r. A. For the construction, see S. § 185; II. 

§ 556. As Clearchus was an exile from his country, he would naturally be- 
come strongly attached to those who followed his fortunes. The sentiment is 
analogous to the beautiful passage in Hom. II. 6 : 429-30, where Andromache, 
after alluding to the death of her father and seven brothers by the hand of 
Achilles, and to the grief consequent thereon, which finally brought her 
mother to the grave, says : 

"E/cTop, arap crv fiol iffffi 'irar^p Kal irSrvia fJL-fiTTjpf 
'H5e KaciyvTjTOS <rv §€ fioi ^aXephs irapaKolrTjs, 

" Yet while my Hector still survives, I see 
My father, mother, brethren, all in thee." 

Uv chat rlfxios = oTi ri/jLios c^y c'lrju. The infinitive chat receives its po- 
tential signification from Uy (cf. Yig. p. 181. YI; Mt. § 598. 1 ; H. § 783. a), 
and is used here in the present, because the idea of continuance or frequent 
repetition is contained in it. rifiios is put in the nominative because the 
omitted subj. of the infin. is the same as that of the principal verb. H. § 776. 
2. The same may be said of Inavhs infra. w<pe\7](rai and aXi^aa-^ai in the 
following members, are in the aorist, because no reference is had to the per- 
petuity of the action. Cf. Mt. § 501; Butt. § 137. 5. v/jLwy S' eprjfjLovs 

icy, but being deprived of (i. e. separated from) you. Uy Uayhs etyai- — Uv 

oi(p€XriG'a.i. It is not uncommon to find Uy joined to the principal verb of the 

^proposition, and also to the part, or infin. Cf. Mt. § 600. *Cis ifiov oZy 

UvTos ovrw t)]v yy(A>ixr}y ex^re, be assured then that I shall go ; lit. as 

if then I should go^ so have your opinion of me as of one going. Cf. Mt. § 569. 
5; C. § 640; H. § 875. See also Ns. on 1. g§ 6, 11. oVt;, where, prop- 
erly a dat. of the obs. pron. ottos. Written fully oV??, it agrees with 65<jJ un-^ 
derstood. Cf. Yig. p. 153. I; S. § 76. 

7. ol T6 avTov iKeiyov, both those of his own; lit. of him himself. ol 

B,\\oi =z ot TcDy 'dWeay, or as Zeun. interprets, at rwy ^KKwv CTparriycoy crpa- 

ridTai. on .... irop^v^cr^ai (pres. of continued action) is a subst. clause, 

in explanatory apposition with Tavra. iropcvecr^ai. Cf. ovk €<pa<ray TropetJ- 

ca^ai, lY. 5. § 15, where Stephens thinks it should be irop^^xrccr^ai. Poppo 
gives the verb in both these places the force of the future. But Kriig. more 
correctly says : *'Ne quis iropeva-ecr^ai conjiciat; est hie aoristus prcesentis. 

Oratione directa dicere liceret ov Tropevofiaz.^^ iir/jyecray (1 aor. 3 plur. of 

iTraivecd), sc. avrSy. irapa Se aeyiov (sc. aireX^Syr^s). See N. on 2. § 5. 

8. rovTOLS airopcoy, being perplexed by these things. Cf. ol 5e Kol ecTaray 
airopovyT€5 t$ Trpdyfiari, 6. § 14. Cyrus might well be distressed at the 

Chap. HI.] NOTES. 235 

present aspect of his affairs, finding himself about to be deserted by those upon 
whom he placed his chief dependence. It will soon be seen with what tact 
Clearchus extricated himself and his Persian chief from their sad predicament. 

jxET€TrefjLTT€To^ cojitiuued sending for. See N. on 2. § 26. 6 Se, i. e. 

Clearchus. Uvai to Cyrus. ws KaTaCTTja-oix^vcat^ rovrcov els to deoUy 

inasmuch as these things would be happily adjusted^ would have a favorable 
issue. KaracTTioro^ivcov ( ■= Karacrra^ffoiiivcoVy cf. Butt. § 113. 6 ; Mt. 
§ 494. II ; S. § 209. K 6) is the relative fut. See N. on § 2. ^h rh d4op, 

favorably^ oppoHunely. els with its case is often used adverbially. fiera- 

ireiJLTr^abai (pres. of continued action, H. § V14) . . . . avT6v. The object of 
this device was to prevent the soldiers from having any suspicion of collusion 
between Cyrus and Clearchus. ovk €(pT}. Cf. N. on § 1. 

9. Tovs irpo(Te}^6vTas auT(p, i. e. the soldiers who had left Xenias and 

Pasion. For the construction, cf S. § 225. 1; H. § 786. ruv ^KK<av in 

the next clause limits rhv PovKofxeyovj any one of the rest who mshed to be 

present. *'Aj/5f)es CTpariSoTau This speech of Clearchus is a fine specimen 

of what the Greeks called \6yovs ecrx^ftaTttrjueVous, and which Qmnct. (Inst. 
Orat. IX. 2 : 25) describes. Similar to this was the speech of Agamenmon, 

Hom. II. II. 110-40. TCL fxkv 5)) Kvpov, the affairs of Cyrus. ovrdss 

€X6f, are ihus^ i. e. have the same relation. For the construction of ex^iv with 
an adverb, cf. N. on 1. § 5. ovre — ert, no longer, yap introduces an il- 
lustration of the preceding assertion. iirei ye. An ellipsis is often im- 
plied by ye. Since (whatever else we may do) at least we do not follow him. 

10. ''On ^ivToi adiKe7(T^ai vofjL((ei vcp* TjfiQJu (see N. on 2. § 25) olda, not- 
withstanding (i. e. although there is an apparent equahty in the relations be- ^ 

^^een Cyrus and ourselves) / know that he thinks he has been iU-tredted by 

us. w(7Te Koi iJ.€TaTr€fnroiJi.€yov avrov, so thut although he continues to send 

for me. See N. on 2. § 26. i\^e7u. Buttmann (Irreg. Gr. Yerbs, p. 

107) remarks, that " the forms of eA^ety have a decided preference for the 
meaning come, so that ^A^ey, for instance, very seldom occurs in the sense of 
going^ going away^ and those of el/ii are as seldom found in the sense of come. 

But ^px^o-^ai partakes almost equally of both meanings." rh iikv fxiynrrov 

^ S /jLeyiCTOi/ ecTTi, lit. that which is greatest =z priyicipally^ in the first place. 
This phrase is in apposition with the proposition with which it is connected. 

Cf Mt. § 432. 5. Cf. also II. 6. § 7; Y. 6. § 29. oti avvoiBa ifxavr^ 

irdyra i\pev(rfjLeyos avrSu, because I am conscious of having deceived him in all 
respects. For the construction of irayra, cf S. § 182; H. § 549. et/zeutr^ueVos 
(mid. in sense) is constructed in the nominative with a-vvoiBa ifxaOrcp, because 
its subject is contained in that of the verb. It might also have been put in the 
dative with the reflexive pron. Cf Butt. § 144. 6 ; Mt. § 548. 2 ; S. § 225. 

7. SeSiojs .... ^)^LK?](j^ai, fearing lest having apprehended me he shall in- 

fllct punishment (upon me) for those things in which he thinks that he has 
been unjustly treated by me. SeStcbs is in the same construction as ai<rxvv6fAe^ 



236 NOTir^. - 'j-p [Book L 

vosy denoting an additional reason why ClearchnsVas unwilling to obey the 

summons of Cyrus. ^iktiv — Sip = ^Iktiv rovrcau vi. (cf. S. § 172. 4). In this 

equivalent rovrcay depends upon diKTjy, as we say the punishment of a crime 
as well as /or a crime. So Matth. (§ 342) remarks, that " the gen. is some- 
times put with substantives absolutely, when otherwise irepl with the gen. is 
used." ^ (by attraction wv) is governed by i)diKri(r^ai, which in the act. 
voice has two accusatives. Cf. Mt. §§ 415. jS. 424. 1 ; Butt. § 134. 6; H. 
..§555.^ V 

11. ovi/ introduces an inference from the preceding statement. H. § 866. 

2. Ka^evdeiyy to be sleeping rr to he slothful^ mactive. The pres. infin. 

denotes continuance of action, or the being in a certain state or condition. 
See S. § 211. 1 ; H. § 714. See also N. on IV. 3. § 15. For the construe- 

tion oi ibpa — Aca^-euSefy, cf. S. § 222. 6; H. § 767. t^ixwv avrwy, ourselves. 

Cf. S. §§ 69 ; 182. e/c tovtoov, in consequence of these things, avTov 

=z eV avTov Tov tSttov, here^ in this place. Cf. Bos. El. p. 134. Schasf. re- 
jects this ellipsis and makes avrov gen. of avro. o-k^tttcov [xoi doKet ehaij 

it seems to me that we must look about^ i. e. consider. (Tk^tttcov ^Ivai = 5e? 
(TKiiTTccr^ai. Cf. Butt. § 134. 10; S. §§ 142; 178. 2.— — oVcos, in what 
way. It is well remarked by Tittmann, that ottws suggests to the mind the 
manner in which any thing is done, while tVa designates the end or cause of 

an action. fx^yovfx^v. The subjunctive or fut. indicative follows cttws, 

when it refers to fut. time. In the pres., 1 aor. pass., and 2 aor., it takes the 
subjunctive; but instead of the 1 aor. act. and mid., it commonly takes the 

fut. indie. Cf. Butt. § 139. 4 ; Mt. § 519. 7. e'/re ^jdr], or if now. Strict 

regularity of construction would require cire doK^7 [xiveiv in the preceding 
member. But in that case there would be an awkward repetition of ^ok€7 with 
the infinitive. ^JSr? is here used in reference to the immediate fut., and quali- 
fies ttTTteVai, which has a future signification. Cf. Butt. § 108. 5; S. § 211. 4. 

See above on fxevovfx^v. lU6rov^ a private^ sc. soldier. A word properly 

used of a private citizen in contradistinction to one in public life. It some- 
times designates one who is unlettered^ ignorant^ hence the Eng. idiot. -^ 

v(pe\os, a defective noun used only in the nom. sing. H. § 201. b. X^"^ ^^ 

"T2t *0 5e avY]p=: ouros dh 6 avfjp^ i. e. Cyrus. -ttoAAou jxlu H^tos <pi\os, 

a very valuable friend; lit. a friend worth much. Words requiring a definition 
of value are put in the genitive, and in such cases H^ios signifies equal to^ as 
'd^ios TifjLi^ewVy equal to the demi-gods. Cf. Mt. § 363. 5; Rost § 108. 4. 6; 

H. §584. e. "Eti Se, moreover. dvya[xiy, forces. The abstract for 

the concrete. irdures ofxoios^ all alikcy or without excejytion. iinffTd' 

li^^a gives intensity to the preceding verb. So in common parlance, we see 
and know ■= we have certain knowledge. ^okov/jlcv. Such was the mod- 
eration and urbanity of the Greeks, that they often spoke in a doubtful way of 

what was real and certain. 'TrSppca — avrov Ka^rjcr^aij to be encamped fat 

from him, rU = e/cooros. Cf. S. § 165. N, 1. 

Chap. III.] NOTES. 237 

13» 'E/c 5e TouTov, hereupon, ot juej/ — ot Se, some — others, Cf. Butt. 

§ 126. 2 ; S. § 166. e/c rov avroixdrov =i anh rov avTOfjcdrov. Cf. N. on 

2. § lY. See also Mt. § 574. Aejo^'res denotes the purpose oi avicTavTo. 

S. § 225. 5 ; H. § 789. d. W iKeiyov, by him (see N. on 2. § 25), refers 

to Clearchus. iyKeXevcrroi. Weisk. interprets : clam compositi et in- 

structi^ comparing ot fxhu avrol ica^* iavrovs^ ol Se izKuffroi vTrh Kvpov iyKe- 
\€v(rroi, Cyr. Y. 5. § 89. He compares also iyKeXevciu rats icvaiy to incite 
the dogs^ which, if done in other than a low voice, and as it were secretly 
(quasi clam), would alarm the game pursued. Hutch., Sturz, Born., and 
Pop., rightly translate it, jussus, being directed, which of course in the present 

instance would be privately done. t) airopia, the difficulty. Th. a priv. 

and iropos, way. Hence airopioj, to be without a way, i. e. without resource ; 

and airopia, the state of one who knows not ichat to do. ixiv^iv and ainepai 

depend on aTropla. S. § 223. 6 ; H. § 767. 

14. 5e St], but then. irpoo'TroLovfxepos cirevSeiv, pretending to be in 

haste. Trpoa-TToiovfjLevos .... 'EAActSa is a parenthetic clause. eXia^ai de- 
pends upon elTre (SeTy), said that they ought to choose, &c. ^Wovs than 

Clearchus. This appears from the next clause. €t fx^ PovXerai for d fi}] 

fiovXoiTo. The Greeks for the sake of vivacity and emphasis often introduce 
the mood and tense of the oratio recta, where the context would strictly re- 
quire the oratio obliqua. Butt. § 137. K 7; S. § 213. 1; H. § 734. b; Mt. 
§ 529. 5. The indie, with d is used in the condition of a proposition, when 
its relation to the consequence is such, that if the action expressed by the one 

should take [place, that of the other would also. Cf. Mt. § 507. 4. b. 

ayopdC^cr^ai and the following infinitive depend on cTttc. ?; S* ayopa .... 

(rrparcvixaTL. A clause thrown in by the historian, to show how absurd was 
the advice, to procure food from a market in the very heart of a large army 

which they were about to desert. cva-KevdC^a^ai, to pack up the baggage. 

i\^6uTas. Kriig. would supply rivds. — — Tiy^/uLSi/a alreii/ Kvpou otTris 

dicL (piKias ri]5 xd^pas aird^et, to ask of Cyrus a guide (S. § 185; H. § 553; 
C. § 436) to conduct them as through a friendly country ; or more fully, to 

conduct them through the country, as through a friendly one. Kvpov. 

The proper name is often repeated by the Greeks, where a pron. might have 

been employed. oa-ris = %va, in order that. aird^^i. The future is 

used for the subjunctive aorist, to express continuance of action in an indefi- 
nite future time. See Mt. § 519. 7. r^v raxicrrju (sc. odhv) ^^rdx^cra, 

celerrime. Cf. Butt. § 115. 4; Mt. § 282. 2. TrpoKaraXrjyf/ofjLci/ovs denotes 

the purpose of 7re^;J/af. See N. on xi^oi/res, § 13. The article is omitted be- 
cause no particular persons of the number are intended to be designated. Cf. 
, Mt. § 271. Obs. The ^Kpa, heights here referred to, are those over which the 

army passed into Cilicia. ■ ^^da-cocri — Ka.ra\a^6vT£s, take them before us, 

(p^dyw is constructed with participles in the same manner as rvyxdvca, Xavbdvw, 
etc. See K on 1. § 2. Here 'oTrtas takes the 1 aor. subj. instead of the fut 

238 NOTES. [Book I. 

indie, as in § 11, regard being had to the action as merely brought to pass, 

and not to its continuance. Mt. § 519. 1 (end) ; H. § 716 ; S. § 211. 6. • 

^v . . . . ayrjpTraKores. See N. on cl fi^ ^ovX^rai supra. ^xofi^v avripira,- 
k6t€s = auTjpirdKaueUf only more emphatic. Cf. Butt. § 144. N. 18; Eost, 

§ 116. 13; S. § 89. 1. roaovTov, this only ; as we say, he said this and 

no more, rocrodros is a strengthened form of tScos. Cf. S. § '76. 1. > 

<r^ " 15» *Q.5 fxev CTparrjy^a'oyTa e/xe ravrrjy t)]V crpaTTjylay depends upon \eyc- 
rw, by a construction similar to &s €fxov 16vtos — yyccfjirjy ex^re, § 6. Render, 
let no one of you speak as if I would take this command; lit. name me as 
leader^ &c. For the construction of crTparrjylay (rTpaT7}yeiyy cf. Butt. § 131. 4 ; 
S. § 181. 2; IL § 64 Y. a. Kriig. well remarks, that the difficulties and dan- 
gers of the return could not seem small, when such a brave and skilful man 

(cf. II. 2. § 6; 6. § 1-16) refused to hold the office of leader. ws Be t$ - 

ayBpl hy Uy 'dXTjcr^e TreicrofxaL, (but be assured) that I will obey the man whom 
you may choose. In this sudden change of structure, it is evident that 
eKacrros AeyeVw, instead of ^TjSels AeyeVw, is to be supplied. Kriig. takes 
Xeyirca in the sense of vofM^ina, hut let each one of you entertain the opinion 
that /, &c. tv e/\^cr3^e = a fut. praeterite. Cf. Butt. § 139. 4. ireicrofjLai is 

varied from ireKTofieyoy, corresponding to crrpaTTjyfio'oyra. Koi 'apx^cT^ai, „. 

to obey also; lit. to he governed. Ka\ has here a superadditory use, as 
though the words, oh fioyoy 'apx^iv aWd, had preceded. Notwithstanding this 
assertion, Clearchus was not fond of obeying others, or of being directed in any 
affair. Had he obeyed the Ephori (II. 6. § 3), he would not have been an ex- 
ile from his country. Had he listened to the suggestion of Cyrus (8. § 13), 
the result of the battle at Cunaxa would have been far different. Xenophon 
also remarks (II. 6. § 15), that it was said he was unwilling to be ruled by 
others. A reason for this may have been his consciousness of superior military 
talents, which was tacitly acknowledged by the other commanders. Cf. II. 
2. § 5. 

16. M6TQ5 rovroy, after him. Halbk. suspects, but without sufficient rea- < 

son, that this speaker was Xenophon himself. eu^^-emj/, foolishness. This 

individual commences by gravely refuting the mock speech of the one who 

had just spoken, all which is done in order to deceive the soldiers. 

^(TTre/) TrdXiy rhy ffroXov Kvpov fx^ iroiovp.iyov. A somewhat difficult passage, 
and one which has received various translations. Zeun. and Schneid. inter- 
pret : quasi Cyrus posthac non esset expeditionem navalem suscepturus. 
Weisk : quasi Cyrus non retro ita per mare facturus esset. But with both 
these interpretations, as Popp. justly observes, the article conflicts. Born, 
prefers : quasi retro (i. e. posthac) non navigaturus esset. Kriig. rejects fx)] 
and interprets : quasi Cyrus rediturus esset. Of these interpretations Borne- 
mann's is the best, for the speaker bases his remark on the assumption, that 
Cyrus was marching against the Pisidians, and upon their subjugation would 
return back to his satrapy, iroiovfiivov has in this place the force of the fu- 

Chap, m.] NOTES. 239 

ture. ahetu here takes Traph, tovtov instead of tlie aceus. of the person. 

^ f \vp,aiy6fjL€^a t)]v irpa^tv, whose enterprise (lit. for whom^ dat. incom- 

mod.) we are ruining (by deserting Mm). For the change of construction into 

the orat, recta^ cf. X. on § 14. ^ &j/ Kvpos 5i5w stands for %v h.y Kvpos 

diB^y the relative being attracted by its antecedent Tjje^oyi. ri Kcc^vei kqI 

Ta 6,Kpa ^fjuv K€\€V€Ly Kvpov vpoKo/raXa^x^dv^iv. Poppo with several other 
critics renders this : quid ohstat quin juga quoque Cyrum nobis (i. e. in 
nostrum commodum) prceoccupare juheamus; i. e. if the relations are so 
amicable between us and Cyrus, that we could obtain from him a faithful 
guide, what hinders our requesting him to send a detachment of soldiers to 
secure for us the Pylas Cilicise ? There is a vein of irony in the sentence, 
which is rendered more prominent by the paronomasia in KuXvet and KeX^veiv. 
Kriig. however interprets : quid impedit quo minus Cyrus nobis (i. e. detri- 
mento) anteoccupari jubeat. 

IT. '£70; yap. The thought contained in iirLdeiKvhs jilu r^iy €u^3-6iay 

K. T. A., is here resumed and illustrated. oKyoirjv, I should be slou\ i. e. 

reluctant. When this verb contains the idea of fear, it is followed by ix)} with 
the opt. or subj. S. § 230. 3 ; H. § '743. The general rule is, that the opt. 
follows the praet. and the subj. the pres., but the reverse often takes place, 
since the object of fear is mostly considered as future. See Mt. § 520. 8 ; 
Butt. § 148. 4. Some grammarians supply (po^ov/xevos upon Vhich /x^ is in 
dependence, but which is omitted because the idea of fear is already expressed 

in oKvoirjv. Cf. Rost, p. 389. avraTs rats rpi^pecri, with the triremes 

themselves ; as we say, triremes and all. avrals imparts emphasis to the sub- 
stantive. "When a word which expresses accompaniment has avrhs with it, 

both are put in the dat. without <ru>'." Mt. § 405. Obs. 3. o^ev oux ol6v 

re icTrai eleA^-eTy, whence it woidd be impossible to exti'icate ourselves. The 
full construction is rh rj/xas e|6A3-€?j/ ovx ^^^^ "^^ ea-rai 7]/x7y. Mt. (§ 4'79. 
Obs. 2. a) makes oT6s elfxi, or oTos r elfxi =: roiovros cI/xl, wcttc, I am of such 
a kind., as^ which may signify: (1) I am able; (2) lam wont; (3) lam 
ready J williiig. oXos re when spoken of persons signifies, able; of things, 

possible. Cf Butt. § 150. p. 440; S. § 222. 6; H. § 814. '6^ey, i.e. 

eKcTo-e o^€y. Xo^-eTy avroy, unknown to him. Tor the construction of 

Ka^^eiy with a7re?\^ci>y, see N. on 1. § 9. Notice that the aor. part, is here em- 
ployed with an aor. verb. Cf. Butt. § 144. K 6. 

^f^tm 18. €70)76, I indeed, ye is appended for the sake of emphasis. S § 68. 

N. 3; H. § 850. 1. ravra {xky (pXvapias, For the sake of emphasis the 

demon, pron. which is here the subject, is put in the neut., while the subst. in 
the predicate is fem. Cf Mt. g 440. 7. cvy KKedpx^p is to be constructed 

^ with iX^oyras, accompanying Clear chus. OLTiyes, sc. elffi, ri = €ts rl, 

Cf. Butt. § 131. 7; H. § 547. c. o'i(prcp koI vpSa'^ey exp^TO ro7s ^ivoiSy 

-^tcTthat in which he formerly employed foreign troops. otigsTrcp by attraction 
and omission of its antecedent (S. § 179. R. l) = roiauT?7 o*iaw€p. In this 

240 NOTES. [Book I. 

equivalent, roiavrri follows irapaTrXijo'la (S. § 202. 1), and o'lavirep is con- 
structed with ixP'O"^^ (S- § 1^2)' Reference is here had to the 300 Greeks, 
who under Xenias accompanied Cyrus to the capital, where his father lay sick. 
Cf. 1. § 2. KaKtous = less brave and faithful. rovrcp, i. e. Cyrus. 

19. T7]s irpSa-^ev, sc. irpd^ecos. a^iovy (sc. doKc? jxoi, from § 18), I think 

^^^"""ihat they shall demand; lit. deem it proper or fit. See N. on 1. § 8. ^ 

iretcayra, either having persuaded^ viz. by holding out greater pecuniary in- 
ducements. Trphs (piXiav =: (piXLKCQS. Schneid., Hutch., Born., Popp., in- 
terpret : in terram pacatam^ on the ground that the idea of (piXiKoos is con- 
tained in TT^ia-^iyra. tiv after eirS/jLej/oL is to be taken with eirot^c^-a. The 

transposition of this particle is quite frequent, and its position depends mostly 

upon euphony. Cf. Butt. § 139. N. 4. irpS^vfioi, zealous^ ready to do 

him any service. Both irp6^vixot and cpiXoL belong to the omitted subject of 

iTToifJie^a. airayye7\ai. Supply from § 18, doKe7 fxai rovs Tvphs Kvpov i\- 

b6vTas. irphs ravray in respect to those things^ i. e. the answer of Cyrus to 

their application. - — — — ~ ——.^ 

20. o'l ^pdoToou Kvpqy rh dS^ayra, who put to Cyrus the questions which 
had been resolved 07i.ifB. § 184. 1 ; H. § 553. Notice the use of the imperf. 
and aor. in this clause, the former to denote continued, the latter, momentary 

or finished action. Cf. S. §211. 5, 6 ; H. §§ 701; 705. 'A^poK6ixav, 

Ahrocomas^ a* Persian satrap, who commanded one of the divisions of the 
king^j^: forces, but did not participate in the battle at Cunaxa, having arrived 

too late. Cf. 7, § 12. ix^P^^ 'dpdpa, i.e. an enemy. S. § 156. N. 5; 

H. § 500. a. O.K0V01 — clvai. Verbs of hearing and learning take the par- 
ticiple, when a fact is adduced which is heard with one's own ears ; the infini- 
tive, when the information of the fact is received from others. Cf Mt. § 549. 

6. Ohs. 2; Rost § 129. 4. c; H. § 802. r$ Evcppdrrf irorafic^ (see N. on 

ix^P^^ ctp^pa). This celebrated river rises in the mountains of Armenia, and 
flowing southwardly, somewhat in the form of a crescent, through Syria and 

Mesopotamia, empties itself into the Persian gulf 5w5c/ca cra^iiovs, 

Cyrus seems purposely to have fallen short of the real distance, as we find 
that they marched nineteen stations before they reached the river at Thapsa- 

cus. TiV ^ii^tiv — iiri^eivat, to inflict the punishment (which he merited) = 

condign punishment, 

21. ^yet for ^yoi. See Ns. on 2. § 2; 3. § 14. irpoffairovcn Se 

liKfboVy asking an increase of pay. Krlig. makes it z=z irphs tovtcj} hu i^^rj €0e- 
pov "dXKov jjLiff^hv alroxxTiv, ov = rovrov oV (S. § 179. 1), of which equiva- 
lent, TovTov follows 7iixi6\iov implying comparison (S. § 198. 2), and ov (i. e. 
ol) referring to jxia-bovy is governed by %(pepov = i\dfif3avop. Bloom, on Thu- 
cyd. III. 17. § 3, says that the mid. form of (pepw in this sense is far more 

usual. rod ixr)vh$ t«? a-Tparic^rr}, a month (gen. of time) to each soldier; 

lit. the month to the soldier^ the article serving as an emphatic each. See H. 
§ 527. c; Butt. § 132. 4. b, ey ye r$ tpavep^ {= (papepcas)^ at least 

Chap. IV.] 



openly. Although strong suspicions were still entertained respecting the real 
object of the expedition, yet no open avowal of it was made either by Cyrus 
or those in his confidence. 


2 J 3. at Thy ^dpov irora/jLoy, The river Sarus rises in Cappadocia, and 
flowing through Cilicia falls into the Cilician sea. It corresponds to the river 
now called Sihun, which Ains worth found by admeasurement to be 325 feet 
wide at Adana. The width indicates, as Col. Chesney remarks, that the pas- 
sage of the Sarus was effected near that city. As neither this river nor the 
Pyramus is fordable, the army must have crossed by some temporary bridge. 
See 2. § 5. The Pyramus {rhu UvpafjLOj/) is a larger and longer stream, nearly 

parallel with the Sarus and flowing into the Sinus Issicus. ^Icra-ovs. Is- 

sus lay on the N. E. side of the head of the Sinus Issicus, at the foot of the 
pass of Amanus, and north of the Pinarus, now the Dalichai or Mad River. 
Steph. says that it was called Nicopolis, citi/ of victory^ on account of the great 
victory of Alexander over Darius, b. c. 333. 

2. e/c XleAoTrow^coy v7]€s, viz. those sent by the Lacedemonians to the aid 

of Cyrus, referred to in 2. § 21. eV clvtcus, over them. ?;7€tT0. 

Some translate : vice dux erat. But then we should expect avrous instead of 
avrojy. Cf. Mt. § 360. a. When followed by the gen. it signifies to rule, 
command. See Mt. § 359. 3. That this is the signification of the verb here, 

is confirmed by vavs kr4pas which follows. Cf. I. 2. § 21. €^ ^^(pi(rov 

is to be taken with 7]ye7To. erepas, =propterea, besides, Ct N. on 5. 

§ 5. Tamos was a native of Memphis. After the death of his patron, he fled 
with his ships into Egypt, and was there murdered by King Psammetichus. 
oTc. With Born, and Bind., I prefer this reading instead of on the com- 
mon one. Poppo connects cvj/eiroXinci with '?»/, and makes irphs avrhu refer 
to Tissaphernes. But koI evidently connects <rweiro\€p.€i with iiroXiSpKei, and 
-n-phs avrhy must be rendered against him^ i, e. Tissaphernes. As Chirisophus 
has now joined the expedition, we will give a tabular list of the number of 
troops led by each general : 




SophaBnetus Stymph 





Socias , 

Soph£enetU3 Arcad , 







11,8 JO 












242 NOTES. [Book I. 

If we read Uacricov els kitTaKoariovs ^vdpas in 2. § 3, the sum here given will 
harmonize with- the number reviewed by Cyrus (2. § 9) -f- the force led by 

Chirisophus. Cf. N. on 2. § 3. iirl rSiv veuy, upon the ships as a means 

of conveyance. See N. on 2. § 16. wp^xow^ lay at anchor, Trapa, near^ 

alongside. This preposition followed by the accusative denotes motion to- 
wards^ as well as rest near or alongside (see N. on 2. § 11\ and hence gives 
to uipiJLOvv the idea of previous motion, as we say were brought to anchorage 
alongside^ &c. ol vap* 'A^poKSfxa iiia^ocpdpoi, "EWrjyeSf the Greek mer- 
cenaries with (i. e. in the service of) Abrocomas. In some editions we find 
'A^poKS/j^a in the gen. The construction would then be like that in rajt/ 'rrapa 
pacriX^cas, 1. § 5. 

4. cttI TTuAas K. T. A., to the gates of Cilicia and Syria^ usually called 

Pyla6 Syrise. Cf. N. on 2. § 22. '^Ho'av .... TelxVi now these gates were 

two walls, ravra although referring to irvXai takes the gender of the predi- 
cate rdxV' S. § 156. d; C. § 498. e. irvXai and relxv ^^lyq the relation of 
subject and predicate, because the former were placed upon the latter, and 
constituted their chief feature. The following figure will illustrate the position 
of this pass : 
















rh ixkv €(reo^€Vy the inner one^ i.e. the Cilician gate, eccy^-ev preceded 

by the art. = an adj. Cf. Butt. § 125. 6. We should have expected the arti- 
cle rh repeated before 'jrph ttjs KiXiKias, as in the next clause t^ irph rr^s 2y- 

pias, Cf. Mt. § 277. a; Butt. § 125. 3. irXi^pov depends on irorafjLos. 

See N. on 2. § 23. rh fxecoy rwv retxcDv ^icrav ctoBioi. In this clause, rh 

fi€ffov (cf. Mt. § 269 ; S. § 158. 2) is the subject of ^crav, which takes its num- 
ber from crdBioiy the predicate-nominative, that being nearest to the verb. 
See Mt. § 305. crrevfj^ narrow. This being a relative term must be de- 
termined by the subject to which it refers. Eennell remarks that "when 
Xenophon says the pass was narrow {<frevii\ he could only mean in reference 
to a front formed for an attack ; since there was width for a fortress, and one 
too, large enough to contain a considerable force." rjAi^arot. Some de- 
rive this word, which is always an epithet of irerpTj, from 'j^Xios, the sun^ and 
Paiv(i)y to go^ giving it the signification, sun-reaching^ sun-extendioig = highy 
towering. But from the inappropriateness of this, as an epithet of caves and 
of Tartarus (cf. Hesiod ^. 483 ; Eurip. Hippol. 782), Buttmann (Lexil.No. 61) 

Chap. IV.] NOTES. 24o 

prefers the etymology, which supposes it an abridgment of 7]\ir6Paros, ac- 
cording to the analogy of iiXiTo/xTjvoS) riXiroepyos, in which words lie the idea 
oi missing ov failing in; so that rjXi^aros would express the facility of mak- 
ing a false step in ascending a precipitous height or descending a steep de- 
clivity. Passow prefers this derivation of the word, adding however another, 
AAfi, aAao/xa£, that from which the footstep slips. It appears then from these 
eminent authorities, that ^xI^qltos has the general signification, a steep ascent -,.. 
difficult or iinpossihle to be climbed. The overhanging and inaccessible clifTs 
here spoken of, were on the left hand of one going from Cilicia into Syria. 

€<^ef o-Wj/cecray. Pluperf. with the signification of the imperfect. tti;- 

Xaiy gates^ not fortresses as above in ^iorav 5e Tavra 5uo Tdxn- 

5« cX(T(a KcX e|co Tcov irvXcov, within (i. e'. between the two fortresses) and 
without the gates (i. e. on the Syrian side). The reason is given in the next 

clause. IBtao'diJ.epoi rovs iroXcfiiovsy having forced the enemy (from their 

position), ^tao-dfievoi belongs in sense to ol oirATrai, and irapeX^oiey (might 
pass through)^ to Cyrus and the rest of liis army. The distinction is not, 
however, grammatically observed, as the subject of the participle and verb is 

the same. (puXdrroteVf sc. ol iroXefiioL. e%o;/Ta, inasmuch as he had. 

For the partic. denoting cause, see S. § 255. 4 ; IT. § '/SO. c. -/f/coutre Kvpov 

—uvTa = iJKovo'e otl Kvpos ^u (see N. on 2. § 21). rpidicovra fjLvpid^as 

crpoLTias. The Persian kings, especially in the latter years of the empire, sel- 
dom took the field without having assembled a vast army. They did not reflect 
that an undisciplined army was weak in proportion to its numbers ; or that a 
few thousand disciplined and veteran troops were far superior to countless 
myriads of raw inexperienced men. 

6« Mvpiaj/^poy, Ilyriandrus, here located by Xenophon in Syria, but by 
Scylax and Strabo, in Cilicia, was a place of considerable trade, being origi- 
nally a Phoenecian settlement and partaking of the enterprise and commercial 
spirit of the mother country. Ainsworth says that its site has not yet been 

satisfactorily determined. Hartlein adopts the reading Mvpiav^ov. rh x^' 

piov. The article is frequently employed to mark the subject of the sentence. 

C. § '706. 4. 6A/ca5es, merchant ship)S. These ships differed in structure 

from vessels of war, being oval with broad bottoms. Cf. Smith's Diet. Gr. and 
Rom. Antiq. p. 8'7'7. The Schol. on Thucyd. YI. 43, thus enumerates the dif- 
ferent kinds of vessels there referred to, rpi'fjpeis rax^'^ai, rptipeis crrparLciorL- 
5es, irevTTjKouTopoi, iiraycoyoi, 'irXo7ay oA/caSes. * ' Of these last two, the TrXo^a 
were barges attending on the triremes, the oXKd^es were vessels of burden 
serving as transports.^'' Bloom. 

7. 'Evrav^a efieiyay r^fiepas l^ra to unload, as Rennell suggests, the stores 
and provisions brought in the fleet, which, as he now was to leave the sea- 
coast, could accompany him no farther, toi ^Ae/crrou ^{fa, 7nost valuable 

effects. Cf. K on 3. § 12. fcey toTs irXclcrrots iddKovy, as they seemed to 

the most^ i. e. as most persons thought. (piXoTt/Mrj^eyreSy being Jealous =z 

24:4 NOTES. [Book I. 

feeling their honor touched, on rovs crrparidfTas k, t. X. The order is: 

Kvpos e'ia Thv K\iapxov %x^iv rovs (rrpaTidoras k. r. A., because Cyrus per- 
mitted Clearchus to have, &c. rovs irapa K\4apxov aTreX^oi/ras, (viz.) 

those who had gone to Clearchus. For the position of the article and attribu- 
tive, see S. § 169. 2 ; H. § 533. rhu KXcapxov, the (said) Clearchus. H. 
§ 530. a. Render d-s airiouTas, with the expectation of returning, Cf. N. on 

1. § 10. For the circumstance here referred to, see 3. § Y. kolI ov irphs 

ficLo-iKia, sc. ioi/ras. MjA^e \6yos, a rumor spread abroad. on di^KOL. 

In the orat. obliqua, the opt. without clu is put after ore^ ws, on, etc., what- 
ever may be the time designated by the verb. Cf. Mt. § 529. 2. at fxev 

evxoyroy some earnestly wished. €i/xo/iat is never found in the Anabasis, and 

rarely in the other writings of Xenophon, with the augment tju. aAc6- 

coivTo. The fut. middle here = fut. passive. S. § 209. N. 5. b. The apo- 
dosis to €t a\6(roivTo is implied : pitied them (thinking what would befall 
them) if they shoidd be takeii. The omission is easily supplied from the 

8. 'ATroAeAoiTratTzz/ rifxaSj have deserted us. iiria'Tda'^coa'av, pres. im- 

perat. mid. of iiriarafxai. OLTrodedpaKaa-iv — airowetpevyaa-LU. An obvious 

distinction is here made between these words. The former signifies to abscond 

so as not to be found ; the latter, to flee away so as to evade pursuit. 

o'Lxoyrai, are gone, o^xofxai has not only the signification of the present, 1 
depart, am in the act of departing ; but also the force of the perfect, / am 

gone, and in this sense is the opposite of '/j/ca), I am come. jua rovs ^eovs. 

When ^a stands alone it serves as a negative. Cf. Butt. p. 436 ; S. § 183. 

jua. eycDye and eyco in the next sentence, bring out in emphatic contrast 

the magnanimity and clemency of Cyrus, and the faithlessness of the generals 

who had deserted him. diS^co. The more usual form is dLca^o/jiai. Cf. 

Butt. § 113. 5. tU — Koi avTovs. When tLs stands for a whole class 

rather than for an individual, it is referred to by a plur. pron. Cf. Mt. § 434. 

2. b; H. § 514. b; S. § 15Y. 3. lovrojv, let them go. The common read- 
ing, lovTwy av is retained by Hutch, and Weisk. but Matthi89 (§ 599. e) has 
clearly shown that av cannot be joined with an imperative. It is rejected by 

Steph., Pors., Schneid., Dind., Born., Pop., and Kriig. kolkiovs contr. for 

KaKioves, nom. plur. in agreement with the omitted subject of clci. irepl 

rjiias, towards us. Cf. 6. § 8 ; III. 2. § 20. Kairoi ye — a\X\ although — 

yet. (ppovpovfieva either agrees with n-iKva as the leading substantive (C. 

§ 650. b; S. § 157. 2. b), or because both substantives are viewed merely as 

things (H. § 511. Rem. i). TpdWea-i. Tralles was an opulent city of 

Lydia not far from Magnesia. CTcpiiffovraL = a-reprib'ha'ovTa.t. Cf. Butt. 

§ 113. 6; Mt. § 496. 8; S. § 209. N. 5. b. rris aperfjs. Cyrus 

seems to have reposed considerable confidence in these generals, especially in 
Xenias. See 1. § 2; 2. § 1. 

0» €^ rts, lit. if any one =3 whoever^ tdl who. Render et ns Kai, even thos4 

Chap. IY.] NOTES. 245 

loho. apcT-fiVj humanitatem^ cletnentiam. irpo^vfioTepoy^ with greater 

alacrity. XdXov. Hutch, says the name of this river cannot elsewhere be 

found. Between this river and Myriandros is the pass of Amanus, which 
Ainsworth denominates the true Syrian Gates. The silence of Xenophon in 
regard to this mountain-pass and the rivers and lakes of this region, has been 
attributed to various causes, the more probable of which is the conjecture of 
Ainsworth, that it resulted from his despondency on account of the desertion 
of Xenias and Pasion, which left him little disposition to note down the fea- 
tures of the country through which they were passing. irXi^pov limits 

irorafxhi/ to be mentally supplied after ovra. ^eovs ivofju^ov. Derceto the 

mother of Semiramis the celebrated queen of Assyria, having thrown herself 
into the sea, became partially transformed into a fish. Afterward the Syrians 
paying her divine honors abstained from eating fish, regarding them as sacred. 
Semiramis after her death was said to be changed into a dove, and hence the 
worship of that bird among the Syrians and Assyrians. ivofxiCoj/ = voixi(ov<Ti. 

This verb here takes two accusatives. S. § 185; H. § 556. ov^h ras ttc- 

picrrepois, sc. adiKe7i/ d(av. K^jxai is qualified by the relat. adject, clause eV 

cus i(XKi]j/ovv. UapvcroiTidos ^<Tay^ belonged to Parysatis. — ets (6v7]v. 

The Persian kings assigned to the cities and villages of the empire, the duty 
of supplying their queens and other favorites with articles of luxury. Corn. 
Nep. says, that Artaxerxes gave a domicile to Themistocles at Magnesia, which 
city was to supply him with bread ; Lampsacus, with wine ; and Myus, with 
viands. In the present instance, these villages were to keep the queen- 
dowager in girdles. The amount of this tax would of course depend upon her 
caprice and prodigality. 

10. AapdoaKos^ "fluvius aliis scriptoribus ignotus." Hutch. oj rh 

^vpos 7r\e3-pou = oj rh €vp6s icn cvpos irXe^pov. Kriig. ii/rav^a .... j8a- 

ciXeia, Balis is supposed to be the site of this palace. Poppo makes 

&p^avTos ^= upxoyros. ''''qui ad Cyri adventuvi usque prcefectus fuerat.^'* 
Kriig. This satrap must not be confounded with the Belesis who conspired 
with Arbat3es against Sardanapalus, and was afterwards governor of Babylon. 

Cf. YII. 8. § 25. wpai, sc. irovs^ seasons (of the year). Kvpos — e^e- 

Ko\\/e. It is an old maxim: Quifacitper aliunifacit per se. avrov^ i.e. 

the park. 

11. 67rl Tov Eucppdrrju irorafioi/. Cyrus struck the river at Thapsacus, a 
famous ford crossed by Darius after his defeat at Issus, and three years after, 
by Alexander previous to the battle of Arbela. In his march to this place he 
passed through the northern borders of Syria Proper, having the mountains 
which lie along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, upon his right. From 
the Daradax he seems to have followed the right bank of the Euphrates, until 

he reached Thapsacus. a-ra^icov (see N. on 7r\e,3-pou, § 9) is pronounced 

by Kiepert a mistake for 7rAe«^pwy. 'Ej/rav^a efxeivav rffiepas TreVre. His 

detention here was owing probably to the unwillingness of the army to march 

246 NOTES. [Book I. 

against the king. ■§ 6d6s, the march. ^'' expeditio hellicay Born. 

ecoiTo. The optative of indirect quotation. The direct form would be ^ odhs 

€(rraL. auairei^eip, to persuade^ bring over. 

iS. cLTT'fiyyeWou, reported. exaAcTrazyoy toTs (rrpaTTiyo^s^ icere enraged 

at the generals. Well might they be indignant, having been inveigled away 
so far from home, and kept in ignorance of the real nature of the expedition, 

until it was too late to abandon it. aurovs — KpvirT^iv = on avrol iKpvTTToy. 

See Mt. § 499. irdXai ravra eldSras, while or although knowing these 

things before. S. § 225. 6 ; H. § 789. f. ovk ^atrau Uvai, Cf. N. on 3. 

§ 1. ioLv fjL'f), unless. Cf. S. §215. tls, i.e. Cyrus. Without a 

subst. rh signifies, some one^ a certain one. S. § 165. xp'^if^^'^^- Kriiger 

says, *' hie non de stipendiis, sed de donis sermo est." But Sturz rightly in- 

teprets, stipendia^ wages. wcTrep /cat, sc. ^o^rivai, the same as (was given). 

Kol raura (so. Kvpos iiroirja'ev), and that too. Cf. Mt. § 470. 6 ; Butt. 

§ 150. p. 441 ; C. § 513. n. H. § 508. b. See also K on II. 5. § 21. The 
peaceful character of the former avd^acris of Cyrus to Babylon, contrasted 
with the toilsome and perilous expedition in which he was now engaged, is 
used by the soldiers as an additional reason why they should receive as high 

wages as those who went up with Xenias (1. § 2). ISyrcov (sc. avruv, see 

N. on irpo'i6j/rcoj/, 2. § lY) is a varied construction for lovcnv agreeing with 
To7s TTporepois. 

13. i'xyas. The mina was a name given not to a coin but to a sum =100 
drachma. The old Attic dpaxfJi-h == IV" cents 5-93 mills ; the later dpaxf^h = 
16 cents 5-22 mills, A mina or 100 of the former = $1'7.59 ; of the latter, 
$16.52. Ilussey (Ancierit Weights^ &c., pp. 47, 48) makes the drachma =: 
9.72 pence, or, about 18 cents 0-55 mills. — — iirav — '/)Kcc(ri. Cf. N. on &;/ 

eXTjc^e, 3. § 15. P-^XP^^ ^^ Karacr-ficrr} k. t. A. It seems from this, that 

the pay of mercenaries ceased in whole or part, when the enterprise for which 

they were employed was achieved. to — iroAu, the greater part. Cf. Mt. 

§ 266. rod 'EWtjuikov = riav ^EW-fij/ccv. Cf. Mt. § 445. d. MeVwy 

5e. A glimpse is here given of the character of Menon, who, from the ac- 
count given of him (11. 6. §§ 21-9), seems to have been a compound of every 

thing base and wicked. irply vr^Kov clvai, before it was evident. irpXv 

takes the infin. when the leading verb is affirmative ; but when the leading 
verb is negative, its usual construction is with the other moods. Goodwin, 

§ 106. x^P*^ '^^^ &XXwv, apart from the others^ i. e. from the divisions 

led by the other generals. 

14. *'A?/5/)6s, vien^ soldiers^ here a term of honor. ttAcoj/ irpori/j.'fia'ca-^e 

(— 7rporijjL7j^f](re<T^€\ yotc will be far more honored. The composite xpo is 
here redundant, the comparison being expressed by irxiov. "Many gram- 
matical pleonasms," says Matth. (§ 636. Obs.)^ "are not so in a rhetorical 

view, as they serve to give distinctness or force to the expression." Ti ovv 

K€\€v<i) TToirjcrat; A rhetorical question, serving to call attention to what the 

Chap. IV.] NOTES. 247 

speaker was about to say. vfxas XP^^^^ StajSf/z'ctf, it behooves you to cross 

= you ought to cross. Kvpy, i. e. to the proposals of Cyrus. 

15. yoLp serves to introduce the reason why Menon's troops should first 

cross the Euphrates. y\ii](pi(r<t)VTai is derived from y\iri(pQs, a small stone or 

pebble (Lat. calculus\ used in reckoning on an abacus, whence \f/7](piC(o, I cal- 
culate ; and also in voting, whence T\>t]<pi^oixai, I vote^ I resolve. It is here 
used metaphorically, as the method of voting in the army was doubtless by a 
show of hands (x^ipoToyia). Cf. Man. Clas. Lit. p. 510; Smith's Diet. Gr. and 

Kom. Antiq. p. 805. ap^avres rod diapaiyeiy, by having begun (particip. 

of means) the crossing of the river. cos irpo^vfjLordrovs ovcriyy as those who 

were tnost zealous, xapiv e'lcreTai Kvpos kol aTroduxret, Cyrus will be 

grateful (to you) aiid repay (the favor). e'iVo/xai fut. mid. of ctSw, used 
chiefly by the Attics instead of dd'fja'ct). See Butt. Irreg. Verbs, p. 78; Mt. 

§ 231. iirla-TaraL 5' e'l tls koI ^\Xos, and he knows (how to do this, i. e. 

requite a favor) if any other 07ie (does). aTro->f/7i<l)L(TotjyTat, shall have de- 
cided not (to follow Cyrus), airh in composition has sometimes a privative 

force. Cf. Vig. p. 222. XVII. cLTrifx^v fiev airavTes ets tovixttoKiv (i. e. t^ 

€fjLira\tv), we shall all (both Greeks and Barbarians) return. The verb is 
changed to the 1 pers., because with airavr^s it is used in its most extensive 

sense. For its fut. signif , cf. S. § 211. 4; C. § 231. <«; H. § 699. a. &s 

fiSj/ois Trei^ojxeyois, as alone yielding^ denotes the reason or cause, and must 
not be confounded in construction with iriffToroLTois^ which is added to v[x7v, as 
a second dative or predicate after xp^o'^'raf. H. § 60Y. a; S. § 206. K 2. 

€ty (ppovpia Koi €ls Xox^iy^as, for commanders of citadels and co7npa7iies. 

aWov ovTiyos (S. § 175. 2; C. § 527. H. § 817) ^y dirja^e, whatever else 

you 7nay desire. 'dXXo (i. e. HXKov) is constructed with rev^ea-^e Kvpov, ac- 
cording to the formula, rvxyduEiv rl rivos (Mt. § 328. 5. Obs.). Sturz finds 
no attraction in dXXov, but constructs it with Kvpov, as forming a double gen. 
after T6u|eo-^e. So Carmichsel, Gr. Verbs, p. 289. Cf. H. §§ 574. c; 582. 

16. ya-^ero Sta^e^ijKoras ^^ '^tr^ero on (e/C€?voi) SieiSejSTiKecay, or ycr^ero 

oTi (iKeTyoi) dia^e^TjKSres eley. See N. on 2. § 21. t$ tTTparcvixaTL limits 

eJirey. TXovy, Glus^ son of Tamos the admiral of Cyrus. ijdrj, now. 

The implication is that this award of praise would be followed by a more 

substantial expression of his gratitude. ottws, in order that, has here 

the telic (reXiKclJs) sense, i. e. it marks the end or purpose of an action. When 
it marks the result or upshot of an action, it is said to be used in an ecbatic 
(iK^ccTiKoos) sense, and is translated so that. iiraiveo'ere. Another exam- 
ple of the fut. act. is found V. 5. § 8, although the fut. mid. with an active 

signif. is the more usual form. Cf. Butt. § 113. N. 7; S. § 206. N. 5. 

/LLTjiceri fxe Kvpou vofii^ere, thioiJc 7ne no longer Cyrus = think my nature wholly 
changed from what it now is. 

IT. at (Trpariwrai of Menon. ^vxovto avrhp evrvx'no'aiy wished him 

success (in his enterprise). Meyw^t, to Menon^ i. e. for his use. Dat. 

24:8 NOTES. [Book L 

Commodi. See N. on 1. § 9. Ste^Satye, he (i.e. Cyrus) began to cross 

over. avcoripco. Some adverbs derived from obsolete adjectives end in ca 

instead of ws, and in the same manner (i. e. in co) form their degrees of 
comparison. Cf. Butt. § 115. 6. 

18. dia^arSs, fordable. Verbals in ros have often the idea of capability 

or possibility, like the Eng. He, hie. Cf. Butt. §§ 102. N. 2; 134. 8. 

^60 (i. e. iropevoixiyois ire^y)^ to those going on foot, is a dat. of manner op- 
posed to 'jrXoiois. Butt. (§ 116. 4) makes ttc^, Koij/y, iS/a, BTjfioa'ia, etc., 

supply the place of adverbs. Cf. Mt. § 400. 5. d ixi) rSre, except then. 

aX\a = aWa fiSuou. dia/3^. The subjunctive is often used for the 

optative to give vivacity to the narration, by representing the act as it passed 
before the mind of the person who conceived it. S. § 212. N ; II. § 740. a; 

Goodwin, § 44. 2. See also K on et /uv; jSovAerat, 3. § 14. ^e7oi/ eluai, 

divino consilio factum. Sturz. It is said that a bridge was afterwards thrown 
across the river at this place, upon which the armies of Darius and Alexander 

crossed over. vTroxccp?](rai, to submit; lit. to give place. The subject is 

rhu TTorafiSv. ws ^aariXevo'ovTi, as to its future king. 

19. T'/}s "^vplas, i. e. Mesopotamia, the general name Syria being given by 
the Greeks not only to Syria Proper, but also to Mesopotamia (jueVos, irora- 
juJs), lying between the Tigris and Euphrates. Xenophon (5. § 1) calls the 
southern part of Mesopotamia, Arabia. The Hebrew name for Mesopotamia 
was D^^'nlna f^Ji^;. , Syria of the two rivers, or Aramea. Cf. Gen. 24: 10. 
Syria Proper, or Western Syria, was called c^u^; . Cf. Judg. 3 : 10; 1 K. 10: 

29. rhv 'Apd^7)v. It is now called Khabour from its former name Chabo- 

ras, which name leads some to identify it with the Chebar of the Old Testa- 
ment, on the banks of which Ezekiel saw the visions of God (Ezek. 1 : 1, 3 ; 
3: 15, 23; 10: 15, 20). It is a large river having its source in northern 
Mesopotamia, and receiving many tributaries before its junction with the 
Euphrates. Xenophon has given the name Araxes to this stream, and Phasis 

to the Araxes or Arras of Armenia. Cf TV. 6. § 4 ; Eennell, p. 205. 

fieCTal cItov. For the construction, cf. S. § 200. 3. im(nri(rayTo, and 

furnished themselves with provisions^ is an example of the indirect middle. 
H. § 689. 2. /iT i , . 

' ^^J*-*^ CHAPTER Yv/ 

1. ^ApaJ3ias. Cf. K on 4. § 19. a-ra^inovs ep'fjfjLovs. The southern 

part of Mesopotamia was dry and sterile. It will be seen that Cyrus made 
longer marches through this desert region, than where the country was fertile 

and populous, the reason for which is given, 5. §§ Y, 9. aTrccj/ (a^a and 

iras) qualifies dfiaXSu. It properly belongs to y^j {the whole country), but is 
put with oixaXbv by a species of attraction. ai^iv^iov 5e TrXrjpcs, full of 

Chap. V.] NOTES. 249 

wormwood^ i. e. the surface of the earth was covered with this plant. So aW/p 
v\^]pj]s Xiirpas, a man full of (i. e. fully covered with) leprosy. Luke 5 : 12. 
et 5e Ti KoX ^A/\o, and whatever else also. The pronoun is used collec- 
tively, and is therefore referred to by the plur. airayra in the next clause. 
See N. on 4. § 8. 

2* Q-npia 5e iravrola, sc. ij/rjV. ovol aypioi, wild asses. For a graphic 

description of this animal, cf. Job 39 : 5-9. See also Gen. 16 : 12, where, as 
illustrative of the lawless wandering habits of Ishmael and his descendants, it 
is said that he shall be D^X 5i';)Q , lit. a wild ass of a man. j<*;ia , wild ass^ 

is derived from ^'^.Qj to run swiftly. CTpov^ol at fieydXaiy ostriches. 

crrpov^ol alone usually signifies sparrows. corides, bustards. Buffon says, 

that the name is derived from the long feathers near the ears. ^opKo^^s^ 

gazelles^ or roe deer, remarkable for the beauty of their eyes and sharpness of 

sight. iTvei ris didoKoi, ichen any one pursued (them) = as often as they 

were pursued. The opt. is used with iirei, when the discourse is concerning 
a past action often repeated. Cf. Mt. § 521 ; Butt. § 139. N. 2. p. 373 ; H. 

§ '729. b. TTpodpa/xSyres, having outstripped (their pursuers). hp ea'TOL- 

(Tav, Dind. omits ^v, but following Born., Pop., and Kriig., I have retained 
it. Butt. (§ 139. p. 366) says that this particle often gives to the indie, the 
sense oi o. customary action. So also Mt. § 599. 2. a. ^crracrav is a syncopated 

form of the pluperf. (Butt. § 101. 3) r= imperf. (S. § 211. K 6). eVel 

irKfiffia^oi. See N. on cTrel didoKoi above. ravrhu iTroiovj/, they did the 

same thing, i. e. they again ran on in advance and then halted. oHk ^v 

Xa^av, sc. avTovs, it was not possible to take (them). Butt. (§ 150. p. 442) 
remarks, that ej/ecrt refers to the physical possibility, it is possible; ^^co-tli/, to 
the moral, it is lawful, one may ; U(tti stands indefinite between the two, it 
may or can be done. — ■- — et ix^ dtacrrduTes ol lirireis ^rjp^cv diadex^f^^voi to7s 
'iirirois, unless standing at intervals the horseynen hunt them, succeeding one 
another toith (fresh) horses. SiaSexo^a:, to receive through, sc. others. Hence, 
to receive in succession, or, succeed to one another. Here the pursuit was re- 
ceived through the series of horsemen, until the animal was taken, or the 
relays were all exhausted. ^T/pwey. Cf. S. § 119. opt. rols 'iinrois denotes 

the means. S. § 206. ro75 ikatpclois, sc. Kpiaciv. Se is said by Hoog. 

(p. 38) to elegantly close a sentence either disjunctively or adversatively. 

3« rax^ iiravoyro, quickly ceased, i. e. gave up the pursuit. aTreariraro. 

The mid. airoa-TrdojjLaL signifies to remove or tear one^s self away from, "i^i se 
abripere.^^ Sturz. iroXh yap air^ciraTO (pevyovo'a may be rendered, for flying 
(i. e. in its flight) it ran far in advance of the pursuers ; or, making the partici- 
ple express the principal action, and the verb accessory (Mt. p. 966), fcyr it 

flea away running far ahead. nxoaX and irrepv^it/ follow xp^f^^^l' Cf. S. 

g 206. N. 2. 5p(J;u&7, in running (S. § 206. 2), is opposed to dpaca (sc. 

cavT'fiv), in raising (itself) up. wtrrrep 1<ttIo} is to be joined in sense to 

raTs 5e irrepuftv 6,pa(ra, "Nothing can be more entertaining than the sight of 


250 NOTES. [Book L 

the ostrich when excited to full speed ; the wings by their rapid but unwearied 
vibrations equally serving them for sails and oars, while their feet, no Ibss 
assisting in conveying them out of sight, seem to be insensible of fatigue." 

Encyc. Rel. Knowl. p. 896. raxv ayiCTij, suddenly/ starts them, ^ctti 

\ay.l3oiveiy. See N. on ^u \a^e7y, § 2. ^pax^y Oj little (distance). 

4. €/?^/i?7. Kriig. thinks that this city was deserted by the inhabitants 
through fear of Cyrus. Ko^cwt^, Corsote^ the site of which seems to cor- 
respond to a spot where are now the ruins of a large city called Irzah or Izrah. 
Ains worth thinks that it corresponds to the Ahava of Ezra 8 : 15, 21, 31, 
where the great desert route from Palestine to Babylon first touches the Eu- 
phrates. Maa-Ku. Dor. gen. of yiacKas. Cf. S. § 44. G. Dindorf accents 

»*^**^ 5* IIuAas, i. e. the Pylae Babylonias through which the route lay from 
Mesopotamia to Babylonia, according to Ainsworth, 100 miles N. of Babylon. 
Geographers seem to be now generally of the opinion, that the Pylae refers not 
to any particular pass or defile, but to the whole descent from the hills into 
the plain of Babylonia. Macmichael refers it to the ancient pass into Baby- 
lonia through the Median wall, when it extended, as it must have done, to the 

Euphrates. 'dWo oySey 5eV5poy. As no tree has been previously spoken 

of, "aWo may be rendered else^ besides. Cf. irepas^ 4. § 2 ; 'dWoi Se ^crai', 1. 
§ 11. -^^ ^f/iA.^, hare (of trees or herbage). vvovs aXeras. Hesych. inter- 
prets ouos ' 6 avdorcpos Ki^os tov /jlvXoVj the upper millstone. Hutch, thinks 
that it was so called, because asses were employed in turning the larger mill- 
stones. See Matt. 18:6, where the upper millstone is called fxvKos ovlkSs. 

The smaller stones were turned by females of the lowest condition. 

TToiovvTES^ making or sharping them for use. avra'^opd^ovr^s^ purchasing 

in return. It is evident from this as well as other passages, that Babylon was 
indebted to the countries lying up the Euphrates, for many of the conveniences 
and even necessaries of life. For a valuable article on the commerce of Baby- 
lon, see Bib. Repos. Yol. VII. pp. 364-90. 

G« TT/jfao-^ai, 2 aor. infin., used generally by classical writers for the aor. 

of wyeo^uaf. S. § 133. Xl; H. § 408. 8. It is here the subject oi^iv. Au- 

Sia ayopa. Larch, observes from Herod. I. 155. 157, that the Lydians had 
practised stall-keeping and trade from the time of the elder Cyrus, who by 
depriving them of the use of arms, had rendered them effeminate. Hence 

the proverb, Avdhs KaTrrjX^vsi. iv t$ Kvpov ^ap^aput^^ in the barbarian 

army of Cyrus. The article in tV KaTri^rjv (object of irpiaa^ai) has a 

generic sense, the capithe, i. e. the measure of that capacity. H. § 526. b. 

a\€vpcoy '/) a\(f>iTcav, wheat flour or barley meal. So Sturz defines these 

words. But why flour so different as that of wheat and barley should be held 
at the same price, has puzzled critics and editors not a little. To avoid this 
difficulty Muretus suggests the erasure of dXevpoou ^, as being added by some 
one who thought it a synonyme of a.\<piTwv. Kriig. defines dx^pna^ farina 

Chap, v.] NOTES 251 

crassoir ; ^\€vpa^farma ienuior et rnagis elahorata^ and avoids the difficulty 
above suggested by referring to the great want of provisions, or the compara- 
tive abundance of JxXcvpa, rerrdpccy ciyXcoy. As six 6^o\o\ = ^paxfji-'f], 

i. e. 17 cents 5-93 mills (cf. N". on 4. § 13), seven and a half o^oXol or the 

Persian ciyXos =22 cents. dvuaraif is worthy here takes the accusative 

o^oXovs. S. § 181. 2. Kawl^ dvo X'^'-^'-'^^''^' "^^^ capacity of the xor;/f J, 

upon which that of the Kmri^Tj here depends, is differently given, some making 
it = three cotylse ; while other authorities make it = four, and some even 

= eight cotyl^. A cotyla = .4955 of a pint English. ix^P^h contains ; lit. 

gives place or room, A vessel is tropically said to make room for a given 
quantity, when it will contain it. 

7» '^Hv 6e rovT03v rcov ffra^ixoov ovs Trdyv fiaicpohs ijXavu^v, there were 
(some) of these days' -marches which he made very long, ecrri is commonly 
employed even before the plur. relative, although the plur. etVl is sometimes 
found (cf. II. 5. § 18), and the imperf. -J;/. Cf. Butt. p. 438 ; Mt. § 482. Obs. 
1 ; S. § 151. 1. (Tra^fxcov is constructed with ^j/ — ovs = r^v tvioi ovs (Mt. 
§ 482; S. § 172. 2; H. § 812; C. § 364. a); fully, ^y tvioi rovTtav rwv 
(rra^fxcoy ovs. The relative ovs may be referred to Butt. § 131. 3; S. § 181. 
2, because it represents a-ra^fjLovs, which in this connection signifies the dis- 
tance passed over (rV ^Xacriy), Rennell (p. 86) says that these marches refer 

particularly to the hilly desert between Corsote and the Pylae. -^ oiroTe — 

fiovXoiTO. Cf. N. on €7re2 — -didKOLy 5. § 2. diareXiffaiy sc. tV o^f^. 

X^^oy, provender for the beasts of burden and cavalry horses. Kal h-f) 

irore, and once indeed. These particles introduce an illustration of the haste 

with which Cyrus urged on his forces. Cf. Hoog. p. 90. creyoxccpias 

.... ^va"irop€vrov, tohen, the narrowness of the way and the mud seemed im- 
passible to the wagons =s when the narrow and muddy road was well nigh im- 
passible. This gen. abs. denotes time. S. § 226; H. §790. a. rov 

^aplSapiKov (TrpaTov follows \a^6vras, because the action of the verb refers 
only to a part of the object. Render : having taken (a portion) of the bar- 
barian army. H. § 574. e; cf. Mt. § 323. b. ■ cvy^KlBi^d^eiv, to assist in 

extricating. The student should note the force of the composite a-hv and ck. 

8. oio-irep opyy. Bind, and Pop. connect these words with the preceding 
clause. But why should Glus and Pigres be in a rage at executing as leaders 
a commission, to which when commanded, the Uepa-ai ol KpdrKrroi gave their 
personal service with such alacrity ? Why did Cyrus retain Pigres in a post 
of honor (cf. 8. § 12), if he showed so little zeal in his master's cause? Hutch., 
Born., and Kriig. rightly therefore connect Sxrircp opyy with the following 

clause. (rvveirKrirevarai, to assist in hastening on. There is great beaitfe/^ 

and force in these compound words. "Ev^a 5i5, then tridy. }iipos rt, a 

specimen^ example. ^y ^edcaa-^ai, might be seen ; lit. it was (possible) to 

see. The subject of ^y is the infinitive. S. § 153. a; H. § 494. a. *?/- 

^avT€s. This shows the alacrity with which they executed his command. 

262 NOTES. [Book L 

Kdydvsy cloaks or gowns with wide sleeves worn over the tunics, common to 
kings, generals, and private soldiers ; only those worn by kings were of pur- 
ple, those worn by high officers, scarlet or purple with white spots, while the 
soldiers wore such as were made of coarser materials. Cf. Cyr. I. 3. § 2 ; 
YIII. 3. § 10; Curt. III. 3. § 18. Yates says that in the Persepolitan sculp- 
tures, nearly all the principal personages are clothed in the kolv^vs. acj/to, 

imperf. mid. 3 plur. of VTjjUt, I send ; mid. / throw myself =^ I hasten^ rush. 
irepi vLKTjs, for victory =for a prize. The Persian nobles are repre- 
sented as running with as much ardor to raise the wagons from the mud, as 

the foot racers contended in the Olympic games for the prize. koX before 

juaAa may be rendered, a7id that too^ what is more. See Butt. p. 431. /xaAct 

qualifies irpavovs, very steep. • rovrovs, i. e. those well known. Cf. Mt. § 470. 

4. ava^vpidasy trowsers^ made long and loose, as those now worn by the 

Orientals. The same garment seems to be referred to in Dan. 3 : 21, 27, by 
the Chak "pb^'lO , saraballce^ which Gesen. translates long and wide panta- 
loons. Cf. my N. on Cyr. YIII. 3. § 13. tyioL 5e Kal, and some also. 

The persons here referred to were the chief men of the army. <rvv rov- 

rois, i. e. the costly garments and ornaments just mentioned. ^arroy -/) 

S>s TLS tv (^€T€, sooner than one would have thought (possible). Cf. Seager's 
N. on Yig. p. 216. So in Lat., credercrn^ putarem^ etc., are sometimes em- 
ployed, where in English we should use the pluperf., t5s, as. ficredopovs 

z=z S)(rr€ fx€T€ii>povs eJyai. An epithet is sometimes applied to a thing by way 
of anticipation, to show the rapidity or certainty of the act by which the 
quality is possessed. 

9« Th Se (rvfxiray (sometimes rh Se crvfnray cJyai), generally^ upon the whole^ 
I. e. in all the things pertaining to the expedition. Cf. Mt. g§ 283, 5J,5 ; S. 

§ 135. 2; H. § 552. hriXos ^v Kvpos cnrevScyy. See K on 5'^Aos 9iy ayid)- 

fxeyos, 2. § 10. oirov fjL'fj, unless where. oV^ — tocoutw, by as much — 

by so much. The relat. adv. is here placed first for the sake of emphasis. 
Person joins hy (which Bind, has bracketed) to yoiJLi(cay. It is generally taken 
with ^X^oi. See Butt. § 139. p. 367; II. § 722. 2 ; Mt. § 527. The sub- 
ject of fidx^cy^ai is the same with that of yofjt,i(ciiy, because both subjects refer 

to the same person. Cf. S. § 221. N. 2 ; H. § 775. 2. Kal cvyideTy 8' ?iy r<S 

irpoffexoyTL rhy yovy, it was evident to any one giving (the subject) attention = 
a7iy one upon refection might see. Bloomfield says that irpoa-exoyri rhy yovy, 
paying attention to, receives this sense from the article, yovy %x^^^ denoting 

to be knowing, or clever. (XvyiZ^ly ^y — apx''l — ovo'a =: 7iy cvyiBuy on t) 

apxh ^Vi it was (for any one, H. § 774. 1) to perceive plainly that the king^s 
government was strong = it was plain that the king's government was strong. 

-TrA^^-et x^P^^ ^°'^ ay^p(i>irQ)y, from its extent of country and number of 

men. /col r$ diea"ird(T^ai tcls dvydjacis, and in the dispersion of its forces. 

St^ rax^coy = rax^cos. The sense of this passage is that the very circum- 
stances which made the Persian empire formidable, if time were given to col- 

Chap. V.] NOTES. 253 

lect its vast resources, would render it a more easy prey to the invader, should 
it be suddenly attacked. 

10. Kara rovs ip-fjfiovs crra^fjLovs, i. e. opposite the desert, through which 

they were thirteen days in marching (5. § 5). Xapudv^Tj, Charmande^ is 

identified by Ainsworth as the city Iz or IzanescopoUs, whose bitumen foun- 
tains were visited by Alexander, Trajan, and Severus. Col. Chesney finds its 

site at some ruins opposite the island of Jibbah or Jubbah. e/c imparts to 

TjySpa^oy the idea of motion, the soldiers purchased (and brought from). H. 

§ 618. a; S. § 235. crxeSiais, sc. vavaiy lit. (vessels) hastily coristructed^ 

1. e. rafts, floats, etc. wSe, thus^ in this manner. x^P'^'^^ Kovcpov, light 

{L e. dry) fodder^ hay, elra o'wriyop koX (rvvecrircav, then they brought them 

(i. e. the skins) together and sewed them. (n/yeVirw;/, 3 pers. plur. imperf. indie. 

01 a-voTrdco. ws, so that. Cf. II. 3. § 10 ; Y. 6. § 12. t?]s Kapcprjs^ i. e. 

tie x^P'^^^ Kovcpos inclosed in the skins. rh vocup is the subject of airre- 

^^ai. ^aXdyov, date. This country abounded in palm trees, from the 

fruit of which was made a very agreeable wine. Cf. II. 3. §§ 14, 16. ttjs 

a.irh Tov (poiviKos, (viz.) the (d^te) from the palm tree. The distinction between 
efc and airo, the former denoting internal, the latter, external separation, is 

here sk"ongly marked. See N. on 2. § 1. tovto is put in the neuter, 

because /jLeXivrjs to which it refers, denotes an inanimate thing. Cf. Mt. 
§439; S. § 157. 3. b. 

11. 'AiJ.(bi\€^dyTcay ri^ disputing about something. npivas a^iKetv Thv 

rod M&ccyos^ judging the (soldier) of Ilenon to have been in the wrong, i. e. to 

have begun the quarrel. adLKe7y =: 7]dLKrjK€j/ai. eAeyey, sc. rh avrov ird^os, 

Cf. § 14 infra. d^pyi^ovro la-xvptios, f^ere greatly enraged. 

12. TTjv ayopdv, i. e. the provisions brought across the river from Char- 

mande. a^iTTTrevet, rides back. crvv oXiyois ro7s irepl avrov, loith a few 

attendants; lit. loith those about him a feio. S. § 168. 2; H. §651; C, 
§ 472. The proper name is often used with this formula. See II. 4. § 2 

Thucyd. VIII. 105. tik^v. Pluperf. in signification. S. § 211. N. 5; H. 

§ 698. 'Ifio't. r?] cL^ivri, sc. avrov, threw his axe (at him, i. e. Clearchus). 

To verbs of throwing the missile is joined in the dative to denote t^e instru- 
ment. olros, i. e. the one who cast the axe. avrov ^luaprev. Cf. H, 

§ 580. 1, So a,uapreiv odov, to miss the loay. fiAAos 5e Xi^w, sc. 4770"* 


13» irapayyiTO^^i els ra oirXa, calls, to aims! His rage did not permit 

him to wait for the public crier to call the soldiers together. ras aoTridas 

irphs ra ySvara ^ivras, placing (i. e. resting) their shields against their knees. 
Cf. " obnixo genu scuto," Corn. Nep. Chabr. I, 2. rovrwv S*, i. e. the cav- 
alry. 67ri rovs Mivcovos. See N". on rovs eavrov, 2. § 15. S)arr€ e/ce/- 

yovs K. r. X. Probably Clearchus was so incensed, that he came with little less 
vehemence, than if he were rushing to battle. iKireirXrix^oLi is more em- 
phatic than the present would have been = were once for all thoroughly fright- 

254 NOTES. [Book I 

ened, Goodwin, § 18. 4. rpex^iy iirl ra oVAa, ra7i to arms, Ot Se 

Koi €(rTa(rav aTropovyrcs t$ Trpdyfiarij others also stood still being perplexed at 
the affair, oi 5e responds to ol ixev implied in the previous proposition. 

Hi eTv^e yap vcrrcpos irpoiridiv^ for he happened to he last coming tip. 

' Ta|fs. Cf. N. on 2. § 16. ^^ero ra ottAk — stood (with his men) in 

arrns. Cf. Yig. (Seager's note) p. 102. Born, interprets : cum armis in acie 
consistebat. The arms were brought to a state of rest, but so as to be ready 

for immediate use. avrov oXiyov ds'fja'avros KaraXevc^'^vai^ while he 

wanted little of being stoned. The construction may be resolved into 6\lyoi 
iderja-c avrhv Kara\€V(r^7]yaij on the principle of attraction referred to in N. on 

d?]\os ^ ayLa>fjt.€j/os, 2. § 11. Trp^cos Keyoi rh avrov 'jrd^oSy he (i. e. Proxo- 

nus) should speak lightly of his wrong ^ i. e. make a light affair of it. 

15t 'Ey rovrcp (sc. rep XP^^V-) ^^*- ^^'^' 2), ii^ the mean time. ra iraKrJi, 

his javelins. The article often takes the place of an unemphatic posscj^siv-r 
pronoun, when the substantive with which it is connected, naturally belongs Z3 

a particular person spoken of in the sentence. H. § 52Y. d. ro75 Trapo-- 

ct real/ Tviffrwu = iKeivois rcou Tnarobv ot irapriffav^ those of his faithful attend' 
ants who were present. These are called (9. § 31) by way of honor, oi cvyrpd' 
Tre^ot, those who sat at his table^ his table-co7npanions. 

16. When Cyrus came up, the altercation was probably between Clearchus 
and Proxenus (cf. latter part of § 14), and this accounts for his addressing 

them by name. ovk 'icrre o n TroieTre^ you know not what you are doing^ 

i. e. you are not aware of the consequences of your acts. See ov yap o'ldao't ri 
iroiovcri, Luke 23 : 34. On Ure, cf. Butt. § 109. III. 2; S. §§ 133. EiBco ; 211. 

N". 6. KaraKeKoxlfca-^aij shall have been cut down = shall surely be cut to 

pieces. H. § 696. 2; C. § 582 ; Goodwin, § 29. K 2. KaKuJs—ixSyrcav. 

See N. on €vj/o'iKcos exoiev^ 1. § 5. rccu rjfxerEpouj/j our affairs. Cf. S. 

§ 158. K 1. IBdp^apoL does not take the article, because as Kriig. re- 
marks, its office is performed by ovs Spare. 

17. eV cavr^ iyej/ero^ came to hirriself iv with the dat. is here used with 
the verb of motion, to denote the state of rest following the action of the verb, 
he came (into and was) in himself When a man is in a violent passion, he is 
said in the language of metaphor to be beside himself out of his mind. So 
when he lays aside his anger, he is said to return or come to himself Cf Acts 

12: 11. See also N. on ovtc torrc^ § 16. Karh X'^P^^ Q^evro rh oVAa, 

^* deponebant arma sua ordine et loco.^^ Poppo. 


!• 'Ex/TevS-ej/, i.e. from the Pylse Babyloniae (5. § 5). irpoCSmcov^ sc. 

M}r5>v. Cf. N. on 2. § 17. ws, about. See N. on 2. § 3. 05to£, i. e. 

01 lirireTs drawn from 'lirirciov going before. e^ rt &\\o, whatever else. Cf. 

Chap. VI.] NOTES. 255 

K. on 5. § 2. yiy^i re Trpoa-ijKav jSaCfAet, connected hy birth to the Icings 

i. e. a relative of the king. ra iroX^fiia limits XeySfieyos. Cf. Butt. § 131. 

V; S. § 182. Koi TrjootTid-ey, formerly even. "With Bornemann I have 

put a full stop after iro\€fj.'f}(ras, thus connecting KaraWayeU Se with ovtos 
Kvpa ciTTej/, to which it evidently belongs. 

2. KaraKayoi 'av. In the orat. ohliqua^ the opt. is employed without ^v^ 
but as it here stands in the apodosis (S. § 215. 2), Uv accompanies it. Cf. Mt. 

§ 529. '5 ^Qjvras iroKXovs avrwv eXoi, or take many of them alive^ i.e. 

make them prisoners. Eepeat &r with eXor, KccXva-cie^ and iroLTtU-cicy. kco- 

\vaei€ is followed by rod Kaieiv (S. § 222) as the gen. of the remote, and eVi- 
6vras (sc. avrovs)^ as the accus. of the iromediate object. Cf. Butt. §§ 131. 4; 

132. 4. 1; S. § 197. 2. iroL-fio-Qiev uKTrc^ icould cause that. '"'' efficere ut.''^ 

Sturz. ua-re with the infinitive denotes the result. H. § Y'ZO. For its use 

with the indicative, see N, on 1. § 8. diayye7\aij to give information^ to 

he messengers. 

3« €roifj.ovs avrS, ready for him. avr$ is here the Dat, Commodi. See 

N. on 2. § 1. 7;|ot refers to Orontes. ds — irK^io-rovs. See N. on 1. 

§ 6. <ppd(Tai^ to order ^ tell. Bloom. (N. on Thucyd. III. 15. § 1) remarks 

that this signification of <pp6.^eiv is rare. Cf. II. 3. § 3. e/ceAeue;/, sc. tIu 

^acri\ea. avroy^ i. e. Orontes. TricTTecys, of fidelity (to the king). 

4l. ^AyayvovSj having read. — — e^ra must be joined with rohs apiarovs, 
Spehnan remarks that the ancient writers who treat of the affairs of Persia, 
often speak of a council of seven, which seems to have been instituted in 
memory of the seven Persian noblemen who put the Magi to death, of whom 

Darius Hystaspis was one. Cf. Esth. 1 : 13, 14. ^ea^ai ra oir\a. Cf N. 

on 5. § 14. This guard was employed to prevent any attempt to rescue 
Orontes or interrupt his trial. 

5. Se Kol is elUptically used for ov ix6vov 5e rovro^ aKKh. nai : (not only this) 
hut he also called Clearchus, etc. avix^ovXov is the second accusative after 

TTctpc/caAecre. S. § 185 ; H. § 556. os 76 = quippe qui^ inasmuch as he. 

ro75 ^AAofs, i.e. the Persians who were with Cyrus. irporiin'n^rimi 

fjidXicrra. Cf. N. on irxiov '!rpoTiiJ.^](re(r^e, 4. § 14. Clearchus was rightly 
looked upon by Cyrus as the leading mind of the Greek army (cf. II. 2. § 5 ; 
III. 1. § 10), and hence the policy of honoring him in the way here spoken 

of. ro}u *E\\4iva)v limits os. i^-fiyyciXc — rV Kpi(riv — ois iyivero by 

prolepsis for eJ^TyefAe cbs 77 Kpi(ns iy^vero. See N. on 2. § 21. Kpia-iv, 

trial. aTrSpprirov, to he kept secret. Cf. Butt. § 134. 8. This adjective 

conforms to the gend. of Kpicris. S. § 157. c; H. § 523. Spx^'*' ^oi^ aJ- 

yov is employed when the speaker is to be followed by others ; ^px^o'^ai rod 
A070V, when simply the commencement of a speech is intended to be designa- 
ted. Cf. Sturz Lex. Xen. ; H. § 691. 

6. irapeKdXea-a =^ irapaKiKX-OKa. Cf. Butt. § 137. 8; S. § 212. N. 14. 

Apdpcs (pi\oi. See N. on e'x^pby &ydpa^ 3. § 20. — irphs ^ewt/ Koi irphs 

256 NOTES. [Book L 

ai/^pdf'mtay, in the estimation of gods and men, Cf. Mt. § 590. 6. tov 

Tovi, this here. In social intercourse, the Attics strengthened demonstratives 

by the suffix L yap in the next sentence is yap illustrantis^ i. e. it serves 

to explain and illustrate what has just been said. vit^Iikoov, a servant , at- 

tendant^ not SoCAos, a slave. It heightened the crime of deserting his prince, 

that Darius gave him to be an attendant upon Cyrus. iiroiiiffa wa-re /c. t. A., 

/ effected that (cf. N. on § 2) he thought it best to cease making war upon me, 
or, / caused him to conclude that it was hest^ &c. Kriig. says that the proper 
structure would have been : eycb avrhv irpocriroKcfxwu iiroirjara rov irphs ifxh 
TToXiixov iravo'aa'^ai. The construction was well suited to the excited state of 

the speaker's mind. de^idy, the right hand. In ancient times one of the 

most inviolate pledges of fidelity was the giving of the right hand. Cf. 11. 
3. § 28. Hence, in the early ages of the Christian Church, arose the cus- 
tom of giving the right hand of fellowship. Cf. Gal. 2 : 9. 

T. OTL ov (sc. €<TTiv from the preceding clause), there is not. on in the 
oratio recta may be omitted in the translation. S. § 213. 1 ; H. § 734. b. 

OvKovv vcTepoy — KaKcas iTroieis, did you not afterwards lay waste. A 

negative question implying an affirmative answer. Cf. Butt. § 149. p. 428; 
Vig. p. 16G. III. us avrhs (xv ofjioXoyCs is to be taken with ov^lv vir" ifiov 
adiKoi>iJL€vosy as you yourself confess^ being in no respect (ovdev, accus. synecd.) 

injured by me. els Mvcovs (sc. i\^(^v) = els Mvariav. See ets rovs ^ap^d- 

povs, 1. 3. § 5. Tt idvpoD, as far as you was able (to do injury.) *'E<^:7 

= ojfjLoXSyei. Cf. YII. 2. § 25. eyyws ttjv creavTov dvyafxiy, you knew your 

own strength^ i. e. had become sensible of your inability to contend with me. 

'ApTefxidos ficafiSv, the altar of iJiana. He came to this altar, which 

Hutch, thinks belonged to the temple of Diana at Ephesus, as a suppliant. 

See 1 Kings 2 : 28; Thucyd. I. 134. § 1. fierafxiXeiy r4 coif that you re- 

pe7ifed. Cf. S. § 201. N. 4. 

8. For the construction of iin^ovK^vwv — (pavephs yiyovas, cf. N. on 5i}Aos 

^iv ayicofjL€i/os, 2. § 11. on ovdev adLK7]^ELs. See N. on on in § 7. irepl 

ijxh ^diicos, unjust to me. irepX has here the sense in reference to, in what per- 

tains to. '^H yap audyicTj {= avayKalSv eVrr), certainly, for it is necessary 

(to confess that I have wronged you). Cf. Yig. p. 163. Y. '^En odu Uv 

yivoio, can you then still be. gtl here relates to the future. on ovd' is to 

be joined in translation with the next clause, / should never seem so at least to 
you. Kriig. says that on in this and similar places arises from a blending of 
two constructions : aTre/cpiyaro, on ovit "hv dS^airo, and aireKpiyaro • ovic Uv 5J- 
|at^«. We have here a striking example of the force of conscience. To all 
the charges Orontes unhesitatingly plead guilty; and when virtually asked 
what should be done with him, his reply bespoke his deep conviction, that he 
must be put aside as one no longer to be trusted. 

9. ficy roiavra — Se rotavTa. With fxh and 5e there is frequently a repeti- 
tion (anaphora) of the same word. See Mt, § 622. 2. €fC7ro5cl>;/ iroi^cr^ai. 

Chap. YIL] NOTES. 257 

should he put out of the icay^ i. e. put to death. For Sep — y (commonly 

edited 5eoi— €^77), cf. Mt. § 518; Butt. § 139. 2; S. § 214. 2. roZroy (pv- 

KaTTea^aij to be on oicr guard against him, to be icatching him. 11. 540. a. 

T^ Kara, tovtov clvaif as fa?' as he is concerned, limits crxo^^^l y 'i]fuy. II. 

§ T80. a; S. § 182. 

10. e(b7j. Clearchus was relating this to the Greeks. irpoabiabaL (sc. 

tV ^^^0^)? ctcceded to ; lit. added (their vote) to. ixd^ovro t'/Js C^vris tov 

'OpSyrrjv, they took hold of Orontes by the girdle. H. § 674. b. Mt. (§ 330) 
says that for the most part only mid. verbs are constructed in this way with 
the gen. As it respects the Persian custom here spoken of, cf. 6 ixlv Aape7os 
iiri\a^6fX€V05 ttJs tov Xapid-fjfxov (uj/tjs Kara rhv roov Uepa'cci/ j/6/j.oy irapeBcDKe 

To7s virripirais Ka\ TrpocreTa^ey airoKrdvai, Diod. XYII. 30. iirl ^aj/drcp, (as 

a sign that he was condemned) to death. Some consider M as used here, cf 
aim or design, and supply the ellipsis thus : (in order to lead him) to death. 

H. § 640. c. Ka\ OL cvyycyeTs, even his relatives. irpoa^Kvvovv, were in 

the habit of prostrating themselves before him. Notice the force of the imperf. 

KoX Tore, even then. ayotro depends upon eitores, which borrows the 

time of Trpo(r€Kvv7](rai/. 

11« <rK7}7rrovxcci/ (lit. wand-bearers) = euyouxcov, this class of persons being 
the usual attendants or body-guard of the Persian kings. Cf. Cyrop. YII. 3. 

§ lY; 5. §§ 58-60. ovre strengthens the negation of ohn^is. S. § 230. 

1. 0^5' oircos, nor in ichat way. It was thought he was buried alive in the 

tent. Cf. TlepffiKhv Se rh (uvras Karopvo'ceiv, Herod. YII. 114. elBcas, 

knowing. elKa^ov olKXol 'dWcos, some conjectured one thing and some 

another ; lit. in one way — in another. 


1. Ba^vXoovias^ i. e. Babylonia Proper. The Assyrian or Chaldean empire 
embraced, Mesopotaynia, or the northern district of country between the Tigris 
and Euphrates (cf. N. on 4. § 19); Babylonia, comprising the narrow isthmus 
between those rivers, commencing on the north where the streams converge to 
about 20 miles of each other, and extending about 300 miles towards the Per- 
sian gulf; and the eastern district beyond the Tigris, called ^^i^r. It was 
where the Tigris and Euphrates were approaching so near to each other, that 
Cyrus was now marching. The fertility of this tract was so great, that Herod. 
(I. 193) says it commonly {rh irapdiTav) yielded of corn two hundred fold, and 
in remarkable seasons, three hundred fold. Here at different periods, rose, 
flourished, and fell, the celebrated cities, Nineveh, Babylon, Seleucia, Ctesi- 
phon, and Bagdad. The peculiar and advantageous situation of this region, 
as a great thoroughfare for the caravan trade between Eastern and Western 

258 NOTES. [Book I. 

Asia, is ably set forth in " Commerce of ancient Babylon," Bib. Kepos. VII. 

pp. 364-90. irepl fxiffas vlizras, about midnight, 4i^eTa(nj/ iroieTrau 

The place of this review was about 36 miles N. of Cunaxa, and 12 miles N. of 
Babylon. This is based on the supposition that a parasang was three geograph. 

miles. els t)]v iTriovcrav €w, upon the next tnorning. els is joined with 

words signifying time^ the action being thought of as taking place when the 

time spoken of is reached. See H. § 620. b. fiaxovfjL€i/ov, in order to join 

battle, Cf. Mt. § 578. e ; S. § 225. 5 ; H. § 789. d. rov 5e|iou icepwsy sc. of 

the Greeks. Cf. N. on 2. § 15. rod evwvv/jLov, sc. Kepws from the pre- 
ceding clause. avrhs .... St eVafe. Cyrus in person marshalled the Bar- 
barian forces. 

2* a/jLa Tij eTTiovcrrj Tjfiepc^, together with the following day = early the next 
morning. Mt. (§ 597) says that when a/za is used with the dat., cvu is sup- 
plied. Buttmann, however (§ 146. 3), makes aij,a in such a case a real prepo- 
sition. Cf II. § 602. b. air-fiyeWov, brought a report^ reported. irepi 

— (TTpttTiasy co7icerning the army. Xoxct-yovs, cohort leaders ^ captains, who 

were usually admitted to the councils of war. Cf. II. 2. § 3; III. 1. § 29; 

lY. 1. § 12, et saep. al. rh — Kai, both — a7id, connect crwe^ovKeveTO and 

irapi^vei. S. § 236. 3. irapyvei ^appvycay roid^e, exhorted them in terms 

like the following. 

3. ay^pccirwy, S. § 200. 3; II. § 584. b; C. § 357. a. airopQy, being 

in want of. A tropical signification. Cf. N. on airopia, 3. § 13. a-vfifid- 

Xovs. See N. on (rvix^ovXoy, 6. § 5. yofxi^ooy denotes the cause. S. § 225. 

4; H. § 789. c. afxeiyoyas and Kpeirrovs are conjoined for the sake of 

emphasis. So X^ov koX &ixeiyoy^ YI. 2. § 15. "OTreys ovy eaea^Sy sc. iirtjue- 

\e7(T^€ (Mt. § 623. 2), see then that you are. Butt. (§ 139. p. 376) says that 

oircas ecrea-^e supplies the place of an emphatic imperative. ^s is put by 

attraction for '/jy. KeKTrja-^e has the signification of the pres. Cf S. § 211. 

N. 6. vwep 5s, 071 account of which. Ev yap Xffre, for know well = be 

assured, yap illustrantis (see N. on 6. § 6). iXev^epiay. Cf 9. § 29, 

where Cyrus is called dovXos, slave of the king. ayrl wy = ayrl rovrooy a, 

before those things which. irdyTcoy teal 'aXKcoy iroK\ai:\a(Tl(ay, (j^s) all and 

onuch 7nore besides. Cf S. § 175. 2. 

4. "Ottws, in order that. Th fily ttXyj^os, sc. ia'TL. Some may prefer 

the construction, they come, a great multitude and with jnuch 7ioise. iiri- 

aciy. Cf S. § 124, elfxi. ravra refers to Kpavyy and irXri^^os in the pre- 
ceding clause. Mt. (p. 725) makes ravra r'efer to Kpavyy^ and says a pron. is 
sometimes put in the neut. plur., even when the word to which it refers is in 

the masc. or fem. sing. rh, &XXa, in other respects. Cf Butt. § 150. 

p. 436. alcrxyp^cr^o.i p-oi doK$ o*iovs rjiiuy yycixrecx^e rovs iy ry x^P9 oyras 

aybpcairovs, I think (I have reason) to be asha7ned (sc. iy^vfjLovfjLeyos, when I 
consider) what so7't of people you will find my countrymen to be ; lit. the men 
who live in our country. For the construction of rjfuy — x^P^^ ^^' ^' § ^^^- ^* 

Chap. Vn.] NOTES. 259 

The common reading is 7}ficoy, av^pwy, virorum^ is opposed to av^pdoirovs, 

homines^ in the preceding sentence. €70; v}jL(av, '^ The indispensable em- 
phasis of the first, and the beautiful energy of both together, so oratorically 

thrown in, deserve to be particularly marked." Belfour. roh oIlkol (r,\ca- 

t6v, (so rich as to be) an object of envy to those at home. to. irap i/j-ol 

.... o'lKoiy to prefer the things with me to those at Jiome =z to prefer remain- 
ing with me to returning home. Notice the force of the article. S. § 168. 
2 ; H. § 496 ; C. § 477. a. 

5. (pvyas ^dfiios, a Samian exile. Samos was an island in the ^gean sea, 

S. W. of Ephesus. koI ^i]v, hut yet. Zih. rb iy roiovTcp chat rod klv- 

dvyov TtpociLovTos, because you are in such imminent danger. For the con- 
struction of iv TOLOVTcp — rod KivBvyov (= iu TOiovT(p klv^vvc^)^ cf. Mt. § 341. 4; 

S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 559. c. olv S* eu yivijrai ri, if any thing should turn 

out well. Keference is had in t\ to the undertaking of Cyrus. ^vloi Se, sc. 

Xeyova-iy, some say. /n^/xvao is the perf. mid. opt. 2 pers. sing, of fufivrr 

a-Kco, with the signif. of the pres. S. §§ 183; 211. N; H. § 712. re Kaly 

and even. ^ov\olo, sc. airo^ovvai. 

6« irarpeva, paternal. irpds, extending to. fjLea"r)y.^play (^ecros, ^'^ytte- 

pa. Butt. § 19. N. 1), mid-day; hence trop. mid-day quarter^ i.e. south. 

^expts ov, i. e. fxexpts iKeiyov {rod roirov) owov, to the place ichere^ or more 

concisely, to tohere. See Mt. § 480. b; C. § 530. a. i-i^XP^^ ^^ ^^^ X^*' 

fiwya^ to where (men cannot live) on account of the cold. (raTpair€vov<ny, 

govern as satraps. This speech of Cyrus was in the exaggerated style of 
Eastern monarchs. Cf. Dan. 4:1; 6 : 25. 

7. ^iUeTs, plur. for sing., the style of royalty. — • — ''no-re, so that. ^'/) 

ovK exw, that I shall not have, "/^r) alone with the subj., opt., and indie, ex- 
presses apprehension of an affirmative, fx^ ovk of a negative." Yig. p. 167; 
H. § 720. d. /x^] in fi^ ouk retains its power, although we must translate it 
by that or lest^ and leave the following negative to stand alone. Cf. Butt. 

§ 148. N. 7. a. iKayovSj sufficient (in numbers). Koi CTecpayoy eKaa-Tcp 

Xpvcrovy, also (i. e. in addition to what was previously promised) to each a 
golden crown. 

8. El(rye(Tay 5e irap" avrhy k. t. A. As the generals had previously been 
with Cyrus (cf. § 2), the insertion of ol re CTpar'nyol involves this passage in 
much obscurity. Schneid. with Weisk. rejects 01 re ffrparTjyoi, an easy but 
very unsatisfactory way to dispose of the difficulty. Poppo suggests the omis- 
sion of \oxayovs in § 2, and its substitution here in the place of o'l re a-rparTi- 
yoi. But this is at variance with the readings of all the MSS., and cannot 
therefore be entertained. Kriiger regards clarjca-ay .... riyes, as explanatory 

of the preceding ol Se ravra aKovcrayres, qui hcec audierant ; audierant 

autem non modo duces^ sed alii Grcecor-uin^ qui in Cyri tabernaculum intrarant. 
Bornemann translates : intraverunt autem ad Cyrum non modo duces sed etiam 
ceterorum Grcecorum aliquoty and making crpaTTiyol include both the generals 

260 NOTES. [Book L 

and captains, refers rwy ^A.Awj' *E\\i]vcav tiv\s to the common soldiers, who in 
separate parties visited the tent of Cyrus, to learn their hopes from his Uber- 

ality. This seems to be the best solution of the difficulty. a^Lovvras cidi- 

yaiy desiring (lit. deeming it Jit) to know. rt crcpiaiy 'iarraiy what they should 

have^ i. e. what should be their reward. For the mood of the orat. recta^ see 
N. on 3. § 14. iixirnrXds. Cf. Butt. p. 297; S. § 133. n. (end). 

9. /J.^] /j.dx^o'^cLiy i. e. not to expose himself to personal danger in the bat- 
tle. rdTT€(r^ai, to take his position ; lit. station himself. wSe irus 

^pero Kvpov, made some such inquiry of Cyrus (as this). ojSe Trcyy, nearly 

thus. Oi'et ydp, do you think then. (toi fiax^'tcr^ai. Kriiger thinks | 

that this refers to a single combat between the brothers, which if the king 
should shun, Cyrus, not having an adversary of equal dignity with himself, 

ought not ( Clearcho judice) to personally engage in battle. ciTrep ye, 

if at least. Aapdou koI UapvadTLdos ic. r. \. A high as w^ell as delicate 

compliment to his parents and himself. ifxbs 5e ad(-\<p6s, and a brother of 

mioie. ravra refers to the Persian throne for which these brothers were 


10. 'Eurav^a Sv; eV rr} Q^oirXicTLa = at this time (so Krilg., but Pop. makes 
iyrav^a contain the idea both of ii7ne and j^lcice)^ when the army was standing 
equipped and marshalled for battle. It is evident that the api^fjihs took place, 
not when they were in the act of arming and marshalling themselves, but im- 
mediately subsequent thereto. clo-ttIs for ao-iridocpopoi. In like manner 

T'?]5 'iTTirov, Ilerod. YII. 100, is used for rcoy linriwv. So in English, horse and 

foot are put for cavalry and infantry ; artillery for artillery -men. {xvpia 

KoX TSTpaKoaia, By comparing the numbers of the heavy-armed, which have 
been given, it will be seen that 11,000 (2. § 9)— 100 (2. § 25)-j-'700 (4. § 3) 
-]-400 (deserters from Abrocomas, 4. § 3) =: 12,000. But in this api^fxSs, the 
number of heavy-armed is only 10,400. Weisk. with Zeun. thinks that those 
who were left to guard the baggage (10. § 3), are not included in this number. 
So Krlig., Pop., and Born. Some may have died on the march, others may 
have been on the sick list. A few left the army with Xenias and Pasion. 
Some changed their heavy for light armor, as we find the number of the pel- 

tasts is increased instead of being diminished. dpeiravifjcpSpay scythed- 

chariots, Cf. K on 8. § 10. 

lit "AWoL de 'rjcrav. See N. on 5. § 5. irph avroO /SatrzAecus, hi front 

of the king himself as his body-guard. 

12. ical (TrpaTTjyol kol r/ye/jLoves. Weisk. followed by Krilg. attributes 
these words to some glossarist; but Dind., Born., Pop., and Kiihn. receive 
them as genuine. They are probably joined to 'dpxovres, causa cxplicationis. 
l-ivpiddcoy, sc. ^pxoiv. iyeyfjKOj/ra fxvpiddes. Many suppose that this in- 
cludes the followers of the army. Ctesias gives the number of the king's 
forces 400,000. v^rcp-q^^. Krilg. (de authent. p. 4. N. 13) charges Abro- 
comas with treachery, in coming so tardily to the assistance of the king. The 

Chap. VIL] NOTES. 261 

route, however, which he took may have been less direct, than the one through 
the desert taken by Cyrus. 

13. irpos Kvpou is to be constructed with ol avro/xoX'fta'avTes, since dyyeAAco 

is followed by the dat. of the pers. ol avrofxoX'fiO'avres iic rcav iroXcfiiaj/ =: 

iKe7i/oi rwv iroXefiicaj/ o't Tjvro/j.oXiiKca'ay. Cf. S. § 188. N. 1 ; H. § ^786. So in 
the next clause, ot varepov ixijcp^Tjaav rwv iroXeixicoy z=z ol iroXe/xLOi ot vcrrepop 
4\'i}(p^7)a-av. Cf, Mt. § 821. 5. e/c — Trapd, out of—fr<ytn the side of. See Ns. 

on 2. § 5 ; 5. § 2. /.icra t)]v fiaxw is to be taken with ravth ^\yyeKXov 

{reported the same things)^ and thus the sentence is freed from an apparent 
tautology in the use of var^pov. 

14. crvvr^rayixivM, in order of battle. yap after (^€ro introduces the 

reason why Cyrus marched in battle array. So yap in Kara yap fiecoy, assigns 

the reason why he thought the king would light that day. Td<ppos opvicrrj, 

" est forma dicendi Homerica." Zeun. opyvial is in apposition with rdcppos, 

being a varied construction for Td<ppos opyviwy TreVre. The opyvia^= 6.0675 
English feet. This trench was therefore about SO ft. wide and 18. ft. deep; a 
formidable one indeed to pass with an army. 

15. llriUas reixovs. See K en 11. 4. § 12. ''Ei/^a H, here, hy the 

wai/. al dicvpvx^s iz. r. \. Eennell (p. 76) says that on their entry into 

the plains of Babylonia, the Euphrates runs on a higher level than the Tigris. 
" The difference in the levels of the river is so slight, that probably by merely 
altering the diagonal direction of a canal, the waters could be made to flow 

either way, certainly so at certain seasons." Ainsworth. air 6. See N. on 

6. § 2. BiaXeiTTovcri dh eKdcrrTj Trapaadyy-r}!/, and are distant from each 

other a parasang. For the construction of kKdarit) with a plur. verb, cf. Mt. 
§ 802; S. § 150. K 3; H. § 514. b. It is regarded by Eennell very improba- 
ble that four canals of such dimensions, should have been dug in the short 
space of a league, and drawn from a river of less than 500 feet in breadth. 

16. The narrative, interrupted by the digression respectiug the canals, is 
here resumed. -Trap* avrhv rhu Ev(ppdT7]u. See N. on irapa t)]v ohov, 2. § 13. 
TrapoSos creyf], Maj. Eennell thinks that this narrow pass was left be- 
cause the trench could not be finished. ^'Equidem propterea relictum puto, 

ne fossam aqua repleret." Kriig. -Trote? — irvv^dverai. Butt. (§ 137. N. 7) 

says that every other language must here in both instances have employed the 

pluperfect. irpoceXavyoyra is the supplementary participle. H. § 799. 3 ; 

S. § 225. 7. The construction is proleptic. See N. on 2. § 21. 

IT. irdpodov — TraprjX^e. For the construction, cf. S. § 181. 2. efcco, 

within, i. e. on the side towards Babylon. juey odv, so then. The corre- 
sponding Se is found in § 20. -^ca?/ — 'ixvt] TroXXd. Eost (§ 100. 4. N. 4) 

says, *'the subject in the neut. plur. takes the plur. verb, when the idea of 
individuals in the plurality requires to be made distinct and prominent." Cf. 
H. § 515. Exe. a. 

18t ^i\ap6py SilanuB, from Ambracia in Epirus and the principal sooth- 

262 NOTES. [Book L 

sayer in the army of the Greeks. Hia perfidy towards Xenophon is detailed, 

Y. 6. § 16. 5Tf, becaucc, Cf. N. on 2. § 21. ry ez/Se/cctTi? air' qkeIptis 

TYjs ^]ixipas irpSrepoUf on the eleventh day previous to that day. on jSacrt- 

Aei;s o\) fiax^'irai is the orat. recta. See N. on on ou, 6. § 7. ovk 'dpa I'ri 

ixax^'traiy then he will never fight. Cyrus supposed his brother would make a 
stand at the rdtppos, which was within ten days' march. If so advantageous 
a position should be abandoned by the king, it furnished evidence that ho 
would not hazard a battle. 

19» 'Eirel S', but inasmuch as. aireyvwicei/at tov fidx^c^at (gen. of sep- 
aration), had given up the intention of fighting. The vulgar reading is rov 
fxax^'io'^ai. It is probable that the error of the king in not making a stand at 
this ditch, proved in the end to be of signal advantage to him, inasmuch as the 
battle here would have been more compressed than at Cunaxa, and as a proba- 
ble consequence, the Greeks would have been opposed to the king in person, 

which could not but have resulted in his complete overthrow. wa-re — eVo- 

pevero. See N. on 1. § 8. rjfJLeXrjfjLej/os ixaWov^ more negligently^ less 


20. iirl rod apfxaros* See N. on 2. § 16. na^^pL^vos denotes manner. 

S. § 225. 3 ; H. § 788. tV 'n-opdau iTroieTro = iTropevero. rh 5e ttoAu, 

sc. rod (rrparevpLaTOs. eV ra^ef, iii order. " ordine servato." Sturz. .g 

rois (rrpancarais properly follows ^yovro (S. § 201. 1) as dat. commodi. See* 
K on 1. § 9. Some construct it as = the adnom. gen. after twv ottXcdu, S. 
§ 201, 5. 


!• Kal serves here as a general connective with what was detailed in the 
last chapter, while rh — koI which follow, unite the clauses of the sentence. 

^u. The subject is indefinite. C. § 546. aficpl ayopav irxif^ovaav, 

about fidl market time, i. e. some time between nine and twelve o'clock. Dio 
Chrys. divides the day into five parts: 1. irpcai, mor7iing ; 2. Trcpl ay opduy 
full market, forenoon ; 3. fjLea-TjpLfBpiay noon ; 4. SeiA??, afternoon ; 5. eCTre- 
pa, evenitig. ayopa irK-ii^ovca answers to our ftdl ''change. Cf. Herod. YII. 

223; Thucyd. YIII. 92. KaraKixT^Lv =i to halt for the night, to encamp ; 

lit. to loose, or unbind (the beasts of burden), i. e. unharness or unload them. 

rS)V a}x(p\ Kvpov iriarcov depends on Tlarayvas with the idea of belonging 

io= being one of Cyruses faithful attendants. Cf. 5. §15.^ For the con- 
struction, see H. § 557; S. § 188. 1. hvh. Kpdros, at full speed. Tip 

'iinrM. Mt. (§ 396) classes this with the dat. of mea7is or instru^ncnt. Pa- 
tagyas had probably been sent forward either to reconnoitre, or, what is more 
likely, to make some preparations at the a-ra^pLhs where they were intending 
to encamp. fiapfiapiKws = Uepa'ia'ny in the Persian language, wpoc- 

Chap. VIIL] NOTES. 263 

ipx^rai^ indicat. of direct quotation. See N. on 6. § '7. ws us ftc^x??!/, 

as for battle, irapeo'Kevaa'fjLcyos, perf. of completed action. 

2e rdpaxoSj tumult^ trepidation. Koi irdyres 5e, and indeed all^ i. e. 

the Barbarians as well as the Greeks. iirnreaelcr^ai has jiaa'iXea understood 

for its subject. 

3o zeal in koI KvpSs re serves as a general connective, while re corresponds 
to re in toTs re ^AAots. As it respects the place where the battle was fought, 
Plut. (Yit. Artax. 8) says it was called Cunaxa, and was distant from Babylon 
600 stadia. Mannert locates it a few miles south of the wall of Media. The 
time of the engagement is fixed by Rennell at Sept. Y, but by Larch., the lat- 
ter part of Oct. ra iraXra — ras x^^P^^t ^^^ javelins — his hands. See X. 

on 5. § 15. Ka^ia'Taa'^ai els (see N. on 1. § 3) r^u cavTOu rd^iu eicacroyj 

and each one to take his station in the company to which he belonged; lit. 
in his own company/. 

4o Kriig. says that unless rod Keparos is rejected as a vicious reading, it is 

to be explained : rk 5e|z^ rovrov rod (d^^Lov) Keparos. ex^p-^vos^ being 

dose (to him); lit. holding 07i to. H. § 691. /cal rh crrpdr^vfxa^ a7id his 

(i. e. Menon^s), army. See N. on ra iraXrdy § 3 supra. 

5« linreTs fihu UacpXayouss. See N. on Y. 6. § 8. irapdy near to. 

G. Kvpos de Kal iirireTs, Supply ecrijcau from the preceding section. 

ocroy, to the number of = about. Leun. from an ancient version supplies 

KKTa rh fiecrou after i^aKoonoi. These words, however, are omitted in all the 
MSS., and besides, it appears from a comparison of § 24 with §§ 13, 23, that 
Cyrus stationed himself on the left wing. aurot, theg themselves, in distinc- 
tion from 01 S' «Wot (§ '7). yptX-fiv, i. e. he had no helmet on his head. 

That he wore a turban is evident from the nature of the case, as well as from 
the testimony of Ctesias (cf. Plut. Artax. 11), who says that in the battle his 
tiara fell off. This was probably the ridpa op^^j (cf. II. 5. § 23), upright tiara, 
an outward assumption of the royal dignity for which he was contending. 

Y* ol fxera Kvpou is an adjunct of 'iTriroi, and therefore as it follows its 

subst. takes the article. See K on 4. § 7. Se is the connective. 

€lxoy — /cai, had also. fxax'ot.ipas. Sturz defines : gladius, quo cassim feri- 

tur. Krlig. says, '^ crat fxdxaipa gladius leviter curvattcs falci similis (Curt. 
YIII. 14, 29), quo csesim feriebatur, ^[(pos ensis, quo punctim." The fidxcupa 
was worn by Homer's heroes along with the ^((bos (cf. II. 3 : 271), and was 
used on almost all occasions instead of a knife. So we find (lY. Y. § 16) that 
the Chalybes employed this weapon in cutting their enemies' throats ; and the 
Greeks (lY. 6. § 26), in cutting to pieces the bucklers which they had taken 
from the enemy. It is evident therefore that the /xdxaipa was of the 
hiife kind, and was used, as Yates remarks (Smith's Gr. and Rom. Antiq. 
p. 809), by the Greek horsemen, as a weapon of offence preferable to the long 

8» Kal ^'5?; t€, and now. Set A?;. Cf, N. on § 1. Buttmann (Lexil. 

264: NOTES. [Book I. 

p. 217) says that the events which follow show that Set At; here means the early 
part of the afternoon. Cf. VII. 8. §§ 9, 10, where Seuthes says that there are 
villages to which the army may march with ease before dinner, and afterwards 
their arrival is described as taking place t^s 56tA.77s, which could not have been 
long after noon. In III. 4. § 34 ; lY. 2. § 1, it is apparent from the context 
that SeiA?; means the advanced part of the afternoon. So also in III. 3. § 11, 
where it is translated by some, i7i the evening. But as Butt. (Lexil. p. 218) 
remarks, Xenophon '^may have very fairly said of an army, which, after a 
march constantly interrupted by the enemy, reaches a certain point some- 
where about four o'clock where it intends to pass the night, that after march- 
ing the whole day it had advanced only two miles and a half, and had arrived 
in the afternoon at a certain point ; and as the context shows that the time 
meant was one drawing towards the evening, the word Set At? was quite suffi- 
cient to mark it." Kouioprhs {Kovia^ oppvfii), dust raised^ a cloud of dust. 

XP^^V ^^ o^ o-vxy^' Leuncl. taking (rvxv$ in the sense of much^ and 

knowing that although it was afternoon when the enemy appeared in sight, a 
battle was yet to be fought, inserted the negative oh which Hutch., Dind., and 
Pop. have followed. But this was unnecessary since if (rvxv$ = iroWo)^ it may 
have been so relatively, i. e. as it appeared to the excited Greeks, against whom 
such a cloud of war was slowly (cf. § 11 infra) and majestically approaching. 
But one of the definitions which Ilesych. gives to (ru%j/a, is cruj/ex^, closely^ 
joinedy which, if adopted here, would give to xp^^V (rvxv<? the signification, 

immediately after, in a very short time. fxeKayia t£s, a certain blackness 

=z something black. rdx^ S?; koX xaA/cc^s ris ffcrpaTrre, i. e. sudden gleams 

from the armor flashed through the cloud of dust. tLs imparts indefiniteness, 
as though at first through the cloud of dust there was something like the gleam- 

ing of brass. ija'TpaTrre (cf. Cyr. YI. 4. § 1), began to fash. \6yxaiy 

lances. The Grecian spear consisted of the dSpu, shaft, pole, and xSyxv, 
alxp-'h', ^^'on head or point, both of which essential parts are often put for the 
whole. Kara(pav^7s, clearly seen. The occasional gleam of the bright ar- 
mor through this dark cloud of dust, followed by the magnificent display as 
the ranks came fully in sight, must have had a thrilling effect upon Cyrus and 
his army. 

9. \€VKo^6paKss, having white cuirasses. Hutch. (K on Y. 4. § 2) re- 
marks that these cuirasses, like the bucklers there spoken of, were covered 
with hides of white oxen. But it is far more reasonable to consider them the 

same as the Xivo7 ^dopanes of lY. '7. § 15. Cf. Cyr. YI. 4. § 2. ix^ix^^oi 

5e rovrcov. Cf. N. on § 4. For the construction of the gen., cf. II. § 574. b; 

S. § 192. 2. y^ppocpSpoi. Sturz defines yippov, scutum Pcrsicum c vimini- 

bus contextuTR spcciem guadrati oblongi rcferens. These wicker frames were 
usually covered with leather or hides. "In contending with the Asiatic na- 
tions, whoso principal weapon of offence was the bow, the use of this light, 
though large, buckler must have given the Persian a manifest advantage, but 

Chap. VHI.] NOTES. 265 

opposed no adequate resistance to the ponderous lance of the Greeks." Stock- 

er's N. on Herod. IX. 99. irodrjpecn, 7^ aching to the feet. Cf. Cyr. VI. 2t 

§ 10. AlyvwTioi. They were probably from the Egyptian colonies planted 

in Asia Minor by the elder Cyrus. See my Note on Cyrop. VII. 1. § 45. 

Kara i^vT]^ by nations^ i. e. each nation by itself, a common custom in the Per- 
sian armies. Cf. Herod. YII. 60, 100. eV TrXato-iV ^A.^p«, in a full 

square. Cf. III. 4. § 19, where irXaia-iou has the epithet iaSTrXcvpov. Bloom. 
(N. Thucyd. VI. 67) says it was called irXaKTiov from its brick-like form. 
Some translate, in an ohlong full of men^ i. e. the men being close together. 

cKacTToy rh €^j/os is in apposition with irdyres Se ol/toi, and is followed by 

iTTopsvero in the sing., although the proper subject is in the plur. Cf. Mt. 
§ 302. a. Obs. For the use of the article in eKacrroj/ rh e^vos^ cf. Mt. § 265. 
5; S. §14Y. N. 2. 

10. Repeat iiropeveTo with Trph de avrajy. diaXdirojrra (fvxvhv (= ttoXv^ 

so Suid.) aTT* a7KXi]\iav^ at a considerable distance from one another. e/c 

TcDy al6vo}y ^Is irXdyiov airor^rayLiva (H. § 712; S. § 211. 2), extending 

obliquely from the axle-trees. u7rb roh Ucppois, under the seats. Cf. Cyr. 

VI. 1. §§ 29, 80. ch yriv pXcTrovra, pointing (lit. looking) dovmwards, 

" Sometimes the scythe was inserted parallel to the axle into the felly of the 
wheel, so as to revolve, when the chariot was in motion, with more than thrice 
the velocity of the chariot itself." Smith's Diet. Gr. and Eom. Antiq. p. 408. 
These scythed-chariots were never very serviceable, and often, when the 
horses attached to them were wounded or the driver slain, turned back with 

great havoc upon the army to which they belonged. yvt^ftJ-ri-, design. 

QiS cis ras rd^eis rcoy *E?0^'f}i(ay iXcayrccy (for iXaaSyrcay), that they might drive 
into the ranks of the Greeks. For the construction of ois — iXdoyrcoy^ cf. S. 
§ 226. a; H. § 795. e. 

11. tV Kpavyiiy rwy ^apPdpcay. Cf. 7. § 4. (Ttyy us ayvcrrhy {= dv- 

va.T6y\ as silently as possible. iy 'icrc^, sc. ^'t]iiaTt^ with equal step^ at tht 

same pace. 

12. €j3oa, i. e. he issued the command in a loud voice. Kara yiicov^ 

against the centre. on iKeT fiaciX^us c'lt], because the king was there. The 

infinit. 'dyeiy in the leading sentence does not prevent the use of the cptat. in 

the subordinate one. H. § 738. irdy^* rifxty 'jreiroiTjrai = our work is 

done; lit. every thing has been done {= will be done, S. § 211. N. 3) by us. 
For the construction of 7]iJ.7y weTroiT^rai, cf. S. § 206. 4. 

13. rb fX€<roy cri^os^ the central troop. Reference is here had to the 6000 
horsemen drawn up before the king as his body guard. Cf. 7. § 11 ; 8. § 24. 

aKovcay Kvpov. " The verb a/coucy, commonly governs the accus. of the 

sound, and the gen. of that which produces it." Butt. § 132. 10. h. For the 

construction of cvra, cf. K". on ^ovX^voixlvos^ 1. § 7. roaovToy — ircptTjy^ 

was so much superior. ua-re /xecoy rh iavrov €X«r, that although being in 

the centre of his (army). The particip. has hero a concessive sense. § 225. 


266 NOTES. [Book L 

6 ; H. § 789. f. Siffre — ?j/. See K on 1. § 8. aAX' is here employed in 

consequence of the preceding parenthesis commencing with roaovrov ydp. 

This will also account for the repetition of the proper name Kkiapxos. 

o^wy, yet^ i. e. notwithstanding the command of Cyrus, and the information 

communicated respecting the position of the king. avr$ fxiXoi oircas icaXus 

exoi^ he would take care that all things should go well. oTrcas naXus ^xoi 
(see N. on exetr, 1. § 5) is the subject oi [xiKoi. 

14. cV rovT<p r$ Kaip$ = in the mean while. ojjiaKws^ eodem gressu. 

Sturz. "Sine dubio," says Bornemann, *'Cyri exercitus non Artaxerxis." 
But it is more natural to refer it to the army of the king. See § 11 supra. 
It must have been a sublime spectacle, to see so many thousands with their 
glittering armor and flashing weapons, approaching in slow and measured 
tread to battle. 

" The host moves like a deep-sea wave, 
Where rise no rocks its pride to brave, 
High swelling, dark, and slow." 

Cf. Par. Lost, YI. 78-85. en iv rep ahrQ (sc. tJttw) ix4vov^ remaining yet 

in the same place where they first began to form. cruj/eTcCrTCTo, were 

forming^ imperf. of continued action. e/c twv ert irpoaiSvTCDVyfrom those 

who were still coming up. As the army was proceeding in a secure and 
negligent manner when first advised of the approach of the king's forces, 
some of the soldiers were probably far behind. These, as they came up, 
would seize their arms from the baggage wagons (cf. 7. § 20), and fall into 
their respective companies. oh irdvv irpSs, not very near to, i. e. at a mod- 
erate distance from. He rode out far enough to have a view of both armies. 
4KaT€po)(r€j in each direction. a7ro)8Ae7rajr, fixing his eyes upon, look- 
ing attentively at. This word is added to KCLTeb^aro in order to give particu- 
larity to the expression. 

15. airh is employed here as in 2. § 'T, on which see Note. Ec^oe^cDy 

^A^voLosy Xenophon an Athenian. See N. on III. 1. § 4. vTreT^cras, 

having rode up. Sturz with Hutch, renders, equo nonnihil iiicitato. But 

Kriig. more correctly makes virh give to i\avj/co the idea of approach. €t 

{whether. S. § 215. N. 6) is here followed by the opt., because ijpero, upon 

which irapayyeWot depends, expresses time past. Cf. S. § 212. 3. 1 

CT-fiffas, sc. rhu 'Imrov. on .... KoKa. It is common to supply €^77, but 

the mood of the oratio recta is admissible. See N. on 6. § Y. ra Upa koX 

TO. (repay la. Divinations were taken both from the entrails of the victim, and 
the circumstances attending its sacrifice. To such an extent was the latter 
mode of divination practised, that the fire of the sacrifice, the smoke, wine, 
water, etc., were all carefully noticed. Hence iepcL may signify the entrails, a 
principal source of divination, and <r<pdyia (from (r<pdCc»), to slay), the victims, 
i. e. the circumstances attending the sacrifice, and the motions of the animal 
when slaughtered. 

Chap. Vm.] • NOTES. 267 

16. ^opi^ov^ a clamor. Iovtos, i. e. as it was going. He was able to 

follow its course through the ranks. 6 5e "Eevocbuy. Dind. following cer- 
tain MSS. reads 6 oh KXeapxos. 6 ^Spv^os, the noise. The noun when re- 
peated usually takes the article in a restrictive sense. rh cvv^Viiiay the 

word^ tessera militaris. "This countersign, which consisted of one, two, or 
more words, was given with the voice, first from the general to the inferior 
officers to avoid confusion, and from them through the whole army, after 

which it was returned back to the general." Weiske. Seurepoi/, second 

time. KaX %s = Koi euros. H. § 525. b. 

17. aWa contrasts Cyrus's ready acceptance of the watchword, with the 

doubt and uncertainty indicated by his previous question. Z^x^ixai re. 

Some erroneously supply rhu oloivov. Kriig. understands rb cvv^rjixa, and 

paraphrases : ut bonum omen accipio hanc tesseram, (rcoTTjpiay kcI j/lktjv. 

TovTO ecTTw, let this be^ i. e. may it happen that safety and victory shall be 
ours. Some translate, let this be (the watchword). But this interpretation is 

too frigid. els t V eavrov x^P°-^i ^- ^- ^^ ^^^ head of the barbarian forces 

of his army. iiraLoivL^ov. The Schol. on Thucyd. I. 50 says, " the Greeks 

sang two pseans, one before battle to Mars, the other after it to Apollo." The 
Spartans called the pcean sung before the engagement, iraiay i/xfiaT'fipLos. The 
practice of singing it after the fight was over, is said to have arisen from the 
fact, that Apollo sung it after his victory over the Pythian dragon. 

18. 'irop€vofx4vwVy sc. avTcoj/. Cf. N. on 2. § IV. i^aivf.Laivc, Jlvctuated^ 

broke away from (the line). This metaphor taken from a swelling, projecting 

wave of the sea, is full of beauty and energy. ■ For the construction of tK\s 

€p6XayyoSy cf. S. § 188. 1; H. § 559. rb iTriXeiirc/jLcvoy, the part (of the 

Ime) which was left behind. Cf. S. § 225. 1 ; H. § ^86. ^poficp ^^7^, to 

run with speed. So to give fullness to the expression, we say to go running^ 

to proceed upon the run. olov Trep, just as. 'Ej/uaX/w, one of the 

names of Mars. i\e\iCou(ri, they shout i\€\ev. Some fancy that cAeAeG 

may have arisen from the Heb. iT^ ^'^r'l • '^^■'^^ ao-Tricrt irphs ra Bopara 

idoinr7j(fav. We should have expected to7s ^opacri irphs ras aa-Tridas idovTrrj- 
if XV. (po^ov iroiovvres, in order to frighten. Cf. S. § 225. 5. 

19. Uplu Se ro^evfxa i^iKPua^ai, but before an arrow reached (them) = be- 
fore they came within bow-shot. Kara. Hpdros, with all their might ; lit. 

according to might. H. § 632. c. — — fi^o ^e7y dpSfio) (dat. of manner). The 
reason for this may be drawn from the next clause. Cf. Thucyd. Y. '10. 

20. Ta Se apfj-ara i(p€pero to, ficu, but some of the chariots were borne 

along; lit. but the chariots were borne along ^ some^ &c. ra fAv and ra Se 

are in partitive apposition with ra apfiara. II. § 500. b. Keua r^vilyjbiv^ 

without (their) charioteers. Kevd, literally empty. Ot 5e, i. c. the Greeks. 

cTTcl TTpoi^oiev (sc. ra apfiara). Cf. N. on 5. § 2. — Harri Zh oVrtr, 

there was (one) who = some one. Cf. Butt. § 150. p. 442; Mt. § 482. 

Kat, even, uxnrep 4v iinrodp6jx% as in a hippodrome, Cf. Smith's Gr. and 

268 NOTES. [Book L 

Rom. Antiq. p. 895. eKirXayeis, having been struck with terror^ and there- 
fore losing tlieir self-possession at the sudden approach of these chariots. 
irXriy of the 2 aor. pass, becomes irXay in composition. Cf S. § 133. n. The 
student will notice the strengthening repetition of the negatives in the follow- 
ing clauses. 

21. t5 kol^* avTovs^ the e7iemy opposed to them. So Krilg. and Born. 
** Scil. ^ap^apiKSy^ vel rajy ^ap^apwv Kcpas seu <rTi<^os." Hutch. Cf. Thucyd. 

III. 108. § 2, where Bloom, supplies K^pas. d:s ^aariXevs. In ancient 

times, when the whole military strength of a kingdom was brought at one 

time into the field, a single battle usually decided the fate of an empire. 

virh rwv ay.(^^ avrSu^ hy his followers. rjdSfxei/os and TrpotrKwovficvos arc 

concessive. See N. on § 13. ou5* &s— ou5* outoos (cf. Yig. p. 216. 

XVIII), not even thus, i. e. not even when apparently victorious, and already 

saluted as king by his attendants. crvyea-TreipafjLCj/TjUy in close order. 

cire^eAetTO, he was attentively watching, o ri iroi'fja'eL /BactAeus (orat. rect. 

See N. on 3. § 14) is the object of cTre^eAerro. The use of /cai in Kcd yap 

may be seen by supplying the ellipsis implied in ydp : and (he did this, i. c. ho 
watched the movements of the king) /or, &c. The ellipsis in most instances 
may be mentally supplied, and the formula icaX yap may be rendered simply 

for. ffdei avrhy on = ydei on avros. For the prolepsis of avrou, sec N. 

on 2. § 21. 

22. Kai is here explicative, i. e. the sentence which it introduces serves to 
explain the previous one. As it respects the thing here spoken of, see Cyr. 

IV. 2. § 27 ; VIII. 5. § 8. [.litrov exo;/T€s rh avroov 7]yovj/TO, were accus- 
tomed (cf. S. § 211. N. 11) to lead in the centre of their own (army). Bind. 

and Pop. read 7]yovj/rai. voixl^ovres denotes the reason or cause. S. 

§ 225. 4 ; H. § '789. c. iv aa-cpaXea-rdTco, sc. roirep (=: x^ph'^ ^^ ^^^^ safest 

place. fjy .... ^Karepco^eu, if their force be on both sides of them. 

alff^dyear^ai rh CTpdrev/xa depends on vofxl^ouT^s. 

23* Kal — 5); T(^t6, a7id indeed then. jxiffov exwr, although being in 

the centre. See N. on excoy, § 13. o/xcys, yet. e/c rov ivavriov, oppo- 
site^ in front. to7s avrov rer ay fieyois, i.e. the six thousand spoken of, 7. 

§ 11. aifTov and avT(S in the previous clause refer to the king. Is ch 

KvKXwiTiy, as if to enclose them. On the use of djs to denote what is supposed 
or apparent, see H. § 8*75. a. els here denotes aim or purpose. KVKXooffiv 
is derived from kvk\6cd and denotes its action. Cf. S. § 139. We are not 
to suppose that this evolution was performed by the right wing of the king's 
army, since that must have extended several stadia beyond the left wing of 
the rebel forces, and it would have been no quick or easy task to wheel about 
so immense a body of men. It is rather to be referred to the 6000 body- 
guards, who in the apprehension of Cyrus were about to fall upon the rear of 
the Greeks, and cut them in pieces {uiria-^ev yeySficyos KaTaK6^ri rh 'EWv 

Chap. VIM.] NOTES. 269 

21. deiaras — KaraKS^ (sc. /3acrf\eus). Mt. (§ 518. p. 880) says that *Hhe 
subjunctive is frequently used, although the verb upon which it depends is in 
time past, when the depending verb denotes an action which is continued to 

the present time." Cf. Butt. § 139. 1 ; S. § 212. K yevof^epos, sc. ^a- 

(ri\€vs. ro7s e^aKOclois. Cf. § 6. airoKruvai Aeyerat k. t. A. Plu- 
tarch (Artax. 9) says that after Artagerses had thrown his javelin at Cyrus 
with a force that shook him in his seat, and was turning his horse, Cyrus aimed 
a stroke at him with his spear, the point of which entered at his collar bone 

and pierced through his neck. avrhs ry cavrov x^''-Ph liii^iself with his own 

ha?id. The reflex, pron. receives additional emphasis frcm avros. II. § GYl-. 
Cf. 11. 4. § 10. 

25t *Cls Sc ') rpOTT'}] iyivero ZicLcnr^ipoyTaL kcX ol Kvpov i^aKSaiOL ch rh 
dicjKcij/ opfxi^a-avresy but wJieii (the king's body-guard) was routed^ the six hun- 
dred belonging to Cyrus rushing on in the p2irsuit^ were dispersed; or, zVi the 
route (of the king's body-guard) which took place^ the six hundred^ &c. C^s Se 
— /cat, but when — then. For this use of koX after definitions of time, cf. Mt. 
§ G20. a. els Tt) ^icoKeiv oppJ^cavres. In Ilerod. IX. 59, oipfXTjfievovs BidoK^iy 

is found, els rh being omitted. Cf. Mt. § 532. c. ttA'V (= oficas) irdi/'j 

oXiyoi, but yet a very few, ax'^'^ov^ mostly. ol o/xoTpaTre^oi. These 

are called at arvj/rpdire^oi, 9. § 31. Cf. N. on 6. § 15. 

26. ovK ^jveo'x^'^o, teas not able to restrain himself. Moeris : i^j/ccx^to, 
'Attikus' ayea-x^TOy 'E?^7jvuccos. Cf. Butt. § 114. p. 240. Thus far Cyrus 
acted the part of a prudent and skilful commander, but now at sight of his 
brother, intent only upon revenge, he rushes like a madman into the fight, and 
in the moment of victory falls by an unknown hand. — — dpw rhv uvdpa = 

opu aifrSy, only more emphatic. Uro. Cf. N. on 5. § 8. iraUi = 

jaculando ferit. So Kriig. Kara, upon. KTfjcrlas, Ctesias^ a native 

of Cnidus and by profession a physician. He spent many years at the Persian 
court, and composed a history of Assyria and Persia in 23 books entitled 
Ilepa'f/ca, only a few fragments of which remain. koI .... (pTja] is an in- 
dependent clause. Such clauses are frequently added to relative or depend- 
ent sentences. 

27. TraArw. A missile weapon, although sometimes used in close fight, 

{xax^/JLeyoi ical ^a(Ti\evs Kal Kvpos Kal ol, is regarded by Poppo as in the 

nom. absolute, for fiaxofievcav Kal ^acriXiuiS Koi Kvpov Kal rcSi/ k. t, A. But 
Mt. (§ 562. K) founds this use of the nom. upon a different construction, viz. 
** when the subject of the partic. is contained in. part by the principal subject, 
or this latter in the other." Here 6Tr6(Toi, Kvpos, and o/crcb oi dpiaroi, the 
principal subjects, constitute a part of the whole contained in /SoertAevs, Kvpos, 
and ol a}x<p* aurovs, the subjects of ij.axSiJ.ey at, and a partial apposition may be 

considered as existing between them. Cf. Butt. § 145. N. 4. oTroa-oi {hoio 

many) .... aire^yTjcrKoy is a substant. clause governed by \iyei. iKeivco, 

i. e. the king. ol dptarot = ot ofxaTpdire^oi, § 25. eKewro ctt' aury, 

270 NOTES. [Book I. 

lay (dead) w^on him, Cf. K^trai TiirpoKXoSy II. XVIII. 20: " neminem jacen- 
tem veste spoliavit," Corn. Nep. Thrasyb. II. 2. 

28. avTiS Tuu (TKTjirrovxcou ^cpdirccu, of his sceptre-bearing attendants. 

For the construction of avrcp, cf. S. § 201. 5. TreirTwK6Ta elde Kvpou. The 

prolepsis is explained in N. on 2. § 21. ircpiireaeTp (dependent on xiyerai) 

avr<^, i. e. he fell upon him with his arms embracing the lifeless body. 

29. aKivdKTjj/, scimetar. A short, crooked Persian sword. koI (rrpe- 

irrhy 5e i(p6pei k, t. A. From this passage compared with I. 2. § 27; Cyr. I. 3. 
§ 3; Herod. VIII. 113; Corn. Nep. Dat. Ill; Dan. 5: 7, 16, 29, it would 
seem that these ornaments were marks of honor conferred by the sovereign, 
very similar to the orders of modern knighthood. 


!• ireXcirTjcreyy sc. rhu (Biov. Kvpov rhu apxouoy^ Cyrus the Elder 

who laid the foundation of the Persian empire. PaariXiKcaraTos^ viz., in 

mien, magnificence, generosity, high daring, &c., which were esteemed the 

most eminent qualifications of a king. o.px^iv a^tccraros^ most worthy to 

rule. S. § 200. N. 2; H. § 767. a. -irapd. See N. on 2. § 5. Kvpov 

limits ircipa. ^' The repetition of the proper name is a mark of respect." Belf. 

doKovyroov. Cf. N. on 3. § 12. ij/ irdpa yeycar^aij to have been per^ 

sonally acquainted. **usu et consuetudine expertum esse." Kriig. 

2. irpcSrou fxii/. The correlate is cTrel dh in § 6. ydp. Cf. N. on 6. 

§ 6. €Tt irais iav^ being yet a boy. irdvra^ in every respect. Cf. 

Mt. §425;S. §182. 'irdvTtav irdyra is an example of what is called paro- 

3. ^vpcLis. Krlig. says, ^''^vpas esse aulayn regiam^ quge hodieque a Turcis 

porta vocatur, notum est." Cf. Cyr. I. 2. § 3. aotxppoo'vuTiVy jnodesty as 

opposed to alffxp^v in the next clause. Cf. Cic. Tusc. Disput. III. 8. 

4. c^crre — iiav^dvovffiv. See N. on 1. § 8. eu^i/s -TraTSes o^res, as 

soon as they are children = from their very childhood. Cf. Mt. § 565. Obs. 2. 
— '— fxav^dvovffLv .... ^p%e(r3-at, they learn both how to rule and to be rxded. 
H. § 802. 

5. TOLS T6 'Trpco'^vTcpots Kot Twu cavTOv vTrodcco'Tipcov fiaWou vei^ca^ai, 
and to obey his elders more readily than did those even who were his inferiors 
(in rank), twv virodeeo-repcav is constructed in the gen. with fxaWov, and 

€avTov, with vTTodeea'rcpcoj/. Cf. S. § 198. 1. ^ ro7s 'iTnrois &pia'Ta xprjC^cLi, 

to manage horses with the greatest skill, (kpicrra is used adverbially. Cf. S. 
§ 135. 2. Repeat i^6Kei with xp^o-fS-az. eTrcira Se responds to july irpuroy, 

"EKpivov, sc. avrol referring to oi Kvpov hoKovvrcav iv ircipa yey^a^ai, § 1 ; 
or the subject may be a general one, as in (pacrl and xiyovai. epycav is 

Chap. IX.] NOTES. 271 

constructed with tpi\oiJ.a^i(TTaTov and ix€\€T7]p6TaToy, S. § 195; II. § 584. c, 
To^ucTjs and aKoyrLcreas are in explanatory apposition with epywv, 

6« 'EttcI 5e T// rjXLKia cTrpeTre, but when he flourished, bloomed in age = 
when he was old enough to engage in hunting and other manly exercises. 
The age to which allusion is here made was eighteen, at which time the boys 

were numbered among the e(p7jl3oi, Cf. Cyr, I. 2. § 9, et seq. koI — Trore, 

and once. See N. on 5. § 7. iirKpepo/jLeyrju, rushing upon him, (tvjj.- 

ic^(T(aVy having grappled with (it), is opposed to an encounter with missiles at a 

distance. erpecrev, 1 aor. act. of rpeco. ret. fxkv ^ira^ev = he received 

those wounds. This appears from the next clause. reAos, at length. Cf. 

S. § 135. 1 ; H. § 552. koI rhy irp^arov fxhroi Porj^^jcayra iroWoTs jma- 

Kapicrhy eiroiTjo'ev, yet he tnade the one who first came to his assistance most 
happy in the view of (H. § 601. 5) many, in consequence of the gifts which 
he received from Cyrus. Cf. N. on 7. § 4 (end). 

T. ois Ka^-fjKciy whose duty it is. ets Kaa'TcoXov ire^ioy. Cf. N. on 1. 

§ 2. TTcpl izMicTTov ttoloIto, he regarded it of the highest importance. H. 

§ 650. b. on TTcpX irX^iffrov iroiolro — fiT^'^ev if/evSec^-at constitutes the second 
accus. after cTreSeilev = 7ie showed himself one who regarded, &c. S. § 185; 

II. § 556. e^ T^ a"ir^i(Tairo koL €i rep (Tvv^oIto, if he made peace with any 

one, and if he entered into a treaty with any one. "Proprie a"irovda\ inimici- 
tias et bella componunt ; <rvy^?]Kai amicitias societatemque certis conditionibus 
paciscuntur." Kriig. For the form t^ (= riyi), cf. S. § '72. 1 ; for (rvv^oTrOy 

cf. Butt. 107. III. 4; S. § 125. d; H. § 401. h. fxTj^hy i;/6i^5e(r^at is an 

accus. clause depending upon iroioiro. S. § 177. 8; H. § 556. 

8. KaX yap ovv introduces a proof and illustration of the preceding senti- 
ment: and (this is certain) /or therefore (i. e. because such was his regard for 

his word and promise) both the cities, &c. See H. § 870. d. avrcp — iiri- 

Tpeirofjicyai. Leuncl. renders : quce erant ejus curaj creditae, i. e. which be- 
longed to his satrapy. But not to speak of the article, which such a rendering 
would require to be repeated after irSx^is, reference is had here evidently to 
cities which voluntarily placed themselves under the government of Cyrus. 
Cf. 1. § 6 ; 9. §§ 9, 12. The interpretation of Kriig. is therefore to be pre- 
ferred, ejus fidei et imperio se committeiites. So also Sturz and Poppo. 

oi 'dvdp^s. Pvepeat iTrirpeTrS/jLcyoi. The sense is that the inhabitants of these 

cities, as communities and as individuals, confided in Cyrus. ct ris. Cf. 

N". on 4. § 9. iraph ras (Twoyddsj contrary to the treaty, ariroyh)) (from 

(Tireydot), to pour), a libation. Hence (riroydal, a treaty or truce, as this was 
always made with libations. Cf. N. on YI. 1. § 5. 

9, Toiyapovy, therefore. H. § 867. 5. According to Butt. (§ 149. p. 431) 
roL is an ancient dat. for rw, but is never used illatively except in the strength- 
ened forms roiydpy roiyapovy, etc. Cf. Mt. § 627. at iroXets, i. e. at *Ia>- 

yiKal 7r6\€i5 (1. § 6). ayrl, instead of. (pevyoyras, Cf. N. on 3. § 3. 

■^ irpoQO'^atf 2 aor. inf. mid. of irpotrjfjLt, to give up, betray. i<po^QvvTo 

272 NOTES. [Book L 

a.vT6v, They were probably afraid of being punished, for having been con- 
federate with Tissaphernes in banishing their fellow-citizens. Cf. on 1. § 7. 

10. KGLi — /cai, both — and, yap, etenhn, for. epyw iTr^delKJ/vro Kcd 

tX^yey = epyra eireBeiicvvTO ical Xoyw. irpooiro^ sc. ahjovs^ i. c. the Milesian 

exiles. For the form irpooTro (2 aor. opt. mid. of irpoirjfjLi)^ cf. N. on (Tvy^o7TOy 

§ 7 supra. ovd* el ^ri ^\v ficlovs yivoivro^ not even if they should become 

still further diminished in number. Butt. (§ G8. 5) says that [xdav is em- 
ployed for the idea both of smallness and of fewness. ert Z\ koX k6.kiqv 

irpd^eiav^ and should be even more unfortunate, kukcos irpdrro) = aru^eoj. 

!!• (payephs S' ^jv — vLKav ireipco/xepos {endeavoring to surpass). Cf. N. on 
d7]\os ^v a.vi6/ji€vos, 2. § 11. euxV — avTov^ a prayer of his. In explana- 
tory apposition with this is Toa-ovroy .... aXc^Sfxcyos^ a subst. sentence (IT. 
§ 493. d) following cvxoiro as the cognate accus. according to the formula 
evxofiai evx'fjy' S. § 181. 2; H. § 547. a. Kender Totrovrov xpayoy f/yj/ e'cre 
viKcvTjj that he might live so long as to outdo ; or, ^mtil he should outdo. After 
the optat. in a wis\ ecre and similar particles of time take the optat. without 

cLy by assimilation. Cf. Goodwin, § 66. 2. aKe^ofjLcyos = par pari refe- 

rens, giving like for like. 

12. Kal yap ovy. See N. on § 8 supra. irKucfTOi h)] avT$ k. t. A. 

The sense is : there was no one man^ at least of our times, to whom so many 
were ready to deliver up their treasures, cities, and persons. 5^; strengthens 
irAeTa-TPt, the very most. H. § 665. a. 4yi ye aydpl is in apposition with avr^y 
to him one 7nan at least (ye) = to him beyond any other man. rwy i<p* rjfxuy, 
of those in our time, is the part. gen. after iul aydpl. S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 559. a. 
Butt. (§ 147. p. 416) says that iirl rod often specifies a ti'me, by means of 
something contemporary, especially persons, ra kavrCoy ad^fxara = their per- 
sonal services. 

13. The fidelity of Cyrus to his friends and his scrupulous regard for his 
word having been descanted upon, the writer proceeds to notice his treatment 
of malefactors, and the honors and rewards which he bestowed upon the good. 

Ob fiey dr] ovde, nor in truth. The Attics use fjiey in fiey d-f], for ix-fjy. 

H. § 852. 13. TovT* refers to the clause commencing with ws rovs naKovp- 

yovs. KarayeXay, sc. aitTov, to deride him (by escaping punishment). 

Schneid. supplies ruu vofxuy. a(peide(rTaTa irdyTcoy irificapeiro, he of all 

(rulers) punished the most unsparingly. For the construction of ^ayreyy, cf. 
N. on Twr, § 12 supra. Crosby (§ 363. 7) constructs the gen. with acpeide- 
crara^ most unsparingly of all. ^y ISeTy, one could see. For the con- 
struction, cf. N. on ^y Ka^elyy 5. § 2. irapd, along =: as one passed along. 

See N. on 2. § 13. crrifBo/jLeyas odovs, public roads ; lit. trodden (i. e. much 

frequented) ways. iro^coy .... a-repov/xeyovs. Punishment by mutilation 

is still practised in many of the Eastern countries. Buttmann (cf. § 114. 
p. 301) would read a-repofxeyovs, being deprived of, being without, when the 
state or situation of the subject as here is to be expressed. Cf. N. on III. 2. 

Chap. IX] NOTES. 273 

§ 2. For the construction oi (rrepovixivovs with the gen., cf. S. §§ 184. K 2; 

200. 3 ; H. § 580. 1. iy&ero = it was in the power of. oivoi. Herm. 

remarks that "tto? and oiroi denote motion towards a place, but ttJ and oirri 
signify both motion towards the place, and rest in the place towards which 
the motion tends. Cf. Vig. p. 153. — — %x^^''''' '^ '''* 'J^poxo^poirj. Various in- 
terpretations have been given to this passage. The writer evidently designs 
to show the result of Cyrus's severity, in the freedom of the country from 
thieves and robbers. No better proof of this could be given, than the safety 
with which any one might travel, carrying with him whatever he pleased. 
This sense therefore is best met by the translation : hamng whatever micjlit he 
convenient for him to have. The only condition of safety is contained in ix-q- 
5ei/ oBiKovvTi, provided he did no wrong, 

14. 76 limits the assertion here made to rovs orya^ovs ds Tr6\ei.wp, 

fxivToi^ yet^ i. e. notwithstanding his severity towards malefactors, as just 
stated. irpcaTov fxej/ belongs in sense to ^pxovras iiroUi, The correspond- 
ing clause is introduced by eireira de /c. t. A., and the7i he also honored them 

with other rewards^ i.e. rewards of another sort. IlcicriSas. Cf. 1. § 11. 

Mucouy. See 6. § 7. avrSs, i. e. Cyrus in person. ovs — tovtovs. 

For the sake of emphasis or perspicuity, the proposition containing the rela- 
tive is often placed before the one containing the antecedent. Cf. S. § 172. 4. 

715 Kar€(rrpe<peTO x^P^^ ^= '^V^ X'^P'^^ ^^ izcuT^arTpicp^TO, Cf. N. on t> ^x^ 

(TTpdrevpLay 2. § 1. 

15. wffTs.Kpaiv^a^ai. For the construction, cf. S. § 223. 1 ; H. § TiO. 

a^iovv depends on <paiv£(r^ai. See N. on § 19. tovs ayabovs and rovs 

KaKovs are the subjects, and euSatjuox/eo-rctrous, and dovKovs^ the predicates of 
ehai. Render : so that he appeared to think it fit that the good (i. c. brave) 
shoidd be most fortunate^ &c. Some make tovs hyabovs the subject of (palv^- 
cbaiy and read for a^iovy the pass, a^iovabai. The translation would then be : 
so that the brave appeared to be most fortunate, and the cowards were deemed ft 
to be their slaves. Totyapovv. Cf. § 9 supra. acpxrouia, properly, free- 
dom fro7n envy^ is here taken for that which removes envious feelings from the 

mind of the possessor, viz. abundance. aOrw — Kvpov. For the sake cf 

emphasis, the pron. is sometimes put before the proper name to which it re- 
fers, when no ambiguity results from the inversion. Cf. § 31 infra; II. C. § 8. 

16. Efs diKaio(rvy7]y, as it respects justice. yh emphasizes this reference 

to the justice of Cyrus. With jx^v it also serves as a general connective. 

ci" Tis, See N. on 4. § 9. For ns — tovtovs, cf. N. on 4. § 8. (pavepbs 

ycyoiTo — ^ovXSfieuos. Cf. N. on SfyAos ?y avidjiicvos, 2. § 11. This construc- 
tion occurs so frequently as to require no further notice except in special 

cas3S. imdeiKj/vabai, to show himself (a just man). Krilger says this verb 

is placed absolutely in the sense of se ostentare, as in jElian, V. 11. IX. SO, 

"^aKTrjs *AvTty6vo) iTre^elKvvTO. irepl irauTSs. See N. on § 7 supra. 

iK Tov ^dlKov = ^dlKccs. Cf. Mt. § 5'74 ; S. § 135. 3. 


274 NOTES. [Book L 

17. Kai yhp ovv. Cf. §§ 8, 12. ahrt^^for him. Dat. Com. See K 

on 1. § 9. hi^x^LpiC^To is in the pass, voice, having ^\\a for its subject. 

Some make it in the middle, and treat avT(p as redundant. Kai^ and espe' 

daily. This force is given to Ka\ by the preceding ^AAa, somewhat like the 

Lat. quum — turn. (TTparevfjiaTi a\7)^iv(^, a true army, i. e. one which is 

brave, loyal, and under good discipline. Kriig. makes a\Tj^iv<^ = BiKalco^ and 
opposed to Ty i^airaTriTtKa) koI irKcoveKTiKcf. XPW^'^^^9 stipends, service- 
money. See N. on 4. § 12. iirXevaav, Between Greece and Asia Minor 

lay the JEggeum Mare, which the Greeks were obliged to sail over in order to 

enter the service of Cyrus. dAA' eVet, hut because. See Mt. § 618 ; Butt. 

§ 149. p. 430. rh Kara fxyjva Kepdos, their monthly pay 

18i oA\a )u^y, hut furthermore. ri avT(^ 'irpoffrd^avTi naXcos uTrr/per^- 

(Teiey, served him well, when he commanded any thing (to be done), or more 
briefly; faithfully executed his orders. Notice that the protasis (S. § 215) 

here takes the opt., and the apodosis, the indie. axdpia'ToVf unrewarded. 

Compound adjectives in os have only two endings. Cf. Butt. § GO. 4; S. 
§ 58. 2. KpdTia-Toi d-f}. See N. on § 12. vTrrjpcTaL iraurhs tpyov, as- 
sociates, aiders in every enterprise. Kvpcp iK^x^wau yevia^at, were said 

to he at the service of Cyrus. 

19. §€ continuative. el — opcfrj, as often as he saw. The opt. with et 

often expresses indefinite frequency. H. § '748. a. ^€iv6v, active, vigi- 
lant. olKovSfxov, a inanager of household affairs, a steward. The word is 

here used in a wider sense to designate the fiscal officer of a town or city, as a 

treasurer, qucestor. c/c tov diKaiov. See N. on § 16 (end). nara- 

aKevd^oyrd re tjs cipxoi X^P^^ ^^ KaTa(rKevd(oyTd re r^v X^P^^ ^^ dpxoi (see 
N. on 2. § 1), improving the country which he governed. t\ — koX connect 
izaTaffK^vd^ovTa and iroiovvra (S. § 226. N. 3), while the preceding koL serves 
to connect these clauses to Zeivhv Cvra oIkovSixov going before. H. § 855. a. 

'iTpo(r6'Bovs, revenue. ov^ha Uv ir^irore acpeiXero (sc. tV X'^P°''^)i ^^ 

would never deprive him (of his country = his possessions and official station). 
The indie, with tiv has an iterative signification (Butt. § 139. p. 366). The 
use of the imperf. and aor. is optional with the speaker, as he may wish to 
give the action a continued iterative sense, or one without the idea of contin- 
ued action. II. § '704. For the double accus., see S. § 184. 1 ; H. § 553. 
Ytdecas, gladly, cheerfully. 1 ■=: ravra a, of which ravra is to be con- 
structed with tKpvirrcy. Cf. S. § 184. 1 ; H. § 5i)3. ''i/cfcTTa, least — not 

at all. (pbovwv — Qipaivero. Mt. (§ 549. 5) says that (paivecr^ai in the sense 

of to seem, takes the infin., but in that of to be manifest, the participle. H. 

§ 802. rots (pav^pSos irAovToOo'fy is opposed to tSjv aTroKpvirTOficpcav. 

irtip^jx^vos. Supply €(paiueTo from the preceding member. rcay airoKpy- 

irrop-ivcav := eKeiucoy ot aireKptfTrroyTO, SC. ra XP^^P-^'^^- 

29. <piXovs 7€ ^'V o(Tovs iroL'i]crairo, furthermore, as many as he made 
friends. For the construction, cf. S. § 185; H. § 556 ; for the use of the 

Chap. IX.] NOTES. 275 

opt. cf. Mt. § 52T. 1; Butt. § 139. p. 3'72; S. § 217. 2. iKavoisy suitable, 

Jit. o Tt refers to rovrov understood (S. § 172. 4) limiting trvvepyocus, 

rvyx^yoi fiovXS/jLeyos Karepyd^ea'^aij he might perchance wish to accom- 
plish. See K on 1. § 2. ^epairevety depends on KpdrurTos, and has for 

its object Tovrovsy the omitted antecedent of ocrovs, Cf. N. on oxfs — toutovs, 
§ 14 supra. 

21* avrh TovTO ovirep avrhs eveKa <pi\(av ^ero de7a'^ai us <rvv€pyovs cxoi. 
The order is, avrh rovro us €Xoi crvyepyovs (tovtov) ovirep cre/ca avrhs ^€to 
deTa-^ai (piKwv. Render, (it was) for this very purpose, that he might have 
assistants, &c. avrh rovro (H. § 652. a) refers to ws cvj/epyovs exoiy and 
serves to qualify the clause commencing with nal aifrhs (cf. S. § 182), as show- 
ing the end or object of the assiduity of Cyrus in assisting friends. koI 

avTos, (that) he also. rovrov limits (Tvv^py6s, 

22. eTs 76 &v ayfjp, Cf. K on § 12. Kriig. thinks that &v should be re- 
jected from the text. 5za 7roAXc£, sc. atrta, for many (reasons). So Sturz. 

irdvrwv 5)? — SieStSov, he in particular (5^) of all men (see N". on irdvrwvy 

§ 13) was in the habit of distributing, rpoirovs^ i. e. disposition, manners, 

habits, tastes, etc. 

23. €ls ir6\€fjL0j/, intended for war, viz. swords, helmets, bucklers, &c. So 
els KaWcawia-fibv limits the other class of gifts to tunics, trowsers, golden rings, 

chains, &c. For els denoting aim or purpose, see N. on 8. § 23. vofjLi(oi 

is here followed by two accusatives. Cf. S. § 185 ; H. § 556. See also K on 
3. §6. ^ 

24. Toi fieydXa {= fieye^ei ^(apwj/) viKav rovs (piXovs ed iroiovvra, to which 
the article rh belongs, is the subject (S. § 153. 1) of eVri understood (S. § 150. 
N. 4), ovhev ^avfj.a(rrhv being the predicate. These words are found with a 
slight variation in Cyr. YIII. 2. § 13. rp cirifieXeia answers to the question 
*' wherein?" and lunits rh—irepieTvai (see Mt. § 400. 1; S. § 206. 2), that he 
should surpass his friends (S. § 198. 2; H. § 581. 2) in care for them. On 

the article in rcoy <piK<av, see N. on 5. § 16. ry Trpo^fxeTa-^ai x'^-P'-C^^^^o-h 

in his forwardness to oblige, a dative clause connected to rp iiri/jieKel^. 

ravra refers properly to rh irepiuvai, but in sense to t>} iirtfjceXeia and r^ Trpo- 
^vfjicTcr^ai x«P^C*^^^a'> and is therefore put in the plural. Cf. Mt. § 472. 6. 

25. eircfiire, used to send. S. § 211. N. 10. ^Ikovs is defined by 

Hesych., crdfivos Sjra ^xcov, ati earthen jar with handles. For the con- 
struction of o'lvov 7]fiid€€7s, cf. S. § 200. 3 ; of oivcp imrvxoh cf- S. § 202. 1, 

rovrov ovv (To\ eTre^if/e. So compliments at the present time are usually pre^ 

sented in the third person. Notice the change to the orat. recta. avv ots 

for (TV J/ rovrois oijs. Had the antecedent been supplied, reference would have 
been had to some particular persons mentioned before, whereas the idea with 
the omitted antecedent is, your best friends, without reference to any other 
distinction. H. § 810. a. 

26* &pra>u rjfJLicrca, halves of loaves of bread, or as we say, half-loaves of 

276 NOTES. [Book L 

bread. For the gen., cf. C. § 362. f ; H. § 559. c. This construction of the 
adjec. in the neut. plur. with the gen. of a masc. or fern, subst., is said by Mt. 

(§ 442. 4) to rarely happen. Cf. S. § 111. N. 4. Tovroiv. S. § 192. 1. 

yevcraff^ai^ to taste. The mid. with this sense is the more common use 

of 76t5a>, / cause to taste. 

27. e^r? — ihvvaTo. For this intermingling of the opt. and indie, cf. Mt. 
§ 529. 5 ; Rost, § 122. I. 7. i^vvaro is in the imperf. to correspond with c'/t?, 

which borrows its past time from iKe\^vc. Cf. S. § 212. 3. dia rh iroX- 

Xovs e'xefz' virrjperasy because he had many servants. Zlo. t)]v ^irifxix^iav. 

Some supply r)]v tup virripcrCov^ others read ttjv {kavrov) iirifMcXeiav. But 
Kriig. says ; " durum est utrumque. Ego interpreter, propter cur am qua ei 

ut principi prospiciebatur.^^ ws — 'dywcriy for us 6.yoiev. This change of 

mood gives beauty and vividness to the expression. See N. on 8. § 14. 

ireivwvT^s^ sc. iKe7voi referring to to?s 'iTnrois. 

28. Et dh d'fi TTore, if at any time^ whenever. fjLcWoieu o^^eo-^ar. A 

periphrastic future. S. § 89. 2; H. § 711. eCTrouSatoAoyeTro, he talked 

earnestly with them. us drjAoLTj ovs rijua^ in order to show whom he distin- 
guished. Rost (Gram. § 123. 3) says, *'the indie, stands in a relative propo- 
sition, when the verb of the principal proposition is a preterite, pres. or fut., 

and an event is expressed as definite and unconditional." e| uv h.Kovu = 

iK TovTuv b. aicovco. For the accus. after a/couo?, cf. S. § 192. 3 ; H. § 6'76. a. 
cLKovcD tr: aK't)Koa^ the idea being / am informed from what I have heard. H. 
§ 098. oLKovu has sometimes an aoristic sense. S. § 211. N. 5. Con- 
struct ovdeva with ovre *EW'f)vcav ovre ^ap^dpuy. 

29. TeKfi'ljpiov dh with icrl omitted, is a proposition by itself. Sometimes 

as here it is accompanied by T6ds. tovtov refers to what has been just 

mentioned, and T(^5e, to what is about to be related. C. § 513. 1 ; S. § 163. 1 ; 

H. § 6'79. Trapa fihv Kvpov k. r. A. Mt. (§ 630. /) says that yap in the 

new proposition after rcKfx'fjpiov Se, crj/jLeToy Se, etc., is sometimes wanting. 

See Butt. § 151. lY. 10. dovXov vvtos. Cf. 1. § 3. olros, i. e. Oron- 

tes. Hutchinson erroneously refers it to the king. %v (=: Ik^Ivov ttv) re- 
fers to the person to whom Orontes intrusted his letter to the king. Cf. 6. 

§ 3. traph. h% fia(n\4us k. r. A. Cf. 1. §§ 2, 13; 10. § 6; II. 1. § 6. 

Kol ovToi fxivToi^ and those too. Uv — rvyxdvetv^ they would obtain. 

Cf. Mt. § 598. 1 ; S. § 215. 5 ; H. § 783. b. The condition is implied in tyres 
aya^oL The infin. rvyxdyeiv depends on yo[xl(oyT€s denoting the cause. 

30. Kol rh — yev6fjL€vov, and that which took place^ is the subject, and fxiya 
rcKfji-fipioy^ the predicate of this proposition. Kpiyeiy, to select (with dis- 
crimination and judgment). 

31. 01 Trap* avrSy, those near him. Schneid. conjectures that it should 

read at vepl avrSy. vircp Kvpov, for Cyrus, i. e. in his behalf, on his side. 

^Xwv Koi rh (Trpdrevfia ttuv, with the whole army also. 

Chap. X.] NOTES. 277 


1. 'Eyraui^a 5?) is here a formula of transition from the eulogy to the nar- 
ration which is resumed from Chap. YIII. airorifjiv^Tai, Plut. (Artax. 

13) says, '' according to the law of the Persians, the right hand and head were 
cut off, and Artaxerxes, having ordered the head to be brought to him, took 

it by the hair, which was long and thick, and showed it to the fugitives." 

^la-TriiTT^i els rh Kvpcloy (rTpaToirsdoi/^ break (Histor. Pres.) into the camp of 
Cyrus, The singular is employed here, because ^acriK^vs is the more impor- 
tant subject. So Bpa<Ti^as fxcy ouv Kal rh irXrj^os €v^vs ^vca — iTpdireTO, Thuc. 

IV. 112. at fjL€v ficTo, ^Aptaiov, Kriig. finds the corresponding sentence 

in § 3, as though it had then been written ot Se '^EWrjves — a^Ttrax^eVres. 

But may it not be found rather in fiacriXevs Se koI at crvv avr^ ? iWayraz, 

stand their (/round. (rrparoiri^ov, i. e. the place where the camp-followers, 

baggage, and beasts of burden remained during the fight. els rlv (ttcl- 

^/xSi/y i. e. the place where they had encamped the preceding night. 

2. For the signification of /cal after rd re ^AAa iroWd, cf. N. on 9. § 17. 

tV ^(aKai'Ba, the Phoccean. Her name was Milto, but Cyrus called her 

Aspasia, because she resembled in wit and beauty the celebrated mistress of 

Pericles. r))v — KeyofjLei/rjv = iKeivrjv 5) iXeyero (S. § 225. 1) of which 

equivalent, iKeiyjjy is in apposition with iraWaKida. arocpt^y, wise, intelli- 
gent. So Ilesych. defines <To<p6s • <p,p6yi,uos, <ro(p^y and kolX^iv are predi- 

3* *H Se MiXtja-ia. '^ IIujus nomen ignoramus nisi forte 7; MLXrja-ia in pro- 

prium cessit." Weiske. Cf. Y. 2. § 29. Kriig. conjectures that 7*; vecarcpa 

is spurious. yvfjLV^], *' sine veste cxteriore." Poppo. irphs rwv 'EW-fj- 

vicv, Schneid. with Weiske makes this stand for irphs t5 rwv *E?<\7}y(aj/ ffrpctr 
r6iredov. Muret. and Steph. supply cra^ixoy. It is better, however, with 
Born., Kriig., and Kiihn., to make irphs ray *EX\'f}ycay ot =■ irphs tovtovs ruv 

*E\\i]y(ay 01. ayrirax^^J^Tes here stands for ayriTa^dfieyoi. ol 5e Kal 

avTuy, and some of them also, refer to the Greeks. fi^jy — ye, yet however. 

ravTTjy refers to 7; MiXTjaia. iyrds avrwy, loithin their ranks. Sturz 

and most of the German editors translate in castris eorum. Hutch, takes 
^.yrhs as absolute, and connects aWwv with x/j^juara, a construction too forced 

and unnatural to be admissible. irdyTa eccocray. The repetition shows the 

completeness of the act spoken of. 

d. ZUcrxov dW^Xwy, were distant from each other. H. § 580. 1. ol 

^EXKriyes refers to the main army of the Greeks. ol ^ueV, i. e. the Greeks. 

"Sic saepissime Graeci 6 ixky ad propius, 6 he ad remotius nomen referunt." 

Kriig. So the Latins sometimes employ hie — ille for ille — hie, ccs Trdv- 

Tos viKOivreSy as if they had conquered all (the enemy), whereas the right wing 

278 NOTES. [Book L 

of the king*s army was victorious. of 5^ refers to pacrtXevs^ sc. ot avy av- 

T$. Cos ffSry irdyres viKwvresy as if they were all conquerors^ whereas, 

their left wing was fleeing before the victorious Greeks. 

5. S* aZy on the other hand. iJKova-e TKra-acpipvovs, S. § 192. N. 3 ; 

H. § 582. 3. rb Ka^^ avrovs, sc. crpoiTevfjLa or fxepos. o'lxovrai is perf. 

in signification, were gone in pursuit. On the transition to the orat. recta, sec 

K. on 3. § 14. irXfiffiairaros. Cf. 8. § 4. It speaks highly for the disci- 

phne of the Greeks, that in the pursuit the original order of battle was not 

essentially disturbed. et irefiiroiev. In past actions ct, whether, takes the 

optat. without 6.v, Mt. § 526. ap'fj^ovrcs = /ioTj^a-oyres, to succor, to 

defend. H. § 789. d. 

6t €v TovTw. See N. on 5. § 15. koI ^aa-iXevs, the king also. This 

is connected in thought with the attack upon the king, which was then contem- 
plated by the Greeks. ws idSxei is to be taken with oma-^ev. crvffrpa' 

<p4vT€S, having closed up their ranks. Another reading is ffTpa<p4vr€s, having 

faced about. TrapcCKcvd^ovro wy ravrrj irpocLovTos /cal de^S/xevoi, tliey 

made preparations as if he (i. e. the king) woidd advance in this direction, and 
they would receive him ; or more freely, they made preparations to receive him 
expecting his approach in this direction where the Greeks were halting. 
For this use of ws, cf. K on 1. § 10 ; 4. § T ; oi ravrri, see S. § TG. 1. The 
common reading 'irpo(n6vrcs, is pronounced by Zeune to be without meaning. 
As instances in which koI connects participles having different cases, Kriig. 
cites Herod. VI. 126, 'OXv/xiricav Uvrwv /col vikoov, Thucyd. VIII. 106, atpiKo- 

IxevT}? TVS vcoiis Koi — oLKOixravres. ^ 5e TrapTJA^ev c|cy tov evwyvfiov KcparoSy 

ravTy koX aTT'rjyayev, but in the same direction in which he came, (viz.) without 
the left wing (of the Greeks. Cf. 8. § 23), he also led (his forces) back. For 
the adverbial pronouns y — Tavrr), cf. S. § 76. The Greeks supposed that the 
king would march directly against them, but instead of inclining to the river, 
as he must have done in that case, he took the same line of direction in which 

he first came to battle. Kara tovs "E?0<.7]uas, over against the Greeks, has 

the position and force of an adject, qualifying revs — avrofioX'fja'avTes (H. 
§ 534. a) used here as a subst., those who had deserted = the deserters. H. 
§ 786 ; S. § 158. 1. When the battle turned so decidedly in favor of Cyrus, as 
it did at first, great numbers probably deserted what appeared to be the hope- 
less fortunes of the king. Cf. K on II. 1. § 6. 

7. This section with the following one is parenthetic, being inserted in 
order to explain how it happened that Tissaphernes had joined the king. 

It commences therefore with yap illustrantis (see N. on 6. § 6). crWSqt), 

e7icounter. dL-fiXcure, he charged through. The light-armed troops of the 

Greeks were posted with the Paphlagonian horse (cf. 8. § 5) upon the extreme 
right of the army, i. e. upon the bank of the river. Hence in making his 
charge through the Grecian ranks, Tissaphernes, who led the left wing of the 
king's forces (8. § 9), wisely shunned an encounter with the heavy-armed 

Chap. X.] NOTES. 279 

commanded by Clearchus and the other Grecian generals (8. § 4), by keeping 

close along the stream {irapa rhv iroraixoy), avrovs, i. e. Tissaphernes and 

his band. Cf. N. on ot Be, § 4 supra. (ppSyi/aos, By a skilful separation 

of his lines, Episthenes not only lost none of his men in this desperate charge 
of Tissaphernes, but was even able to do mischief to the enemy. 

8. 6is }x€ov ix^v aTn]\\dy7j, inasmuch as being worsted he departed 
(from the contest). ovk avacrrpecpci. He had no disposition to encoun- 
ter again the Greeks. (rvprvyxdy^h f(^^^s in with. bfiov^ together^ in 

company^ is strengthened by S/;. H. § 851. 4. crvyra^dix^voi, in battle 


9t 'EttcI 5*, but when. The narration, interrupted by the digression re- 
specting Tissaphernes, is here resumed. /cara, opposite to. See N. on 

J 6, 7. ■• rh €v(ayvfjLov — K^pas, the left iving^ as the army was first drawn 

up (cf. 8. § 4), but now the right wing, in consequence of their having faced 

about to receive the king who was coming up in their rear. ^t?) Trpoad- 

yoiey. Cf. X. on 3. § lY. Trepnrrv^avTcs. The verb irrvarcoo signifies to 

fold up^ as a book, Luke 4 : 20 ; as clothes, Odyss. I. 439 ; to clasp the hands, 
(Edip. Col. 1611. Hence irepnrrv^avTes signifies having infolded ^= having 
surroimded; and avaTrrvircrciy rh Kepas, to draio or bend the wing back. The 
prevalent meaning of this verb thus compounded, is to unfold^ 1. e. to extend. 
But the movement here spoken of is so definitely explained in the next clause, 
that I cannot doubt that aya- has here the sense of bach Perhaps it might 
not be amiss to consider both meanings of the verb involved in the contem- 
plated movement, as the extension of the line would help to secure the object 

sought for. TTotTJa-aa-^ai virio-^ev rhu irorafioy, to place (S. § 209. 2 ; H. 

§ 689. 2) th^ river in their rear, i. e. to form the line of battle parallel with 
the river. These evolutions were designed to prevent the left wing of the 
Greeks from being surrounded, had such been the intention of the king.. But 
doubtless nothing was farther from his thought than hemming in a body of 
men so formidable as the Greeks. His intention evidently was to gain a po- 
sition between the Greeks and his capital, to which he could retreat in case 
the enemy were victorious. 

10. 'Ey w (sc. xp^^v)'i '^'h^^sf. See K. on 5. § 15. koI 5i^, even now, 

already. The sense is, that while the Greeks were deliberating in respect to a 
change of position, the king's movement was such as to render the contem- 
plated evolutioiis unnecessary, ■jrapajuefif/a.uews = irap^T^dov, having passed by 
the left wing (now the right wing) of the Greeks. So Kriiger and Poppo. 
But Hutch., and with him Zeune and Sturz, connect Trapajuetif/a^uews with t^ 
c^aAayya, and render : phalangis forma in eandem (quam prius habuit) per- 

mutata. ets rh avTh cx^Ata Karccrrjo'ev ivavriav r^v <pd\ayya wtnrep rh 

irpuTou iJ.axov[jLcvo5 cvvrj^i^drew up his army opposite (to the Greeks), in the 
same order in which he first came to battle, rh irpwrov. Cf. S. § 135. N. 2; 
H. § 654. a. For the construction of fiaxovfAcyos, cf. S- § 225. 5 ; H. § 789. d. 

280 NOTES. [Book! 

uuras refers to the king's forces. iroXh iTi irpo^vfiSTcpov^ with much 

greater ardor. They had learned the weakness of the enemy. 

!!• 5* av, but again. ovic id^xovTo, did not receive thejn, i.e. 

did not stand the attack of the Greeks, but turned the back and fled. 

iic irXcoyoSj sc. diacrT^iiaTos, from a longer distance, i. e. the distance be- 
tween them and the Greeks, when they began to flee, was greater than in 
the former engagement, which is equivalent to saying, the^/ jled sooner than 

12. uTTep, over, above. y{]\o<pos, an eminence, a hill. As there are no 

natural hills on the plain of Babylonia, the one here spoken of must have 
been an artificial mound or tumulus. Ainsworth says, that these mounds, 
topes, or tells, sometimes sepulchral, sometimes heaps of ruin, abound on this 

plain. €<^* o5, upon which. See N. on 2. § 16. avea-rpdcpTjarav, they 

{halted and) faced about. Poppo says, ^^ ava<rTp6(p€(r^ai et commorandi et se 
convertendi notionem habet." So also Weiske and Kriiger translate : conversi 
steterunt. It is difficult to sec how Schneider could render this passage, as he 

has, ad quern collem conversi in fugam profccti erant. ol a^(p\ fiacriXea. 

Cf. N. on 8. § 1. -TTefol fihu ovk qti, not infantry (lit. no longer on foot), 

i. e. the infantry decamped, and the cavalry alone occupied the hill, ir^^oi 
[xkv corresponds to rwv Se iTrwecoy in the next clause, and is in apposition with 
ol aa(p\ ^:x.(TL\ia. The gen. rcav iinricav depends on eVeTrA^o-^T? (from e/xTr/yUTrATj- 

jLii). S. § 200. 3 ; II. § 575. Weiske explains wo-re rh irotovfjLct/ov ix)) 

yiypdlxTK^iv^ ut Groici non possent intelligere quid pedites post collem agerent. 

eTTt iriXrrjs. Dindorf adds M ^v\ov, in place of which Hutch, suggests 

cttI ^vcttov. Render iirl mreXTi^s ayarerajxeuou, (with its wings) extended upon 
a spear. 

13* 'EttcI Se Kal, but when also. rhv K6<pov, i. e. the yfiXocpos spoken of 

in the preceding section. ^A\oi ^AAo,5-ej/, some in one direction and some 

in another, or as we say, helter-skelter. Sturz remarks that 'dWo^^v seems to 
be put here for &K\o^i. But Kriig. makes the places round about the hill 
the stand-point of observation, and paraphrases : dWoi ttAAo.a-ej/ ^ih^ov Aei- 

irovres rbv K6<pov. ii^iKovro 5* 6 \6<pos ru)v Imriojv. The gradual decrease 

of numbers on the hill until it was entirely deserted by the king's troops, is 
finely expressed in this and the following clause, " Verbum Keiirova-i initium 
fugge, i\pt\ovTo ulteriorem progressum, et tcAos finem indicat." Lion. 

14» OVK ave^i^^^ev iirl rhv \6cpov, did not attempt to march up (S. § 211 

N. 12; H. § 702) upon the hill. See N. on 2. § 22. virh aitThv imparts 

to (TT'fia'as the pregnant sense, having marched his army under it (i. e. to the 

foot of it) and having halted. Cf. 11. § 618. a; also N. on 1. § 3. i 

Z6vTas Ttt uTTep Tov \6(pov, having looked down upon the things beyond the hill 
= having taken a view from the summit of the hill of what was going on be- 
yond. Ti iffriv, sc. ravra. Cf Mt. § 488. 7. 

15. Kai, and so. avk Kpdros. Cf. N. on 8. § 1. 2xe52>j^ 5' ^tc 


Chap. X.] NOTES. 281 

ravra, ^y koI i]\io5 idvero^ and the sun also was nearly setting when these 
things took place. Cf. Mt. § G20. a. 

16. ^efiGj/oL ra oirXa aysiravovro. ETutcli. translates : sub armis conguiescc- 
hant (cf. Cges. Bel. Civ. I. 41), rested under arms. This is cTidently the sense, 
as the army halted only for a few moments, while the leaders consulted in 

respect to the place of encampment for the night. irap^ir} is adopted, on 

the authority of Schneid., by Dind., Born., and Kriig., for the common reading 
irap/ia. But inasmuch as irapiivai corresponds with ircixiroi (II. 1. § 2) better 
than TrapcTyai^ Poppo thinks that if the vulgar reading is to be changed (which 
he deems unnecessary, the indie, and opt. being frequently intermixed, Mt. 

§ 529. 5 ; Rost, § 122. I. V), it should be iraploi. T/Secay avroy re^uTjKSra 

= ydea-av on avrhs iTe^yfjKei, For the prolepsis, see N. on 2. § 21. Cf. 

also Mt. § 548; H. § 799. 3 ; C. § 616. cV/ca^oy, theij were conjecturing, 

'5 KaTOL\7]^6piev6v TL TTpo^XfiXaKivaiy or that he had gone forward to take 

possession of something , i. e. some post or fortress. 

1T« Kol answers to a/xa ^ueV, § 16. avroi, they themselves^ in contradis- 
tinction from Cyrus who has just been spoken of. abrov. Cf. K on 3. 

§ 11. avTo7s limits eSofey, but belongs also to the omitted subject of aTrtt- 

vai (see N. on Xa^Svra^ 2. § 1, and on II. 1. § 2), it seemed best that they them- 
selves shoidd go away to the camp, instead of sending for the baggage. Kriig. 

edits avTovs. dSpTTTjcrTov^ supper time. So Hesych. defines dSpirKTros (as 

it is sometimes written), &pa rod dciTryov. 

18. 6.KK(av XPW^TCOP. Cf. N. on 5. § 5. e'l ri = o t/, whatever. Cf. 

N. on 4. § 9. ficcrras is put without the article for fi^a-ras ova-as. kg.1 

ravras^ even these. The pron. is employed here, because ras afxa^as to which 
it refers, is separated by intermediate clauses from di'fjpiracray upon which it 
depends. Cf. S. § 163. N. 3. 

19. &(rT€ — ?i(rav. See N. on 1. § 8. avapiffroi^ without dinner. 

irpXv yap brj KaraKvcrai rh arpdr^vixa -irphs upia-Toy, for before the army halted 
for dinner. 

282 NOTES, [Book n. 

BOOK 11. 


!• *^ui€p ovu, hpw then^ hy what means. The exordium of most of the 
following books contains a similar recapitulation of preceding events, ovv 

here denotes external sequence. See N. on I. 1. § 2. Tj^poicr^rj Kvpca rh 

*E\\r)viKhv = Kvpos ij^potcre rh 'EWrjuiKSu. SirSrey when, Cf. S. § 76. 

avSBcp = avaSd(T€L Cf. N. on am^aiuciy I. 1. § 2. The descent to the 

sea-coast is called (Y. 5. § 4) Kard^aa-is, Cf. 6. § 22. iX^ovres = aveA- 

^ovres. iKoiiJ.^^Tj(ray := r^y yvKra Bi€yivovTO, I. 10. § 19. ol6fjL€voi ra 

iravra viKav (H. § 698), thinking that they were victorious in the whole (bat- 
tle), i. e. had gained a complete victory. See I. 10. § 4. For the article 
with TTaj/ra, see H. § 637; S. § 170. K 3; for the accus. after viKav^ see H. 
§ 544. a; S. § 181. *'In consequence," says Mt. (§ 409. 3), "of the phrase 
fj.dxca'^ai fJLaxvy-, the place of the conquest, or the nature of the combat, is put 
in the accusative with the intransitive yiKav, to conquer, Cf. S. § 181. N. 2. 
T9? ^fjLirpoffS^ey, Cf. S. § 169. 1 ; H. § 492. f. 

2» "A^a Be ry w^P^y ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ '^^^ ^<^^> ^^ day-hreah, Cf. IST. on I. 7. § 2. 

h% corresponds to ftey in § 1. cure — ovr^ neither — nor, crifxayovyra^ 

fut. part, of (Tfiiiaivco. For its construction, see S. § 225. 5 ; H. § 789. d. 

*'E5o|6j/ ovy avro7s. See N. on I. 2. § 1.. avaK^vacafiiyois and i^oirXt- 

arafieyots belonging to the omitted subject irpoUyai^ are put in the dat, by at- 
traction (C. § 614. 77; K. § 172. 3. R. 2) with avroTs, to which the subject of 
the infin. refers. This kind of attraction is sometimes omitted, as in Eerigi 

.... '/]K€iy irap'fiyyeiXe Ka^Syra. rovs tcy^pas, I. 2. § 1. & elxoy =^ ravra 

t elxoy- €(as Kvpep cviiixi^ciayy until they should join with Cyrus, Mt. 

(§ 522. 1) says that if the principal action is past, eW after preterites takes 
the opt. without 6.y, 

3. *'H57j 5e eV 6p}i^ tjyrccy = hut just as they were ready to march; lit. but 
when they were in motion (to depart). For the omission of the subject of 

oVtwv, cf N. on I. 2. § 17. af^* 7}\l(a ayicxovyri, at sunrise. Tev^pa- 

vias, Kiepert conjectures Teuthrania to have been in -^olis over against Les- 
bos. 76701/cbs airh Aafxapdrov^ being (a descendant) of Damaratus. For the 

time oiy^yovhis (2 perf part. oiyiyvo}xai\ cf. S. § 211. 6. TKovs. Cf. S. 

§ 46. 2. 6 Tafiib (gen. S. § 45. 8), tlie son of Tamos. S. § 168. 2 (end) ; 

Chap. L] NOTES. 283 

H. § 509. i3; K. § 154. R. 2. rc^vTjKev, was dead; properly, is dead 

(S. § 133. O), being the indicat. of the orat. rect. See Ns. on I. 3. § 14; 6. 
§ Y. The more unimportant portions of the message have the opt. (ir^cpevydis 

— ei'r?, \eyoi) of the indirect quotation. Cf. Goodwin, § '70. R. 1. irecp^v 

yus c'tT) is here followed by eV instead of ets, to denote a state of rest following 
the action of the verb. H. § 618. a; S. § 235. Some construct the preposi- 
tion here with e'tTj considered apart from irecpcvyctis. bjpixwvTo, The pre- 
ceding day's march was not completed in consequence of the battle, and hence 

the verb is put in the imperf. ry irporepalay sc. Tjfiepc^. Aeyor, sc. 

*ApLa73s. ry Se 6.XX7] (sc. -^^epoj borrowed from the preceding clause) ; lit. 

the other day than that which was present = the next day, airUvai — cttI 

^Icavias^ he loouldgo away toward (lit. upon) Ionia ■=. he would set out for Ionia. 
</>at77, that he declared^ affirmed^ a stronger expression than xiyoi. 

4* TaGra aKovcayreSy wheii they heard these things. Cf. S. § 225. 2 ; H. 

§ '788. a. ^ap€(as ipepoy. ' Cf. N. on I. 3. § 3. 'AAA* &(p£\€ fily Kv- 

pos (tju, that Cyrus were alive. iocpcXov^ 2 aor. of ocpclXw^ always expresses 
a ivishj and with the infin. is frequently preceded by the particles ws, d ydp^ 
er^6 or a^e. See Butt. § 150. p. 442; II. § '721. b; S. §§ 133. 0; 216. 

K 3. ^jueTy ys = whatever may be the result of the engagement in other 

parts of the field, we at least^ &c. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 9 (end). ct ix)} vjjl€7s 

ij\^eT€, ciropcvofxe^a^ unless you had come we should (now) he on our march. 
Notice the force of the aor. and the imperf. See Goodwin, § 49. 2. For the 
use of the indie, in the protasis, and with Uv in the apodosis, when both are 

past actions, cf. Butt. § 139. 9. 4; S. § 215. 2 ; H. § '746. 2. tIv ^aa-i- 

\€iou Ka^ie7y avrou^ that we ivill place (lit. cause to sit, S. § 133, ko^l^w) him 
as king. For the construction, cf. S. § 185; for the form of Ka^ieTu, cf. S. 

§ 109. N. 1 ; H. § 376 ; K. § 83. rcoy yap r^u [J-oixW VL^divrcov koX rh &p' 

X^iy ia-Ti, for it is the right of those who gain the battle to ride also ; or more 
briefly, the right to govern belongs to the conquerors. For the construction of 
Twv — vtKd)VT(av, cf. S. § 190; H. § 572. c; K. § 158. 3. a; oi iidxnv^ see K 
on § 1 supra. 

5* rovs ayyeXovSy i. e. Procles and Glus. — — avrhs 6 Mevcoy, Mown him- 
self i. e. of his own accord. So Sturz, "swa sponte.^^ ifiovKero, sc. levai. 

leVos. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 10. 

6. irepieiJLcve. The Eton MS. has irepicfjL^ivc, which Born, follows, but Belf. 
well remarks, ** the end of the expectation is not yet seen, as it would be in 

Trept/^etj/e. iiropi^ero cTrov, procured for themselves provisions. Cf. S. 

§ 209. 2 ; H. § 689. 2. KSirrovr^s takes the gender implied in (rTpdTevjj.a 

with which it agrees (S. § 157. 3. b ; H. § 523 ; C. § 453 ; K. § 147. a), and 
is put in the plural because its noun is a collective one. Cf S. § 157. 3 ; H. 
§ 514. a. ^vXois 5* ixP^^'^^ — '^^^s re oCarro7s, and they used both the ar- 
rows for wood. See N. on in(rTOTO(.ToiSy I. 4. § 15. re — koX connect oi(rro7s 
with To7s yippois. (paKayyos is here used of an army non instructus. — 

284: NOTES. [Book 11. 

Kriig. makes ov = eVeTtre ou. For the relative adverb oj, of. S. § YG. 

TjydyKa^oy, Cf. N. on ^cay, I. 1. § G. €/ci3(iAAe:r, sc. €fc rcDy x^'-P^^' ^^ 

Born. " Sed cum," says Kriiger, '' sagittas non manibus tcnerent, cogitare 
mallem e/c twj/ (paper pwy.''^ When the Greeks charged the left wing of the 
king's army, it would appear that many came over from the enemy without 
striking a blow. These deserters, being compelled to throw down their weap- 
ons in order that they might be deprived of the power to do harm, passed into 
the rear of the Greek army, where they were found and retaken by the king, 
v/hen he approached the Greeks, a;s eSJ/cei CTria^ey (I. 10. § G). The fact that 
these deserters were reunited to the king's army, is enough to show the incor- 
rectness of interpreting iK^dW^ty, to pull out^ sc. from the ground. (^epe- 

c^oLi. The infinit. depends on ^ioray with the notion of possibility, were empty 
so that they could be carried away for fuel. It refers in sense also to TrcArccr, 

the shields being without owners. '^pwoi, empty^ their contents having 

been plundered by the king's forces. Cf. I. 10. § 18. Some with less reason 
refer it to the waggons, whose draught animals had just been slaughtered for 

T. irX-fi^ovcray ay opdy. Cf. N. on I. 8. § 1. irapb. Pa<n\eojs. See N. 

on I. 2. § 5. aWoi in reference to Phalinus who was a Greek. The cor- 
respondence of clauses is marked by yuey — 5e. iyri/jLcos ix^ay, Cf. N. on I. 

1. § 5. TTpocF^'KOi^tTOy he pretended^ claimed to himself. The implication 

is, that he was far less skilled in the science of military affairs than he claimed 

to be. For the construction of eVicTTiii/twz/ — rcDy, cf. S. § 187; II. § 584. c. 

a/x<^2 ■=! 'pertaining to, Ta|6is, tactics^ i. e. the arrangement of troops 

in the various orders of battle. oirXo/jLax^iay, exercise of arms^ especially, 

as the etymology of the word shows, of those weapons used by heavy-armed 

8. €7rei vikC)v rvyxdvei^ since he happens to he victor (see N. on I. 1. § 2) 

= since by the fortune of war he is victorious. bvpas. Cf. N. on I. 9. 

§ 3. eupLCKea-^at (i. e. irGipaa^at €vpi(ric€(r^ai. So Kriiger) is here in the 

mid. voice with the signification, to find for one's self^^ to acquire^ obtain^ and 
is used transitively (S. § 209. 3 ; H. § 689. 2), having for its object 'dy n (= 
o Ti, whatever) dvycoyraL aya^Sy, Cf. S. § 119 ; H. § 493. d. dvycoyrai, sc. 
evpla-Kea-^ai, borrowed from the preceding clause. Sturz supplies irpdrrciy, 
and renders, efficere possint, 

9» ^api(t)s ixkv iJKovaraVi heard with indignation^ lit. heavily, i, e. with de- 
pressed spirits. oiJLws 5c, but nevertheless although equally indignant with 

the rest. Totroi/Toy, so much = this only, on ou ruy yiK<»>yTo:y €\'7j r^ 

oTTKa irapaMoyai, ^^ that it was not for conquerors to surrender their arms. 
Felton. For the construction of rwy yiKcvyrccy, cf. N. on § 4 supra. See also 

S. § 125. 1; II. § 786. icdWiarSy re Ka\ ixpiffroy, A common formula 

signifying, according to the connection in which it stands, what is good, honor- 
able, becoming, ft, &c. Here it denotes that which is conducive to the general 

Chap. L] NOTES. 035 

interests of the army. " KaXhs koI aya^hs proprie dicitur sic, ut aya^hs ad 
animi virtutem et probitatem pertineat, naXos autem ad action es cxtemas, 
etiam ad generis nobilitatem, divitias, valetudinem, ct alia talia referatur." 
Sturz. TO. Upa i^-ppTjfiei/a, the entrails which had been tahcn out of the vic- 
tim. This sentence is parenthetic, and contains the secondary parenthesis 
fuX€ yap bv6{j.€vos, for he happened to he sacrificing. 
10. TTpcalBvraTos coy. It is probable that Sophsenetus was absent from this 
conference, since he is said (V. 3. § 1 ; YI. 5. § 13) to be the oldest of the 

generals. irpSa-^cv — ff, be/ore — ihat^ sooner — than. alrci. Cf. /ce- 

Aeuci TrapadSyras ra 'otrXay § 8 supra. ri dc7 avrhu alr€7y ; = ov Set avrhy 

alreTy, why is it necessary for him to ask for them. For the construction of 

ri, cf. S. § 182; II. § 552. a. Koi ov (Kriig. aA\' ov) Xa^^ly iX^Syra, and 

not rather to come and take them (by force) ; lit. having come to ialce them, 

AajSeTy is opposed to alTety. Trdcas, by having persuaded us to give them 

up. S. § 225. 3; H. § 789. b ; K. § 1T4. 1. ri Utrrai roTs <rrpaTi(Craii, 

what (reward) the soldiers shall have in return for their arms. See N. on I. 7. 

§ 8. cay avTo) ravra xapto-wrTC/, if they gratify him in these things^ i. c. 

if they give up their arms at his demand. 

11. TTjs o.pxi'is denotes the aim or purpose of ayri'^ToiuTaL, for who strives 
for (lit. makes for) the sovereignty against hitn. See N. on lY. Y. § 12. Con- 
struct auT6? with ayrnroi€7rai. vfxas eavrov elyai, that you are his^ i. c. his 

servants, property. iyr6s, within, i. c. inclosed by. oa-oy ovZ" d Trcpe- 

Xoi vfuy Bvyaia^* ay CLTroKTuyaty mcn^e than you coxdd hill, if he should even 
deliver them up to you (to be killed) ; literally, as many as you could not kill, 
&c. dvydfjieyos is connected by Kal to extmy. 

12. GeoTTOjUTTos. Some MSS. have Zeyo^wy^ which Hutch, and Krlig. have 
followed, but Q€6Trojnro5 has the suffrage of the most judicious critics in its 
favor, and is best sustained by manuscript authority. ah is slightly em- 
phatic, as even you. d fi'fj, if not, except. aper-f}, valor. • Con- 
struct ciy with xP'OO'^^h ^^^ ^^so the next ty with ar^pri^riyai, Cf. N. on I. 3. 

§19. (TTcpti^riyai. Supply ol6/jL€^a from the preceding clause. M^ 

ovy oXov, think not then. For the construction, cf. S. § 218. 2. r,^a5 un- 
derstood is the subject of irapaBdocreiy. cvy tovtois (sc. ottAo/s), i. e. having 

these. See § 20 infra. irepl ruy vjiercpcoy aya^coy fiaxovfjie^af i. e. so far 

from giving up what we possess, it is our intention to acquire by conquest all 
your possessions. 

13. <piKQcr6<po3, i. e. says Krliger, a^oX^trxovyri h 7) aA^^cra iX^yx^i- Reiske, 
cited by Born., appends to <piKo(Tc<po3 : quia scepius rh aya^hy crcpahat et tV 

ap^T-fiy. HotKas, you resemble, 2 perf. of c'ikq), with the signification of the 

pres. Cf. S. § 211. N. G; II. § 712; K. § 152. 4. R. 1. Sj y^aylcTKe, 

young man. Phavorinus defines yeaylcKos • airh Ircov ttKOffi • rpicoy cus iruy 
rpidKoyra reffo-dpcoy, •/) rearcrapdKoyTa ky6s, Hippocrates assigns it to the fouith 
t)laQe in his seven ages, and extends it to the thirty-seventh year. Xenophon 

286 NOTES. [Book H. 

was upwards of forty years old at this time, yet if MS. evidence would permit 
the substitution of his name instead of QeSiropiTros, his age would be no valid 
objection, since his personal appearance, described by Laertius, cuELdea-Taros 
els v7rep^o\'fjj/, beautiful to an e7ni7ient degree^ might lead Phalinus to suppose 
him younger than he really was. Sturz regards veavicrKs in this place as an 
ironical or contemptuous epithet =z rash., unskilful. So Hesych. defines vea- 

vicTKos • vi]Trios. 'i(T^i — lav, know that you are. Cf. N. on I. 10. § 16. 

ayS-qros^ literally, without wider standing —foolish^ simple. But lest this 
should seem to make Phalinus utter an offensive sentiment, which would not 
promote the object of his mission, it may be remarked, that av67}T05, jj.(ap6s, 
etc., were by no means as harsh epithets with the Greeks as they are with us. 
el oUi, if you think. Attic 2 sing, of otofjLaiy olfxai. 

14. olWovs is the subject of \eyetv. ecpacav^ they say. Xenophon 

speaks here and elsewhere, as though he derived his information from others. 
It is highly probable, however, that he was present at this interview with the 

king's embassadors. viroixaXaKi^oixevovs^ gradually softening^ i. e. giving 

way to their fears. ws koX — /cat, as — so also. The first im\ of this for- 
mula is pleonastic, so far as its translation into English is concerned (cf. Mt. 
§ 620. h) ; the latter koX — ovtq) (see Mt. § 620. d. 2). Some prefer to take 
0)5 in its declarative use (H. § 8Y5. d), that they both were — a7id might become. 

TToAAoG &^iot, very useftd. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 12. e'ire — elr, whether 

— or. ^AAo Ti, i7i something else than the expedition into Egypt referred 

to in the next clause. For the construction, cf. S. § 182. beKoi. Krlig. 

edits ^ovXerai^ but apart from the MS. authority in favor of ^eXot, as denoting 
purpose or desig7i^ its meaning is better suited to this passage than that of jSou- 
Xerai^ which is merely expressive of wish or inclinatioii. Cf. Butt. Lexil. No. 

35. eV A'tyvirrov. Cf. 6. § 13. (rvyKara<TTpe\paivT^ tiu aurw, they 

woidd assist hbn i7i subjugating it, i. e. Egypt. Cf. N. on 1. 5. § 7 (end). 

15. airoKeKptfxej/oi elev has a middle signification. Cf. Mt. § 493. d; Butt. 

§ 136. 3. ^XAos ^KXa Aeyet, one says 07ie thing ^ a7iother^ another. Ae^et 

takes its number from dxXos, which is in partative apposition with ouroiy the 
proper subject of the verb. Cf. Mt. § 302. a. Obs. Clearchus addressed his 
inquiry to his fellow-commanders, but Phalinus apparently having become 
somewhat impatient and out of humor with them, does not wait for their an- 
swer, but breaking in (viroXa{i(»)v) asks Clearchus to deliver his sentiments. 

elire ri XeyeiSy tell (us) what you have to say = declare your opinion in 

reference lo this matter. 

16. dtr/jLevos = atriiei/cos. Cf. Butt. § 123. 6. at ^tAAot, i. e. those who 

were present at the conference. Supply 'dcr/xeyoi ecjopdicacn from the preceding 

claus3. /col 7]iJLe7sj sc. "EXXrjves ecr^ev. TOffovroi — oa-ovs, as many as 

=^ all whom. Cf. S. § 76. 1. roiovrots de vi/res irpdyiiacriy being in szich 

difficulties. a-vjjL^ovXevSjjie^d coi, we ask your advice. In the act. voice, 

this verb signifies to give advice^ in the mid., to consult or ask advice. The 

Chap. L] NOTES. 287 

Latins express this difference by consulere alicui^ and consvJere aliquem. > 

ir€p\ oJv = irepl rovray a. 

IT. irphs ^ectiv. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 6. cvfi^ov\ev(roy. Crosby (Gram. 

§ 6 70. N. 2) says: " the momentary character of the aor. is peculiarly favora- 
ble to vivacity, energy, and earnestness of expression." KaKKKxrov koX 

apKTTov. Cf. N. § 9 supra. avaXeySfxcvov, This reading is adopted by 

Hutch., Dind., Pop., and Kriig., instead of av XeyojjLeyou, which Weiske and 
some others prefer. Morus thinks it should read xp^^°^ airavra \€y6^€vov, to 
which conjecture, Bornemann says, the more frequently he considers the pas- 
sage the more he is disposed to incline. As it respects the grammatical con- 
struction, it may be classed with the examples which Mt. (§ 564) calls nom. 
absolute, but which Butt. (§ 145. N. 6) regards as accus. absolute, and may 
here be resolved by ore or iireid^j with the finite verb. Kender ds frhv iTveira 
Xp6vov ava\€y6fA€vou, when in after time it shall be repeated. Cf. Mt. § 565; 

S. §186. N. 2. (Tvix^ovX^vofxivois cvvc^ovXcva-ev. Notice the distinction 

between the active and middle, referred to in the preceding section. 

18. ravra vw'fjyeTO is thus paraphrased by Krliger, ^^ his dictis eunifurtim 
ad suas rationes traducere conabatur. The mind of Clearchus was made up 
as to the demand of the king, and yet he wisely thought it advantageous to 
draw from the emissary advice contrary to the terms of his commission. He 
therefore adjured him as a Greek to give such counsel, as would be honorable 

and befitting the present emergency. inro(rTpe\f/asy lit. having turned 

away = having eluded (the snare set for him). irapa tV d6^au aurou, 

contrary to his (Clearchus's) expectation. 

19. Ilia ris = a single one. c-co^rjvai. depends on iKiridccu, hopes (i. e. 

chances, probabilities) of being saved. As we would say : one chance in ten 

thousand of being saved. < jur? irttpaZiZovoLi = jit^ Trapa^ovvai, Cf. S. § 201. 

N. 1 ; H. § 699. firi^efiia — iXirisj not even one hope, opposed to rcov [xv- 

picav iXTridcop fxia of the preceding member. crdoCea-^ai, to save yourselves. 

Cf. S. § 209. 2 ; H. § 688. 1 ; K. § 149. 2. oVt? SuyaroV, in whatever way 


20. 'AAAa ravra juej/ 5); crv \4yei5 = well then^ this is your advice. Butt. 
(§ 149. p. 434) says that ctAAot stands in an abrupt manner at the beginning of 
paragraphs, having somewhat the sense of our familiar expressions, well^ in- 
deed^ truly, irXdovos — ^|fO(, loorth more = of more value. Cf. N. on I. 3. 

§ 12. Leonidas is said by Diod. to have given this truly Laconic answer to 

Xerxes at Thermopylae. <^iAot. The copula is ehai the subject of which 

is omitted. La such a construction, the noun in the predicate agrees in case 
with the subject of the verb on which the infin. depends. S. § 224 ; H. 
%116. 2; K. §1'72. 3. 

21. Phalinus now begins to change his tone. At first the Greeks are to 
surrender their arms, and go as suppliants to the gates of the king (cf. § 8), 
but finding them resolute, he proposes, as the only condition on which peace 

288 NOTES. [Book II, 

will be granted them by the king, that they ehall neither advance nor retreat, 

but stay where they are. avrov. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 11. irepl tovtov, 

i. e. this mandate of the king. us ttoXcixov vvrosy that war is determined 

upon by you. For the construction, cf. S. § 22G. a; K. § IVZ. 3. R. 2. The 
clause is the object of atrayyeXco. 

22. ical v,ix7y .... ^aatK^7, the same things seem good to its also, which \ 
(seem good) to the king. This repetition of Koi in the sense of also, is quite 
common in a compound sentence. Cf. H. § 85G. b. 

23* ov dL€a''i]fjLape, he gave no intimation. This dialogue between Clearchus 
and Phalinus is very amusing. The haughty message which the envoy first 
delivered, the lowering of his terms, when he found that the Greeks would not 
deliver up their arms, and finally his fruitless efforts to obtain from Clearchus 
any intimation of his future design, arc all sketched with life and spirit. We 
can readily conceive how crest-fallen the ambassador must have taken his 


1« ol cvu avTcv, i. e. his colleagues in the embassy. jSeArtouj = higher 

in rank and influence, ovs ouk "hi/ avaax^cr^oLL avrov ^acriMvovros, tcho 

would not hear Ids being king, or that he should he king. For the construc- 
tion of ovs — avacx^cf^oLi, cf. Mt. § 538 ; 'of ayacrx^o'^cc.L avrov, S. § 192. 1 ; C. 
§ S16. (; II. § 576; K. § 158. 5. b. ayex^c^ai tlvos, to hear any thing, as 
opposed to rjrraa-^ai rivos, to siiccwnh to any thing, is placed by Mt. (§ 358) 
under the head of *' verbs signifying to surpass, or to be inferior to, followed 

by the genitive." ■^'Stj, forthwith. tyis vvicrhs = ravrrjs r'7]s vvktSs^ 

this very night. aiciivaL has avrhs {= eavrou, cf. S. § 222. 3. c; 11. 

§ 775. b) for its subject, that he himself will go away. 

2t 6iro7op — Tt — ri, whatever. ouSe tovtois clTre, he did not tell to 

them. He concealed his design from them as well as from Phalinus. 

3* fjS?) riXiov ZvvovTos^ the sun now going down = it being now sunset. 

'Ejuoi — ^vofjLcpaj Uvai, as I was sacrificing in order to go. The infinitive here 
marks the end or purpose of the action expressed by bvoix4v(^, Cf. Butt. 
§ 140. 3; S. § 222. 5 ; K. § 171. 2. Prof. Felton renders: sacrificing to 
know whether or not to march. It was customary to perform a sacrifice for 
this purpose, before undertaking any military expedition. Kriiger and Poppo, 
after Schaefer, construe Uvai with iyiyv^ro ra Upa, Supply Kokh in qvk 

iyiyj/ero, from irciru Ka\h r,ixLU rh Upa ^v at the end of the section. ^hc6' 

Tcoy, rightly = with good reason. ovk iylyvero. Repeat ica\a ra Upd. 

tiu dvvalfjL€^a. For the optative, cf. S. § 215. 1 ; II. § 730; K. § 163. 

ix€u d^ avTov ye, certainly here at least, oT6p tc. Cf. N. on I. 3. 

§ 17. — Uvai, Repeat ijj.ol ^vofievcp* 

Chap. II.] NOTES. 289 

4* denrj/e7yy sc. xph from the preceding clause. rls. See N. on I. 3. 

§ 12. iireidav Se cnjfx-fivr} r$ Kepari, ''''when the signal shall he given with 

the trumpet.'''' Felton. (Trjfj.'fjj/r], sc. 6 (TaXiriyKr^s. See N. on I. 2. § 17. 

u)S avairavear^ai^ as if to retire to rest. This was done in order to deceive the 

enemy, should any be lurking about in the vicinity. dyari^-eer^-e, sc. ra 

CKevT]^ drawn from o'vo'/ceva^ecr^-e. iirl Zh t$ rpirca^ sc. crj/j-ciw, at the 

third (signal). irphs rod Trora/jLov^ next to {lit. fro7n) the river. ra 5e 

oTrXa = Tous dh oirXiras. Cf. K on I. 7. § 10. e|a;, i. e. outside of the 

baggage, which would thus be covered, on the one side by the river, and on 
the other by the heavy-armed men. 

5« T^ Koiirhj/ {z=z airh rod vvv. Phav.), from this time^ henceforth. The 
neut. accus. of adjecRves is often employed for the adverbial accus. Cf. Butt. 

§ 150. p. 441; C. § 441. ^pX^^t '^•^' ^^ok the chief command. ovx 

iXojjLsvoi, i. e. not formally electing him. aW' dpcavres, but (they obeyed 

him) because they saiv^ &c. icfypouei is put in the imperf because the prin- 
cipal verb itrei^oyTo refers to past time. H. § 735. a. Je?. sc. (l)pove7u. 

6« 'Api^/xhs §€ T7]5 odovj '''' mensiira itineris.'''' Sturz. %v ^\bov^ which 

they went. For the construction, cf. S. § 181. 2 ; H. § 544. a. --t?]s fia- 

Xr}s, i. e. to the place of the fight. So airh rfys fiaxv^i iii the latter part of the 

section. Cf. Y. 5. § 4. o-ra^fxol Tpe?s koI k. t. A Only 84 stations and 

517 parasangs are enumerated in the preceding book. Zeune conjectures that 
9 stations, 18 parasangs, made by the Greeks from Ephesus to Sardis, pre- 
vious to their junction with Cyrus, are here included. rpiaKoffioi. So 

Zeune, and after him, Dind., Born., Pop., and Krug., read instead of rpia-xi- 
Afot, which is irreconcilable with the statement of Plutarch, who makes Cunaxa 
500 stadia from Babylon. 

8. Kara rh 7rapr)yy€\uL^va. Cf. § 4 supra. irptarov (rra^/xSy. Cf. 1. 

§ 3. ^ejjLEVoi, sc. ol '^E\\v,j/es. For the construction, cf. N. on^j^^voiy 

I. 8. § 27. ^e/xeyoi ra oTrXa. Cf. N. on I. 5. § 14. ^^re — re, not — and. 

When the second clause of this formula has its own verb, its meaning is affir- 
mative, otherwise it is negative. Cf. Mt. § 609 ; S. § 230. 2. TrpofT^fMO- 

crcLv^ swore in addition. Arissus and his party laid themselves under an addi- 
tional obligation to act as faithful guides. 

9. ccpilcLvres ravpou k. t. A. The custom of sanctioning leagues, treaties, 
etc., with the blood of victims, was universal among the nations of antiquity. 
A notable instance is found in Gen. 15 : 18, where God made a covenant with 
Abraham. Cf. also Exod. 24 : 3-8. In this compact between the Greeks 
and Persians, the sacrifice of the wolf seems to have been peculiar to the lat- 
ter, while the other three composed the suovetaurilia of the Romans. er s 

dcTTTiSa, into (i. e. over) a shield. Corresponding to the boss of the shield on 
one side was a cavity on the other, which here received the blood of the ani- 
mals. ^diTTOures ot fiiv. The staining of their weapons with blood was a 

virtual imprecation, that their own blood might thus stain the sword or spear 


290 NOTES. [Book n. 

in case they violated the covenant. Similar to this was a custom of the Chal- 
dgeans, -which was the ground of the ceremony detailed, Gen. 15 : 9-17. The 
parties to the covenant, having slain and divided the victims, placed the parts 
opposite to one another. They then passed between the parts thus divided, 
saying, let it not thus he done to iis^ implying that if they were faithless, they 

might justly be cut in pieces. Cf. Jahn Arch. § 385. ol fxlp "E?0^rjves 

and OL Be pdp^apoi are in partitive apposition with the subject of icfioffav. H. 
§ 500. b. 

10. *'A76 5'/}, co7ne now. A formula of incitement. 6 aurhs — ctJAos, 

the same march. Cf. S. § 202. N. 1. ical v^7v, as to you. Cf. S. § 236. 

N. 2. TiVa yv(i)/jL7]v ex^iSy ^''quce tua sententia est.^^ Sturz. 'aTfiixev^ sc. 

65bj/ to which '^virep refers. For the construction, cf. N. on V '?A,^oj/, § 6 

lit ^Hv fxh ^jX^oficy airi6pTes. The order is airi6pT€S (o^hy) V ^?^^o/j.ep. 

See N. on ^y ^X^ov^ § 6. vicdpx^t = ^<J"ri. Construct 'ETrra/caiScKa with 

iJvrey, according to the rule (S. § 181) above referred to. Krug. attaches to 
CTo^/jLuy the idea of time, during the last seventeen days' march. Cf. § 560. 2. 

lyyvrdru) — iyyvrdruy. Cf. S. § 16Y. 6. ov^eu €fX0jU6j/ XajuL^dpeiy, 

i. c. ovdey eVxo^e;/ uxrre \aix^dv€ii'^ we had nothing to take = we could take 

nothing. Cf. S. § 223. 1 (^x^). e'/ ri. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 1. /care^fa- 

vav'l](Taixev^ we entirely consumed. Karh in composition signifies exhaustion^ 

consumption^ etc. Cf. Vig. p. 246. /xaKporepaVy sc. 6d6v. Cf. S. §§ 168. 

2 ; iSl. 2. a.TTop'ficroiJLey. The regular construction would have been 


12t UopevTcoy S* Tjjxty. Cf. N. on CKeirriov chat^ I. 8. § 11. Con- 
struct crra^ixovsy which here signifies the distance passed over (see N. on I. 5. 
§ 7), with TTopevTcov (S. § 181. 2), which is followed by the same case as its 

verb. Cf. S. § 178. 1. cds irXeio'TOVy as far as possible. ovk ert p.^ 

BvvT]Tai ^acriXcvs 7]fJLus KaTaXa^ety, " the king will no longer be able to overtake 
us.^^ Felton. dvynrai has here the force of dvyfjcerai. The double negative 
oif fi'i}, is used with the future indicative, or with the subjunctive in denials 
referring to the future ; v/hile fi^ ov is usually constructed with the infinitive. 

Cf. Butt. §§ 139. p. 364; 148. K 6; S. § 230. 3. (nrayiet. Cf. K on 

Ka^ieTy, II. 1. § 4. 

13« "^Hy S* avTTj 7] CTparriyia ov^ey B,XXo duyafieyij -J) aTroBpayai '5 aTro(pvys7yj 
this strategy meant nothing else than secret or open Jlight. ^y — Zvyafxeyq = 
^Qvyaro. Cf. N. on I. 2. § 5 (end). crTparfiyia^ the plan of conducting the 
army. For the distinction between O7ro5paz/ot and onrotpvyoLy^ cf. N. on I. 4. 

§ 8. KaXXioy^ more honorably. Cf. S. § 135. 2. iy de^i^ exoyres rhy 

^iXioy. By this it appears that their course was northerly. Xoyt(6]j.€yoiy 

supposing. els KcJo/jLas. Col. Chesney places these Babylonian villages on 

the Abu Gharib, near the ruins of Sindiyah. 

14, ^Bq^av-r^.6pq.y, they thought that they saw. Cf. Butt. § 141. 3; S. 221. 

Chap. IL] NOTES. 291 

Twy T6 *ZXK'i]V(ji}y ol jx)) k. t. A., those of the Greeks who did not happen to 

be in their ranks^ beaan to run^ &c. 

15. *E;/ & S€, but whilst, Cf. K on I. 10. § 10. Kci gv^vs "^yvcaaav 

ic. T. A. These sumpter horses betokened the proximity of an armed force, 
and as it was not likely that the king would divide his army, they knew that 

he must be encamped €771;^ irov, somewhere near. koX yap (=: yap, etenirn) 

Kai, for also^ introduces an additional reason for their conclusion respecting 
the nearness of the royal army. 

1G« ^Set yap tcai aireipriKOTas tovs crparLcaTas^ for he knew that the soldiers 
were both exhausted. For the construction, cf, N. on fidccai/ avrhy rc^j/rjKoTa, 
1. 10. § 16. hircipriKoras, perf. act. part, oi airoppica^ not used in the present. 
This verb signifies, (1) to announce^ declare ; (2) to forbid^ deny ; (3) to leave 
off^ desisty and as this is oftener done from fatigue than any other cause, the 
word by metonomy of cause for effect^ assumes the meaning, to be weary or 

fatigued^ which is its signification here. 'i)Zri 5e koL c;j/€ -^r, and now also 

it was late (in the day). ov — ov5'. Cf. S. § 230. 1. doKolrj is put in 

the opt., because ^vXarro/xcpos upon which it depends, borrows past time from 

aircKKive. Cf. S. §212. 8; II. §'729. 3. cv^vccpov = nar eu^^eTav (sc. 

6^6y)y straight foricard. Cf. S. § 135. 2; II. § 552. rovs TrpdirovSy the 

van of the army. cis — icarco'K't^ucoa'cv. See N. on Karicrrj els, I. 1. § 3. 

e{ ooy, i. e. the villages. Kal avrh ra airh rchv oIklcou f l Aa, even the 

very wood of the houses. The design of this was to cut off the rebel forces 
from necessary supplies. For the construction of aura, cf. S. § IGO. 4. a; E. 
§ 538. b; K. § 148. 10. g. airh here denotes ^ removal from.' 

IT. ofjLcas (substituted by Dind., Born., Pop., and Kriig. for 6i.L0Lce)y not- 
withstandioig the villages had been stripped of every thing by the royal army. 

rponep rm, in some manner = as well as they could. CKoraioiy in the 

dark. See N . on 1. 1. § 9. us irvyxavoj/ cKaa-Toi, sc. av\i(6jj.€voiy as each 

happened (to pass the night) = ^?^ whatever manner each one was able. 

were — Kaiy so that even. iyyvrara here =: iyyvraroi. (TKTjycc/xdrwyy 

tentSy a verbal noun from cktjvSco, to pitch a tent. Cf. S. § 139. 

18. T?} ucrepaia, sc. rj/xepc^. ovt€ Kairvhs ovBcl/jlov TrXTjaiov, nor smoke 

any where near. rj icpSdco, at the approach. The king thought the Greeks 

were advancing to attack him, and hence on the next day he proposed a truce. 
Cf. II. 3. § 1. oTs =■ iKeiyGis a. 

19. Kaiy also. oTou clKhs (jyofBov i^Tr^ffSvros yiyv^cr^aiy such as usually 

takes place when fear falls upon a company of men. 

2@. ToXfiidrjv — rovrov. Cf. N. on a/xd^as — ravras, I. 10. § 18. K'f:pV' 

Ka 'dpKTTov Twv t6t€, the best crier of thai time, i. c. he had the loudest and 
clearest voice. For the construction of ruu rore, cf. S. § 1G9. 1 ; II. § 493. 

a; K. § 148. 8. ^hs au rhy acp^yra tov tvov els rb. oirKa ixrjyvar}, whoever 

would give information of the person who had let loose the ass among the arms, 
** This is a mere joke, implying that there was no ground for alarm." Felton. 

292 NOTES. [Book II. 

21. K€v6s, empty. = vain^ groundless, ^'A^a 5e op^pepf as soon as day 

broke, Kobinson (Lex. N. T.) says that *' upbpos properly signifies the time 
before and about day-break, while one still needs a light ; but also later, in- 
cluding the morning twilight until near sun-rise." Here it evidently means 
break of day^ inasmuch as heralds came from the king about sunrise (cf. 3. 
§ 1), at which time Clearchus was already reviewing his troops. 


!• *0 te Bt] eypai/za, but now that ivJiich I wrote. % rr rovTO o, of which, 
rovro refers to the clause on .... icpSdcp, and is the subject of r/y. Refer- 
ence is here made to what is said in 2. § 18. The evidence that the king was 
alarmed at the approach of the Greeks, was the difference in the tone of hia 
second message from that sent by Phalinus (1. §§ 7-23). 

2. 7rpo(pv\aKas, the outposts. i^riTOvv^ inquired for. tvx^v — eTi- 

(TKOTrcoyy happening to be reviewing. o.xpLS av irxo^dffr}, until he should be 

at leisure, Cf. N. on hv eXrja^e, I. 3. § 15. By this affectation of contempt 
for the Persians, he inspired his own men with confidence, and gained time 
for the proper disposition of his troops. 

3t uKTTe KaXcas exefr opaa^aL iravrt] ^dXayya irvKviiv^ so that the dense.y 
lines made an imposing appearance on all sides. KaXccs exety. See N. on 1.1 

1. § 5. €xety has dpaar^ai for its subject. twz/ 5e. "In narrative style," 

says Butt. (§ 126. 4), "o, ^, rh often stand only once and with Se alone, m 
reference to an object already named." re in kol avrSs re is to be construed 
with ual before ro7s uWolSj while rh — koI in the next member connects euo- 
TcXordrovs and cueiSecrraroys. 'i^paaav. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 3. 

4. iTp))s Tois ayyeXois, near to the messengers, ■ tl ^ovXoivro. Cf. S. 

§ 219. 2. 'dvdp^s o'Itlv€s, as persons luho. Sturz says that 'dv^pes here 

might have been omitted. iKavoi^ competent^ duly authorized^ is followed 

by airayy^lXai. icrovrai, Cf. N. on a7ra|€f, I. 3. § 14. rd T€ iraph 

PaariX^cos, " regis mandata.^^ Kriig. 

5. fMaxvs. For the gen., cf. S. § 200. 3 ; II. § 575. a; K. § 158. 6. a. 
ovoh 6 roXfjL^ffojv^ nor is he one who will dare. An answer, as Born, re- 
marks, worthy of a Spartan. For the construction, cf. S. § 225. 1 ; H. § Y86 ; 
K. § 148. 6; Goodwin, § 108. 2. 

"-""^6. ^yyvs irov^ someivhere near, The subject of iirereTaKTO is ravra 

irpdrrGiv, Cf. S. § 153. 1 ; II. § 493. d. oti elKora ^oKo7ey Xeyeiv paffi- 

XeTy that they (i. e. the Greeks) seemed to the king to propose what was reason- 
able. 0* avTovs — d^ovo-iy^ to lead them. Cf. N. on oa-riSy I. 8. § 14. 

iau at (TTToySal yepcovrai. "A transition," says Matthias (§ 523. 1), "to a kind 
of oratio recta.^^ eay, 7)z/, or hv with the subjunct. is a milder expression than 
€< with the future. See Mt. 1. c. ^u^ev = iKe7(r6 %v^ev. 

Chap. III.] NOTES. 293 

7» avToTs = fioj/ois^ alone, S. § 160. 4. a. to7s avdpd<ru There is 

much difficulty in determining satisfactorily to whom avdpda-i refers. The 
conjecture of Weiske, that it means the Greeks and Persians, who passed be- 
tween the two armies to arrange and ratify the truce, is inadmissible, because 
opposed to the facts of the case, the Persians alone passing between the 
armies as truce-makers. Nor can we adopt the surmise of Hacken cited by 
Poppo, that reference is had to those of the Greeks who would be sent out to 
purchase and bring in provisions, inasmuch as it appears from the latter part 
of the preceding section, that ail the Greeks were to be led whence they might 
take provisions. We must therefore conclude with Kriiger, that the ambassa- 
dors or messengers of the Persians are referred to, although this interpretation 
is by no means disincumbered of difficulties. Tracrw/, sc. ia-oivro a-iroi/daL 

8» fxeTaa-TTja-oifxeyos avTovs, having caused thern (i. e. the messengers) to 

withdraio. Cf. S. § 209. 3. a-irovhas iroteTa^ai = (TTr^j/decr^at. Ka^ 

•tjcrvxiciy = Vf^^XVt $'W^c%7 'peacefully, eVf, after ,^ i. e. to procure and 


9» ^v oKV'fia-coa'ip fj.^ aTrod6^7} rjfuj/ ras cnrovdas iroL-fio-acr^at, shall have be- 
come afraidj lest we resolve not to make the truce, fri) d7ro5o|?7 rifxiv =: ^c^; oh 

dS^rj 7]fuy, olfial ye jx^vroi k, t, A. The confidence in their own resources, 

manifested by the generals in hesitating to accept the truce proposed by the 
king, would tend to inspire the soldiers with more courage and energy in the 
perils with which they were beset. 

10. fJLev — neyroi = fihu 5e. rh 5e CTpdrevfJia ^xcov eV rafet, but having 

his army in order of battle. Although going to conclude the truce, he did not 

in the least relax his vigilance. avXSjffiv {= oxero7s, 4. § 13. Schneid.), 

canals^ trenches. cos. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 10. dia^dtras, lit. passings 

over^ here a substitute for bridges, temporary bridges. rovs Be. In the 

formula, 6 p\v — 6 Se, one is sometimes omitted. Cf. Mt. § 288. Obs. 4. 

11« ^y — Karafxa^eiy. Cf. N. on ^v Aaj8e«/, I. 5. § 2. Kklapxov — Aca- 

raiia^e7v ujs iirecTTdTei = Karafia^eiu ais KAcapxos cTreCTaret (cf. N. on I. 6. 

§ 5). eTreo-raret — ^px^9 jjyeixSycveu. paKTTjpiaj/, staff, truncheon, carried 

by the Lacedaemonian generals, as an instrument with which to correct their 
soldiers. Cf. Thucyd. YIII. 84. irpos rovroy i. e. the construction of tem- 
porary bridges, and the management of those things which pertained to the 

transportation of the army and baggage across the trenches. iKXeySfxevos 

rhj/ iiriT'fi^eioy €irai(rey av. Of the various interpretations given to this passage, 
for brevity's sake, I shall select but one, which seems the most natural and 
free from objections, viz. selecting the 07ie most leorthy (of punishment) he 

woidd chastise him. For ti.v with €7rai<T€v, cf. N. on I. 9. § 19. koI ci;j.a 

avT))s K. T. \, By thus sharing in the labor of his men, Clearchus stimulated 

them to great exertions. Sxttb iraciv al(rx^vT]v chat fx.^ ov av<nrovdd^€Ly, 

so that every one was ashamed (lit. shame was to all) not to assist in urging on 
the loorh, Mt. (§ 609. p. 1082), says that ov )li^ is found after words in which 

294 NOTES. [Book IL 

n negative sense is involved, as ^civSy^ al<rxpiv icri^ etc., denoting that which 
ought not to happen. Cf. Butt. § 148. K 6. 2. 

12. irphs avTov. The^common reading irphs avrSv^ is rejected by the best 
critics, as being without any sense, irphs aitrh (— irphs tovto, § 11) is adopted 

by Kriiger and Poppo, and perhaps is best suited to the passage. ol Tpio.- 

Kovra eri] y€yQv6T€S, those being thirty years old. Cf. S. §§ 211. N. 6; 186. 
2; H. § '712; K. § 152. 5. R. 2. _ -^ 

uTTOTTreuajy, because he suspected. Cf. S. § 225. 4 ; II. § 789. c. 

oia rh iredioj/ 'dpdeij/^ suitable (Ut. such as) for watering the plain. Cf. Good- 
win, § 93. N. 1. Hutch, thinlis that the battle of Cunaxa took place the latter 
part of September. If so, the season for watering the region was past. Cf. 

N. on I. 7. § 15. irpocpaivoLTO — dyai. Cf. N. on (p^ovoov icpaiyerOj I. 9. 

§ 19. TovTov refers to the assertion made in the preceding clause. rh 

vdctjp acpsiKeyai, had caused the water to be let forth. acp^iicivoLi^ perf. infin. of 
a(piri}jLL. Clearchus hastened on the army, in order to show that these impedi- 
ments neither retarded nor terrified the Greeks, and also to give the Persians 
no time to interpose more serious obstacles to his march. 

Id. ds Kof/xas. The direction of this march is not given, and it is there- 
fore quite impossible to locate the Greeks with any certainty. They were^ 
doubtless somewhere in the interior of the country, as it was the manifest pur- 
pose of the king to draw them into a position, whence escape would be difficult 
if not impossible. They remained in these villages 24 days or more (cf. g§ 17. 
25 ; 4. § 1), before they began their march homeward under the general con- 
duct of Tissaphernes (cf. 3. § 9). o|o5. '"'' aciduluin potiim c dactylis 

coctis paratum ; olvoy, dulciorum 2)otum, e dactylis expressis paratum.''^ Mo- 
rns. airh riav avrccy. Cf. K on 2. § 16. 

15. o'ias /j.€i/ = roLavrai fihu oUs. cariy. Cf. K. en '^u AajSetr, I. 5. 

§ 2. ro7s om^rais a'^-aceLj/ro, were laid by for the domestics. clKcraLs is 

the Dat. Co7n. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 9. air6\€KToi, selected, a verbal from 

hiroKiya. Cf. II. § 398 ; S. § 58. 2. oi|/rs, appearance. v,\iKTpov, 

amber, a yellov/, transparent, gummous substance found in many countries, 
but mostly upon the shores of the Baltic. For the construction cf ^'^Ac/crpou, i 
cf. S. § 198. 2; II. § 581. 2; K. § 158. 7. jS. Kriig. m.akcs iiXiicrpov stand || 
for riAcKTpov c;{/ecos, the noun being employed for its attribute, which is the 

real object of comparison. ra de riyesy but some. rpayf-fiara, for 

desserts. A substantive frequently expresses the design of the noun with 

which it is in apposition. The d^vrepa rpdire^a, second table = dessert, 

was made up of various sweetmeats, and furnished in times of luxury with 

great splendor. '^v — r,dv, sc. tovto (i. e. TavTa to. TpayiiixaTo). Txapa 

'k6tov {— (TvpLirocnov), in drinking, i.e. during the drinking-bout which fre- 
quently followed the feast in ancient times. Cf. K. on VI. 1 . § 5. It was at 
one of these symposiums, that Alexander is said to have died in a state, cf in- 
toxication. The wise man doubtless referred to this custom (Pro v. 23 : 29, 

Chap. III.] NOTES. 295 

80), when in answer to the question, "Who hath woe," &c., he replies: 

*'They that tarry long at the wine." Ke<pa\aXyh5 (/ce<^aA^, the head, and 

d\yosy pain), causing headache. 

16. iyKecpaXoi/y the brain, i. e. the pith or marrow, which, being found in 
the top of the tree, was called its €7/ce4>aAos. So Pliny XIII. 4 ; " dulcis 

medulla earum (i. e. palmarum) in cacimiine, quod cerebrum appellant^ 

tV l^i6Ti]Ta Tris ijBovTjs, the peculiar flavor, or quality of its Jlavor. The 
palm-tree, of which such frequent mention is made in the ancient and oriental 
writings, is the pride of tropical climes, and far surpasses in grandeur all other 
trees of the forest. The trunk springs up straight, unbranching, and tapering, 
until towering far above the surrounding trees, it is crowned by a tuft of large, 
radiating leaves, which gives it a singularly grand and unique appearance. 
But aside from its majesty, it is superior to almost every other plant in useful 
properties. It furnishes to the inhabitants of the region where it grows, 
bread, wine, vinegar, sugar, fruit, and materials for all kinds of wicker work, 
etc. Strabo says there was a Persian song, in which three hundred and sixty- 
five advantages of the palm-tree were enmnerated. It is found in great abun- 
dance in Babylonia. o^ev = e| ou, 

••-"'^'IS. afxr}x^i^<^j insuperable. evpT^/xa iTroi-qo'diJ.rjy, I regarded it an unex- 
pected gain, cupijixa answers to our familiar expressions, windfall, good luck, 

etc. ei TTcas, if bij some means. He hints by this at the difficult nature of 

his request. hovvai, give =. permit. aTroo-cDcrat u/xas ^Is t)]v *E\\dda, 

to conduct you safely into Greece. aTrocroia'ai (by constructio prasgnans) — to 
save and lead, airh gives to crcaCco the idea of complete deliverance ; to save 

from, sc. all dangers. olfiai yap clv ovk axapi(rr<DS fxoi c^eiy, I think that 

I shoidd not be unrewarded, t^j/ gives to e^eiu the idea of probability. Cf. Mt. 

§ 599. d. Bind, after Suid. reads exety. Trphs vixoov, by you = on your 


19. OTL diKaicos &y fioi x^pK^^'^^t i- <^- (says Poppo) on, el x'^P'-C^^'^o, ZiKaicas 
&y fioL x^p'^C^^^To =■ that if he should reward me, he would (on account of my 

merit) justly do it. Por &j/ in the apodosis, cf. N. on I. 6. § 2. Kvpoy re 

iiria-rpaTevoyTO — ^yyeiXa. Por the construction, cf. S. § 225. '7; II. § 799. 
8; K. § 175. 1. The participle here takes the place of the oratio obliqua 
(oTi Kvpos iTTLo-TpaTevoi) in the dependent sentence. See H. § 734. c. Tissa- 

phernes here refers to what is detailed, I. 2. §§ 4, 5. ay.a ry hyyeXia. 

Cf. N. on 1. § 2. Tooy — TerayjiLeycay = iKsiycoy ot rcTay/jL^yoi ^lo-ay (S. 

§ 225. 1; H. § 786; K. § 158. 5. a), of which iKeiycay is constructed with 
fiSyos denoting apart. S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 586. c; K. § 158. 3. Reference is 
had to the officers, who under Tissaphernes commanded the left wing of the 

king's army at Cunaxa. aireKretye is used here for the pluperfect. Cf. N. 

on eVoiTytre, I. 1. § 2. To7crd€ toTs irapovari vvv fier* ifJLovy ivith those now 

'present with ?ne. 

29. ^ov\€V(ra(T^aty to deliberate, take counsel, sc. with others. See N. 

296 NOTES. [Book II 

on 1. § 16. For the tense, cf. K on iravcaa-^at, I. 2. § 2. cpsc^ai—' 

v/xas, to inquire of you. Cf. S. § 184. 1 ; II. § 553. The accus. oi thing is 

the next clause. rivos eVe/cey, on account of what =^for what reason. 

l.(.€Tpi(as, moderatelT/^ i. e. in good temper. tVa ijloi evirpaKTSrepoy J ^ay tl 

Hvvcdixai ayabhj/ vfjuj/ Trap' avrov diaTrpd^a(r^ai. The order is, iVa dLairpd^acr^ai 
(to bring about y to obtainyidu ri {= '6 ti. See N. on 1. § 8) aya^hy SvycDfiai 
(so. diairpd^aa^ai) y cvTrpaKTorepSu fioi. Cf. S. § 153. a; H. § 493. d. 

21» fjL€Ta(rTdyTeSy having withdrawn. KXeapxos 5* cAeyej^, i. e. he was 

spokesman for the others. ws — iroXefx-fjaovres. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 3. 

out* iropcvS/Jis^a €7rt fiaciXea^ nor should we have marched against the Icing. 
This is an apodosis, Uy being supplied. The protasis is aWa iroWas ic. r. A. 
It appears, from III. 1. § 10, that Clearchus was not unacquainted with the 
real object of the expedition. 

22. 'ETTEt fxivTOi ij^Tj avrhu ewpwjwey eV d€ii/(a tura, but when we saw him 
already beset with danger. Iv deip(^ vura = eV Seims uura, ^'' pjericulis pres- 

sum.'*'' Sturz. yo'x^v^'ni^^v i^oX ^eovs Koi avbp'Joirovs irpodovvai avrSv^ we 

were ashamed both before gods and 7nen (H. § 544. a ; S. § 181. K 2) ^o desert 
him. *' The verb alaxvyo/JLai takes the particip., when the action of which one 
is ashamed is performed, the infinit., when the action is declined through 
shame." Rost, § 129. 4. Cf. YII. 6. § 21. See also II. §§ 800, 802; K. 
§ 175. R. 3. k. ^€ovs and av^pd?Trovs are constructed in the accus. with 7]<rx'^y' 
^?7^6y, on the principle that verbs of emotion are often followed by an accus., 
which is both the object and efficient cause of the emotion. Cf. Mt. § 414 ; H. 
§ 544. a. Trapexoyres rjinas avrovs c5 -Trofeti/, literally, furnishing our- 
selves (to him) to receive benefits == having put ourselves in the way of receiv- 
ing favors from him. c5 ^o^eTy, sc. uitXT^ rhu Kvpoy. ^ *m 

tmm 23« re^yrjKeVy is dead. ovre PaciXeT ayrLTroiovjue^a r?]S apxv^y "^'^ ^^ 

not conterid against the king for the sovereignty. For the construction of j8a- 
crrAe?, cf. S. § 201. 5; II. § 507. 1; of apx'^s, S. § 192; II. § 577. R. c; K. 

§ 158. 3. b. ovV tffTLv oTov eyeKttj ''''nor is there any reason why.'''' Felton. 

The subject of ianv and antecedent of orov^ is some such word as irpay/ia or 

Xprjfia understood. See S. § 172. 4; H. § 510. c; K. § 145. 4. R. 2.- 

icaKUJs iroieTy = icaKa ttgl^^v. Cf. S. § 184. N. 2 ; K. § 159. 3 (2). See also 

N. on I. 6. § 7. Tts, some one^ softer than vix^ts for which it stands. 

ffvv To7s i^eoTs, with the help of the gods. For the construction of cu iroiuiy 

(^=: aya^a iroiwy) virdpxv^ begins doing well^ cf. S. § 225. 8; H. § 797; K. 

§ 175. 1. e. KoX tovTOv e'is ye hvya^iy ovx ^irrrja'Sixc^a (= 7}Tr7}^7}(T6ij.e^a. 

Cf. Rost, § 114. 1. N. 1) €v TTOLovyTeSy '"''toe will not be behind him^ at least so 
far as our power goes^ in conferring favors.'''' Felton. For the construction 
of TouTou, cf S. § 184. 1. 

24. iJLey6yrcay imperative for fxeyercaaray. S. § 117. 4 ; II. § 358. ayo- 

pay S€ TjixeTs Trape'lo^ey, and we will furnish a market^ i. e. a place where pro- 
visions may be purchased. See oirov .... irpiatr^ai^ § 26. 

Chap. IY.] NOTES. 297 

25* uff^* ot "EAATjj/es i(pp6vTi^ov {were anxious). For ^crre with the indie. 

see N. on I. 1. § 8. Zo^rivai, Cf. K on Zovvai^ % 18. aoiC^iv tovs "EWtj- 

vas. Supply els tV 'EAAaSo from § 18 supra. cdoCeiy is the subject of do^?)' 

vcLi. uis ovK &^iov ^^Lt] ^aciXe?, that it was not becoming the king, li^iou = 

irpiirov is followed by the dative. Cf. S. § 200. N. 3 ; K. § 161. 2. c (5). 

a<{)E7yai<, to send aivay (in peace and safety). 

26. TeAoy 5\ hut at last, Cf. S. § 185. 1 ; H. § 552 ; K. § 159. 3 (7) k. 

efeo-Tfv, Cf. N. on r^v AajSeTy, I. 5. § 2. ■? juV is the usual formula 

of an oath or solemn confirmation = ice solemnly promise^ we swear to furnish 
TTooe^uv), Cf. Butt. § 149. p. 438 ; Mt. § 604. ^ 

27. 5ia (pi\ias. Cf. I. 3. § 14. aa-iyoos, i. e. without committing depre- 
dations upon the country through which they were to pass. cjvovf^eyovs, 

by purchase. 

29. aireifjLi^ I shall go. Cf. K on 1. 3. § 11. 6)s ^affiXia, Cf. N. on 

I. 2. § 4. eTTCiSay dtaTrpd^cofjiaL^ when I have accomplished. The aor. sub- 

junct. after iirudau refers the action of the verb to the moment of time pre- 
ceding the action of the leading verb. See Goodwin, § 20. N. 1. vL - 

ravra wv (S. § 175. a), of which wv is constructed with ddofiai. Cf. S. § 200. 

8; H. § 575; K. § 158. 5. a. (rvtriz^vaffafx^vos is an aor. in relation to 

the fut. vilw, and indicates the completeness of the action. Cf. Mt. § 559. c. 

Qis aird^coy. See N. on I. 1. § 8. airidlfy. Buttmann says that this is 

a very clear instance of the future. 


1. i]ix4pas irXeiovs '/) €'iKoa'iv. According to Diod. (XIY, 26), Tissaphemes 
in this interim went with the king to Babylon. His long delay, together with 
the tampering of Arieeus, justly inspired the Greeks with fears respecting the 
sincerity of the Persians ; but having no remedy they were obliged to avrait 
the issue. • koI irphs revs cvv iKeiycp Uepctoy riyesj and some of the Per- 
sians came to those with him^ i. e. to the followers of Ariaeus. Selms-, 

pledges, assurances. iVfo* is in apposition with rives. Cf. Mt. § 432. 8. 

lxvri(TiKaKi](Teiv — iiria-Tpareias, The genitive expressing both the object 

and cause of a feeling, may be rendered C7i account of. Cf. M. § 368. 5 ; S. 
§ 194. 1; K. § 158. 5(b). 

2. TovTcoy 5e yiyyofxeywy^ while these things were taking place, Cf. S. 

§§ 226; 211. 1 ; H. § 790. a; K. § 176. 1 (a). oi Trepl rhv 'Apiaioy, Ari- 

ceus and his party. Buttmann (150. p. 439) remarks, *'the Attics avail them- 
selves of this indefinite expression, even where they wish to speak chiefly only 
of the one person, leaving it from some cause or other doubtful, whether it 
really concerns only this one or not." Cf. Mt. § 583, c, 1. ^rroy vpoff- 


298 NOTES. [Book II. 

ixovT^s To7s "EWtjo'i rhu vovp^ less attentive to the Greeks, Cf. N. on I. 5. 

g 9. iccil TovTo, this also, i. e. in addition to the suspicious circumstances 

spoken of in the preceding section. 

8. Tt, whij, Cf. S. § 182; H. § 552. a. irepl irayrSs, Cf. N. on irepl 

TrAeiVrou, I. 9. § Y. <rrpaT€V€iy is used as an adnom. gen. after <^oj3oy. 

Cf. S. § 222. 6; II. § 7Y8 ; K. § lYl. 2. di'a rh diea-irdp^ai avT$ rh arpd- 

rev/xay because his army is dispersed. ovk eariy ottcos ovk iiri^'l^a-eraL ^iijuv, 

it is impossible (see N. on I. 5. § 2) that he tvill not attack ns = he loill by all 
means attack us. That these forebodings were not groundless, painful evi- 
dence was soon furnished. For the construction cf ovk cariv oirws, cf. Butt. 
§ 150. p. 442 ; Mt. § 482. Obs. 2. 

4. *'lcra)s de irov, perhaps somewhere. Ze is here continuative. t1, sc. 

Xoopioy. ^iropos = a7r6pevTos. eKclou ye gives emphasis to /3ov\'f)a'€Tai. 

Render the clause, for he ivill never willingly pennit. rotroiZe ovres^ being 

so many (and no more) === being so few. Cf. N. on I. 8. § 14 (end). eVl 

TOLS ^vpais. The Greeks were so near Babylon, that it might be said they 
were at the very gates of the king's palace. 

5t cttI iroXefjLMy for the purpose of making war, with hostile intent, iizl 
here denotes the end or object of the action. Cf. Butt. § 147 ; Mt. § 585. j3. 

irapa. ras (nrovZas iroieiyy to violate the treaty ; properly, to act contrary 

to the treaty. ^'ETretra, thereupon. Trpooroy, ad^is Se, and Kcd a/xa, mark 

the disastrous consequences resulting from breaking the truce. MatthisQ 

(§482) says that ol>5* diro^ey is put for ouS' €a'rai oySeV, 6>€z/, or ovdsls irape^ei 

Toiroy, o^€y. Cf. S. § 172. 4; II. § 811. a. 6 rjyyjo'ofJLeyos ovZeh effraiy 

there will be no one ^o conduct us. Cf. N. on 6 To\/j,^a'coy, 3. § 5. cifia 

ravra iroiovyrcoy rnxwv, as soon as loe do these things. Cf. S. § 225. N. 1 ; II. 

§ 795. c; K. § 176. 1. a. acpearrj^eif tvill desert. ka'T'fj^a), I shall stand, 

and its compound acpecxTTi^cay I shall stand away from, i. q, forsake, desert, are 
futures formed to suit the present meaning of ecrrTy/ca, / staiid, while criiaia 
has the meaning of / shall place, from 'icrTtip.i. Cf. Butt. § 107. II. 4 ; II. 

§ 394. R. a; K. § 134. p. 156. XeXeixj/erat, will have been left =: will a 

7noment longer remain. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 16. dAAo koX ol irpScr^ey uyres, 

and even those who were (our friends) before, i. e. Ariaeus and his followers. 

G. 5e el fiey, but whether. 'dpa, then, as is quite probable. S' in 

rhy 8' ovy responds to fiey in the preceding member, ovy = as to that. Seo 

N. on I. 3. § 5. Ev(ppdr7jy Xcp.ey on. For the construction, cf. N. on I. 8. 

§ 21 (end). The necessity of crossing the Euphrates is indicated by dWos — 
4(Tt\ dia^areos in the preceding clause. 5); in oif fxey 5^ serves to introduce with 
emphasis another difficulty, viz. the want of cavalry. Cf. Vig. p. 188. VI. 

ir\ei<Trov dltoi, Cf. N. On I. 3. § 12. oUv re. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 17. 

yiKcoyres, if we conquer. S. § 225. 6; II. § 789. e; K. § 176. 1. c. 

7» 'Eyw fxev ovy (BaciXea, ^ iroWa ourois earl to, crvyitjuaxa, eiVep irpo^/jLel' 
rat rjfias airo\e(raty ovk olZa o rt 5eT avrhy oixdcaiy ^^ now for my part, I do not 

Chap. IV.] NOTES. 299 

see why the Mng^ whose resoicrces are so great^ should stcear to us^ if he really 
meant to destroy ws." Sophocles (Gram. § 160. N. 5). ficuriKca is the subj. 
accus. of ofioarai^ before which avrhj/ referring to ^aaiXia is placed, in conse- 
quence of the intermediate clauses between ^aaixia and oixScai, For the con- 
struction of 5e?, cf. S. § 153. a; H. § 494. a; K. § 145. 3. ^€oh5 imop- 

KT](rai, "With verbs 4o swear,^ the deity or person by whom one swears is 
put in the accusative." Mt. § 413. 10. Clearchus argues that if the ulterior 
design of the king were bad, he would not have entered of his own accord into 
such a solemn covenant with the Greeks. 

, 'El/ Se rovTG), Cf K on I. 10. § 6. ^Op6vTas, Repeat riK^v tx^^v. 

^76 Z\ AC. T. A. Both Tissaphernes and Orontas were rewarded with the 
hand of the king's daughters, for their fidelity and good conduct in the war 

with Cyrus. eVi ya^iw^ for marriage^ i. e. for the purpose of marrying her. 

Kriiger translates, " in order that he might live with her in wedlock^'* on the 
ground that the marriage ceremony had been previously performed at Baby- 

10. €<|)* lavTuv, by themselves. Cf. Mt. § 584. 3". iKdcrroTe = ael, al- 
ways. airexovres a\\7]\(ay. Cf. N. on I. 10. § 4. aW'^Xovs depends 

on icpyXdrrovTo {were on the guard against one another\ which apparently is 
transitive. This accus., however, may be regarded very properly as synecdo- 
chical. Cf S. § 209. 2; H. § 544. a. 

11. Ik tqv avTov,fro7n the same place. ^x^P^^- Their precautionary 

measures created vnoipiav, suspicion ; the petty contentions which resulted 
from this jealousy, led to exi^pav, enmity. 

12. From the time of the truce to the passage of the-Tigris at Sitace, the 

course of the armies was south-easterly. irphs rh M7)dias k. t. A. Some 

MSS. have Mr^delas, which Kiihner adopts on the supposition that the wall was 
so called, not from Media the country, but from Medea, the wife of the last 
king of the Medes. This wall appears to have been erected, to protect the 
inhabitants of Babylonia from the incursions of the Medes. It did not run 
directly across the isthmus, but inclined from the Euphrates to the Tigris in a 
N. E. direction. Its length, according to Rennell, was about 24 British miles. 

avTou e'LCTca, loithin it (cf S. § 195 ; H. § 589 ; K. § 15'7). In order to 

conceal his treacherous design, Tissaphernes seems to have marched in a north- 
ward direction until the army reached Pylse, where he turned off in an easterly 
direction and passed within (i. e. on the side toward Babylon) the Median wall, 
as here related. Col. Chesney and others are of the opinion, that the army 
proceeded north-westerly to avoid the Hur or the marshes of Akka Kuf, until 
they reached a position so near to the Median wall that they might be said to 
be within it. But irapriX^ov avrov e'lcroj signifies they passed through^ and not 

alo7ig within it. Tr\iy^ois oirraTs, burnt bricks^ were diiferent from the 

bjfi}} irXiv^os, dried bricJcy which was a common material for buildings in those 
countries. Cf Bib. Rep. Vol. YIII. p. 167. cV a(r(pd\T(p. This is the 

300 NOTES. [Book II. 

cement used by the builders of Babel. " Bitumen had they for cement." 
Gen. 11 : 1-9. This bitumen was found in inexhaustible quantities in the 
fountains at Heet. Kich says, that the principal bitumen-pit at Heet has two 
sources, and is divided by a wall in the centre, on one side of which the bitu- 
men bubbles up, and on the other side the oil of naphtha, for the two produc- 
tions are always found in the same situations. The bitumen is at first brittle, 
but is rendered capable of being applied to brick, by being boiled with a cer- 
tain proportion of oil. It furnishes the finest of all cements. Cf. Bib. Repos. 

Vol. VIII. pp. 158-89. -irapaarayyoov depends on ^iriKos. C. § 568; H. 

§567; S. § 190. 
^^ 13. Sfccpyxas- A reference to these canals, with which the region of Baby- 
lonia was cut up, will help to explain the beautiful poetic effusion, ** By the 
rivers of Babylon," &c. Along these canals or streams, designed to irrigate 
and beautify Babylon and the adjacent country, the captive Jews sauntered 
after the toils of the day, and reposiug under the shady willows, indulged in 
expressions of mutual sympathy, or mourned in silence over their wrongs and 

woes. tV t^^v — T^v §*, the one — the otlur. i^evyfjccuTju irXolos kirrd. 

See I. 2. § 5. c-Aerrous, narrozcer, Cf. S. §§ 59. 3 ; 58. 2. ox^rol, 

drains, rivulets, wcirep eV ry *EXXddi, Repeat KaraT^rfirij/Tat. So Krlig. 

ueKivas, .fields of millet. irphs ^, close upon which, ^itolki], 

Mannert (Geog. Y. p. 884) gives this town the site now occupied by Old 
Bagdad. Col. Chesney locates it about ten miles N. W. of Bagdad near 
Sheriat-el-Beidha. Ainsworth thinks its ruins are found at or near the site of 

14t Trap' avT'f}i/, near it, Bevdpooj/ depends on ddxr^os. S. § 200. 3 ; H. 

§ 584. b; C. § 35Y.a; K. § 158. 5 (a). oi dh ^dp/Bapoi ic. t. A. Kriiger 

places a colon after TiyprjTa, and supplies iaKiivcacav from the preceding 
clause. But this is unnecessary, since by rendering dia^€^r}K6T€Sy although 
having just crossed, the way is prepared for ov jnevroi, without making the sen- 
tence consist of two propositions. 

15. ervxov iv irepnrdTcp oures, happened to be walking. See K on I. 1. 

§ 2. Trph TCtiu ottKwv = before the camp. koX ravTOU Cf. N. on I. 4. 

g 12.— irapa. *Apiaiov d5r, being (sent) fro7n A7'iceics. 

16« oTi. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 7. 6 ^v^p<airos = iiceiyos, fi^ — Qiri^ccj/- 

rai. Cf. K on L 3. § 17. ttjs vvktos, this night, Cf. N. on 2. § 12. 

Se = ydp. T^ irXTjcrlov irapadeio'cp, the neighboring park. Cf. S. 

§ 169. 1 ; H. § 492. f ;* also N. on I. 2. § 7. 

IT. W5 = oTiy since, because, Cf, Mt. § 628. 5. ojs in the next member 

is put for tVa, that, so that. See Mt. § 628. 1. dAA' eV /xeVw aTro\7}(p^r,T€ 

rod irorafjLov im\ ttjs di(A)pvxoSy but that you may be shut in between the river 
and the canal. See § 13. iv ixiccp = jwerafv. 

18. irapdx^ ^(pddpa Kal €>oj3cTto. The situation of the Greek army in 
the very heart of the Persian empire, inclosed by rivers and canals and sur- 

Chap. IV.] NOTES. 301 

rounded by myriads of enemies, was any thing but favorable. No wonder 
that so daring a soldier even as Clearchus, should be startled at this intelli- 
gence of a night attack, in which Grecian discipline would be far less effectual 
against the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, than in a battle by day. 

19. T(av irapovrcov, of those icho were present. For the construction, cf. S. 

§§ 225. 1; 188; H. §§ 786; 572. a; K. §§ 148. 6; 158. 3. R. 1. ohK 

cLKSXov^a, not consistent- (with each other). The subject of ci?; is rh eVi- 

^ea-^ai K. r. A. Cf. S. § 153; H. § 494. a; K. § 173. 1. on e7rm.^e^e- 

yovs '/) yiK^y ds-fiaei '/) rjTTucr^ai, that if theif attack ics^ thei/ tcill of 7iecessity 
conquer or be conquered. The subject of Sei^cret is vlk^v and 7]TTua'^oi.L. See 

preceding Note. exoifi^v .... ccoxreTfj.^y, would we have a place where we 

could save ourselves by flight. There is here an implied protasis, if ice should 
wish to seek safety in flight. otto:. See N. on I. 9. § 13. 

20t 'Eay 5* ay, but if on the other hand. The argument is, that in case the 
Persians were victorious in this night assault, the destruction of the bridge 
would not be necessary for the reasons specified ; and if they should lose the 
battle, nothing could be more ruinous to them than thus to cut off the means 
of retreat and preclude those on the other side of the river from coming to 

their aid. iroKKcav vj/twu irepay, rnany being the other side (of the river). 

irepav is here used absolutely. Cf. Butt. Lexil. N. 91. 

22« TSts 5'/) Kai, then indeed. vwoTrefi^aL^y {^= fiera ^6\ov i K7re fixpaiey. 

So Suidas), had privily sent. Cf. Thucyd. lY. 46. § 5. okvovvt^s fx)] — 

ixivoi^v. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 17. oKvovvres borrows past time from viroircfi- 

xf/aiey upon which it depends.' di^Xovres is adopted, on the conjecture of 

Holzmann, by the best critics instead of dieT^^SuTcs, which destroys the obvious 

sense of the passage. Wjcr^?. So called from its being inclosed by the 

river and canal. Cf. § 17 supra. epvixara is in apposition with TiypTjTa 

and 5tcopux«» ey^-ey fiev — ^y^^y 5e, hiiic—illinc^ 07i the one hand — 07i the 

other. aya^?}Si fertile. — "— rcoy ipyaaofieycoy iyoyrcoyy there being men in 

the country to cultivate it. See N. on 3. § 5. The peasantry would be neces- 
sary to tiU the land and supply the Greeks with necessary food. airocrpO' 

(p)j (= Karacpvyf]. So. Phav.) yevoiro, might become a refuge^ a place- of refuge. 

Cf. Cyr. Y. 2. § 23 ; Herod. YIII. 109; Demosth. Phil. I. 8. t\s, any 

one (of the king's subjects). _^^ 

23* Mera ravTa, after these things. fi^yroi — o^ucuy, never^theless^ i. e. 

although they did not believe the messenger, ixiyroi serves here to strengthen 

oiidDS. Kai ovT^ iir^^ero ovdels ovdafiS^^y, but no one from any quarter 

attacked them. Notice the accumulation of negatives. Cf. S. § 230. 1 ; H. 
§ 843 ; K. § 177. 6. See also I. 6. § 11 ; 8. § 20. 

24. Q3S oT6y re ixaKio'Ta irecpuXay/j.^ycos, ^'' tcith every possible precaution.^^ 

Felton. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 17. ruy irapa Tica-acbepyovs 'ETO^'fjyciuy^ of those 

Greeks (who were) with Tissaphernes. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 5. — ^— Cos Biafiaiydy- 
ro)v ^jL^KKoi^v iTTi^cr^a'^aif that (the Persians) were about to attack them (i. e. 

302 NOTES. [Book II 

the Greeks) while they were crossing. For the construction of ^la^aivSurcay^ 
cf. S. § 225. 2; II. § '790. a ; K. § 1Y6. 1 (a); of fx^Woteu im^-fjcreff^ai, cf. S. 
§ 89. 2 ; H. § '711 ; K. § 125. 1'7. For the use of the mid., see S. § 209. 1 ; 
n. § 688. 1 ; K. § 149. 2. Poppo follows the common reading iiriTL^ea-^at, 

dia^aiySvTcay fiei/TOL (sc. avrcoy, Cf. N". on I. 2. § 17), however^ while they 

were crossing. ahrois belongs logically to diafiaivSyrwy, but takes its case 

from iirecpdyr]. See N. on Ka^Syra, I. 2. § 1. d ^la^aiyoiey, whether they 

were crossing. eTrel Se ^idey, SC. avTohs dia^aiyoyras. ^X^'^^ aiTEXavycoy 

= air-fi^affe, he rode away. Cf. S. § 225. 8 ; II. § '796 ; K. § 175. 3. e. The 
cowardice and duplicity of the Persians are seen in this whole affair. 

25. ^vcTKoy. Rennell thinks that this is the river now called Diala or 
Deallah. Others, as Ainsworth and Rawlinson, are inclined to identify the 
Physcus with the ancient canal, Katur or Nahrawan. The city of Opis was 
one of considerable importance, having its rise in the decline of the Assyrian 
cities on the Tigris, and its wane from the founding of the cities Seleucia and 

Apamea, by the Seleucidas. aTri^yrTjce = iyervx^^ met. ^—- yS^os aSeA^Js, 

illegitimate brother. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 1. 'Xovccoyj Susa, "a celebrated 

city of Susiana in Persia, situated on the east side of the Eulaeus or Choaspes. 
On account of its being sheltered from the north-east wind by a high ridge of 
mountains, it became from the time of Cyrus the Great, the winter residence 
of the Persians. It is celebrated in Scripture as the place where Daniel saw 
the visiGU of the ram and he-goat, and where Ahasuerus kept his splendid 
feast. Sir John Malcolm says, '4ts ruins are not less than 12 miles in extent, 
and that wild beasts roam at large over a spot where once stood some of the 

proudest palaces ever raised by human art." 'EKPardycoy, Echatana^ a city 

of Media, and next to Babylon and Nineveh, one of the strongest and most 
beautiful cities of the East. It was the summer residence of the Persian 
kings. ois Por}^'f}(ra)y. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 3. 

2G. els dvo, tioo and two, i. e. two abreast. Cf. Vig. p. 226. XIY. See 

also N. on I. 2. § 15. IxXAore Koi 6.Wor€ i<pi(TTdpLeyos, halting now and 

then. o(Toy 5* \av\ XP^^^^^ ^'^ ^^'^^ff ^^^^^ ^^•> corresponds to roarovrov xp^' 

vov in the next member. Cf. S. § 76. 1 ; K. § 63. a; H. § 247. rb r^yov' 

fievoy, the van. ima'T'lja'ctey sc. cavrS. So Mt. § 521. But Schneid., Born., 

and Pop., supplying d KAeapxos, make rh riyovfieyoy the object of iirio'T'fja'eie. 
So also Kriiger, who, however, adopts the common reading imcrrrj, and ob- 
jects to the employment of the opt. on the ground that Uy ought in that case 
to be omitted. But that the opt. sometimes takes tty in such a construction, 

see Mt. § 527. 06s. 2 ; Butt. § 139. 3. roaovroy ^y aydyKTj XP^^^^ ^** ^^^" 

rov (TTparcvixaros ylyyecr^ai r^]y iiricTaffiy^ so long a time^ a halt of necessity 
took place through the whole army ; or more briefly, the whole army necessarily 
halted. For the construction of yiyycar^aty cf. S. § 222. 2; H. § 767; C. 
§ 620. (6). rhy Uepa-'nyi i- e. the brother of the king. 

27. MrjUas refers to the country east of the middle Tigris. *€ls ras 

Chap, v.] NOTES. 303 

TlapvffdTidos Kd> Cf. K on I. 4. § 9. Col. Chesney places these villages 
about three miles beyond the Lesser Zab, a river -which Xenophon passes over 

in silence. Kupw i-K^yy^xSiy^ insulting Cyrus, i. e. the memory of Cyrus. 

ttXtiv aydpairSdooyf except slaves^ i. e. they were permitted to enslave none 

of the inhabitants. 

28* TTcpay rod TroTafiov, on the other side of the river, ''^iripavy beyond^ on 

ihe other side^ chiefly of rivers and other waters." Butt. § llY. 1. Kai- 

yai, supposed to be the Cannah of i^ekiel, 27 : 23. Ainsworth finds its site 
in the ruins of Kalah Shirgat, Col. Chesney, at the ruins of Ur, three or four 

miles below Shirket. eVl cxeSias Bitp^epivais, in rafts (see N. on I. 5. 

§ 10) o/* tanned skins. 


1. ZdParov, Zabatus, now called the Greater Zab, to distinguish it from 
another river of the same name farther down, which is called the Lesser Zab. 
It is one of the principal tributaries of the Tigris, and Ainsworth says, at cer- 
tain seasons of the year brings down a larger body of water than the main 
stream. Its course is at first S. E., and then it turns and flows S. W. until its 
confluence with the Tigris. viro^piai. See N. on 4. § 11. 

2. (rvyyevi(r^aL, to have an interview with. dvvairOf sc. iravirai rhs 

vTroTpias. iravcrai, to cause to cease. irpXv — yevca^ai. Cf. S. § 223. 3. 

H. § 769 ; K. § 183. R. e'l axtrcay, i. e. the suspicions. ipovvra on — 

XPvCoi, to say (S. §'225. 5) that he wished. avT(^ refers to Tissaphernes. 

3t olda ^]ixiu opKovs yey€V7)fj,evovs (cf. N. on fjde(raj/ avrhv rc^j/tjKora, I. 10. 
§ 16) = I know that we have sworn, and hence is followed by fx^ adiK^](r€iv aX- 
AtjAouj, not to injure one another, as the cognate accusative (S. § 181. 2; H. 

§ 547), or perhaps the synecdochical accusative (S. § 182; H. § 549). 

ojs, as — supposing us to be. H. § 875. a. ^^as depends on {pvKaTrS/JLe- 

vov, guarding against its. See N. on 4. § 10. 

4. (TKoiruif, watching closely. oure is followed by re in the next mem- 
ber. Cf. N. on ^^re — re, 2. § 8. toctovtov ov^iv, no such thing. els 

\6yov5 (Toi i\^e7y, ^Ho come to an tender standing with you; literally, to come 
to words with you.'' Eelton. For <rol, cf. H. § 602. 1 ; K. § 161. 2. jS; S. 

§ 202. 1. oiras ct dvva(fjL€^a i^eXoifxcv aW'fjKcou tV airia-Tiay (= virorf/iav), 

that, if possible, we might remove our mutual distrust. ^..,— ««-.-— -"• 

-« 5. Kal yap olda ijdrj, for I have already (i. e. before now) known. . 

Poppo says that robs fJLcv — robs Se — o* — iiroififfav is a kind of anacoluthon for 
Siv 01 fiey — ol §€ — iTrol7j<Tav^ or ol iTroiTjcay, at fjihy — at Be. Kriiger thinks 
that the writer began the sentence as if he would have written €{ virorl/las, 
tpo^Tj^cvras — ^ov\oix4vovs — iroiii(rairras, but changed the construction to avoid 
the recurrence of so many participles. Cf. Mt. § 631. 4. /ca/, even, 

304 NOTES. [Book IL 

(po^Tj^eyrcs aA\^\ous. See N. on 4. § 10. (p^do'ai PovXSficvoi irpiv Ttabuv, 

wishing to injlict an injury before they received one — desiring to avert danger 
by striking the first blow. For the construction, see N. on <pbdaco(n KaraXa- 

^SyTes, I. 3. § 14. iiroirjcrav .... oySeV, have injlicted irreparable injuries 

upon those who were neither intending nor wishing to do any such thing. For 
the construction of rovs — yJWoyras (sc. -Tror/jcrai), cf. S. § 184. 1 ; H. § 655; 
K. § 160. 2. 

6. ayv(a}xo(Tvvas^ misunderstandings, yj/cw, / am come, 

T. Clearchus now proceeds to show that the Persians had no reason to dis- 
trust the Greeks. irptaTOv fj.hj/ yap Koi ixiyicrov^ for first and greatest^ i. e. first 

in order and importance. ol ^euy opKoiy the oaths (sworn by) the gods, ^euv 

is the object, gen. S. § 187. N. 1 ; H. § 565. rovrcav depends on iraprjfieXrj' 

Kd)5, Cf. S. § 193; H. § 576 ; K. § 158. 6. I. (c). cvvoih^v avT^'—Trap'n/.i,^' 

\r]Kc6s. See N. on I. 3. § 10. ovt airh ttoIov ti.y rdxovs^ neither by means of 

what speed, airocpvyoi — airodpaii], Notice the distinction in the meanings 

of these words referred to in N. on I. 4. § 8; II. 2. § 13. ckStos^ da^'k- 

71655 = dark place. *' ottws pertinet ad ix^P^^t T^^ modo munitum,^'* 

Weiske, cited by Kriiger. irdyrri yap irdyra, for all things everywhere. 

For the construction of these kindred words, cf. S. § 239. The sublimity of 
this passage ought not to pass unnoticed. It shows that worthy ideas of the 
gods (alas, that it should be ^ewy and not (S-eoD) could find a place in a heathen 

mind. Cf. Ps. 139 : 1-12. i/Voxa = vTrox^ip^a. Kparova-i, are masters. 

For its construction with irdyrooy, cf. S. § 189; H. § 581. a; K. § 158. 7. (a). 
Matthias (§ 359. Obs, 1) says that npareiy = KpeLo-a-co dyai takes the gen. from 
the idea of comparison included in it. It is sometimes constructed with the 
dat. (cf. Mt. § 360. a), and sometimes with the accus. (Mt. § 360. 6), espe- 
cially in the sense to conquer, Cf. Y. 6. § 9 ; YII. 6. § 32. See also S. § 189. 
N; K. § 158. R. 9. 

8» Trap' oTs Tj/ieis r^y (piXiay cvy^efx^yoi /care.^e^eS-a, with whom we^ having 
formed an alliance^ have deposited our friendship. By the solemn oaths and 
sacrifices with which the league of friendship was ratified, a virtual deposit of 
it was made with the gods. Hence, as this deposit was the result of a mutual 
and harmonious arrangement, neither party clandestinely or without just cause 
could withdraw it, and become secret or open enemies to their sworn friends. 

Twy §€ ay^pairiycay is opposed to irepl fi\y ruy ^ewv in the preceding 

member, and limits fxiyiffroy, Cf. S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 559; K. § 158. 3. R. 1. 

(c). c\ eycoye. The position of these words is beautiful and emphatic. 

iy T(p 'irap6yTi^ at the present time, 

9t yap coi. Pop. writes ydp coi on the ground that <rt7^, as opposed to 
'dyev in the next clause, is the emphatic word. But it is easy to see that an 

emphasis even then rests on the pronoun. Cf. Butt. § 14. 7. irao-a fih 

7]fuy odSsy every way to us = our whole journey, K. § 148. 10. c. (a); H. 
§ 637; S. § 170, N. 3. For the construction of iiriTTidelwy, see N. on 

Chap." V.] NOTES. 305 

h.y^p(t}Tro}y^ I. 7. § 3. ^ih. ckotovs = CKoreiyf]^ dark^ i. e. unknown, unex- 
plored. (po^epos^ fearful^ i. e. an object of fear. (po^epuraroy^ a most 

fearful (thing). "When the adject, is a predicate, it often stands in the 
neut. sing., although the subject is masc, fern., or in the plur." Mt. § 437. 
4. Cf. TToraixovs airopov, III. 2. § 22. C. §450. 7; H. § 522; S. § 157. 1. c; 
K. § 147. (b). epTjfila is opposed to tx^os. 

10. Et 5e 5'/; Kai, hut if indeed. ^Wo tl tLV -}) rhy evspyirTju KaraKrd- 

p-avTsSy what else (would happen) than having slain our benefactor. For the 

construction of }j.\\o ri, cf. S. § 219. 5; II. §§ 508. b; 829. a. ^cpedpou. 

In the public games, the candidates were matched by lot. In case of an odd 
number, he who drew it was called e(peBpos (iirl and edpa, a seat), and awaited 
the issue of the contest in order to be opposed to the conqueror. Cf. Man. 

Cias. Lit. § 81. p. 497. "0(rce;z/ 5e 07; kolI oiW tiu iXirldccu ifxavrhy crrep'ljo'O' 

fiat, of hoio many and lohat hopes I should deprive myself. S. § 200. 3 ; II. 
§ 580. a; C. § 357. 

11. 'yap {illustrantis. See K on I. 6. § 6) introduces an explanation of the 

preceding proposition. Cf. Mt. § G15. rooy rore (sc. avroy, the subj. of 

ehai). See K on 2. § 20. tv .- iKeTvoy '6y. S. § 172. 4 ; H. § 810; K. 

§ 182. 7. Kvpov BvyafjLiy, i. e, the army of Cyrus which Ari^us was now 

leading. X^P^^i i- ^- ^^^ satrapy referred to, I. 1. § 2. ryjy dh Paa-L- 

AectJS dvyafiiy, y Kvpos TroX^fiia 6Xp'y}T0, col ravrrjy cvfifxaxoy ovaay, and the 
hinfs power, which Cyrus found hostile (== which was hostile to Cyrus) being 
in alliance ivith you, {— being your support). For the construction of exoyrcs, 
Ci^Coyra, and odcray, cf. S. § 225. 7; II. § 799. 3 ; K. § 175. 1 ; of rauTTjy, cf. 
K on Ttturas, I. 10. § 18. 

12* TovTcoy Ze roiovTcay oyrcay, these things being so. ccrris ov jGovAe- 

rat, as not to wish. o(Tris after ourca is put for ojcrre efceo^os. Cf. Mt. § 479, 

Obs. 1; H. § 822; C. § 531. Cf. 6. § 6; YII. 1. § 28. 'A\\^ fx-f^y, fur- 

thermore. epa) .... dyai. I have given this clause the marks of paren- 
thesis, on the authority of Weiske, Schneider, and Poppo. But Kriiger makes 
it an anacoluthon, the construction, as commenced, requiring something like 
Kal TjfL^ls TToXAa v/xas cjcpeXeTy duyqcroiJL^^a. Cf. Mt. § G31. 2. See also N. on 
III. 2. § 11. 

13. yap in fihy yap serves to explain ravra in the preceding proposition. 

Cf. Mt. § 615 (end) ; also K on § 11 supra. olda — Mucrows — uyras, I know 

that the Mysians are. See N. on I. 2. § 21. Construct Uy with irapa(xx^''iv 

in dependence upon yofxi^w, whom I think that I might render. TaTciyovs 

vfuy, subject to you. aKovca — elyai. Mt. says (§ 549. 6. Obs. 2) uKoveiy, to 

hear intelligence of something, to receive inforination from hearsay, commonly 

takes the infinit. instead of the participle. Cf. Host, § 129. 4. c. Toiavra, 

i. e. of the same disposition with the Mysians and Pisidians. 1 ol/jiat Uy 

iravcrai iyox^ovyra aet, which I think I can cause to cease from continually 
disturbing. For the construction of 'Kavaai iyox^ovyra, see reference on 

306 NOTES. [Book II. 

^X^vT^f § 11 supra; of cvdaifjLovic^y cf. S. § 201. 2; H. § 544. c. Alyv 

irriovs follows Ko\d(rea'^€ in the next clause. ovx opw iroia dvva/xei cvfifjid' 

XV Xpfl^oLfjL^voL fiaWov Uv Ko\d(re(r^€ ttjs vvv cvv ifiol ovcrTis^ I see not what 
allied force you can better employ to chastise than the one now with me ; lit. 
by using what allied force you can better chastise^ &c. iroia. The interroga- 
tive pronominal adjectives are used in indirect as well as in direct questions. 
Cf. S. § 164. hv is to be taken with xpvo'dfievoiy which it weakens, tyjs — 
oi(T7]s = ^) i-y ofjcry. Cf. Mt. § 454. Obs. 2; Butt. § 132. N. 19; S. § 198; 
II. § 660; K. § 168. 3. 

^ 14. 'AAAa fx^jv — 76, but still further, yet more. irepi^ (= Trcpl taken 

absolutely), round about, t$ = rivL See N. on I. 9. § Y. us fiiyi- 

crosy the very greatest. S. § 159. 5 ; H. § 664. Repeat <pi\os from the pre- 
ceding clause, and supply excov Tjfias virrjperas from the clause below. cos 

decTrSTTjs avacrrpecpoio, as a master you may conduct yourself (towards him). 
ayacrrpe( in the middle signifies to turn oner's self around; hence, to inove 

about (among persons) ■= to live, to pass one'^s time, to conduct one'^s self. 

T7)s x"'P^'^^^' Supply €V€ica from the preceding clause. V crw^^eVrcs virh 

crou (Tol Uj/ ^xoi/JLeu diKaiws, which we should justly owe you as our deliverer, 
(Tca^evTes virh cod, having been saved by you, 

15. ovTM — ^avjxa(rr6v, so strange. t^ a\ rjfuu aTriffrup is the subject 

of So/cf?. Cf. S. § 153. a; H. § 494. a. rovj/o/xa (i.e. rh tvofxa) t/s = 

the name of him who, etc. See C. § 537. 3. out<o deii/hs \eyeiy, so skilfid 

to speak = so eloquent a. speaker, Cf. S. § 22-2. 6 ; H. § '767. aTrTjjxeicp^r], 

1 aor. of airaixellBsa'^ai, a Homeric word for airoKpiv^ff^ai, 

16. 'AA\' Ti^oyuai ixlv — aKovQjv, well, I am pleased to hear. See N. on 
aK\d, 1. § 20. For the construction of aKovwv, cf. S. 225. V ; H. § 800. 4. 
*D.s 5*, but in order that, "hv fJid^rfs, you may perhaps learn. 

IT. eV y, by means of which, iv with its case is here used instead of the 

simple dative oi means, Cf. Mt. § 396. Obs. 2. avrnrdcrx^iv Se oi»5e2s KtV 

^vvos, and there would be no danger of suffering in turn. For the construc- 
tion of avrnrdffx^iv, cf. S. § 222. 2 ; H. § V6Y. '~ 

^18. 'AAAa is here used in proposing an objection in an interrogative form, 
which the speaker himself answers. For the construction of x^ptwy — airopeii/, 

cf. S. § 200. 3; of imrrj^eicay—iTriTi^ecr^ai, S. § 222. 6; H. § 767. ov 

Toa-avra fxey iredia — diaTrop^vea^e, are you not passing through so many plains, 

iropevrda is constructed with vfuu. Cf. S. § 206. 4; H. § 805. & 

^ eletrrt irpoKaraXa^ova'iy &iropa vfuv 'jrap4x^i^, which by preoccupying we 
can make impassable to you. For TrpoKaraXa^ova'iv in the dat. with rjfuu, in- 
stead of the accus. with the omitted subject of irapix^iv, cf. N. on 1. § 2. 

ra/jAevea-^ai (from rafxlas, a steward), to lay by for use, and hence, to use mod- 
eratcly, is applied to soldiers who do not expend their whole strength in the 
first attack, but so reserve it as to be able to fight repeatedly ; or, instead of 
attacking the enemy in a body, select no more than they can encounter with 

Chap. V.] NOTES. 307 

success. The latter is the sense here. By means of the rivers the Persians 
could divide the Greek forces, and by letting a part pass over before the at- 
tack was made, encounter just the number they pleased. Cf. Cyr. III. 3. 

§ 47; Thucyd. YI. 18. § 3. EtVl 5* avrioy^ sc. rwv iroraficci/, Cf. K on 

I. 5. § 7. irayTaTracn^ at all. 

19t 'AAAc^, yet. rol = you know. yh belongs to Trvp, Jire at 

least. hu TjixeTs duvaifie^* &y KaraKavcaj/Tes Xifxhy vfjuv avrird^oLi^ by 

burning which we could array famine against you. vdvv aya^oi, ever so 


20t tv ovv — rovTov Hy. For the repetition of ^y, cf. K on I. 3. § 6. 

irSpovs^ ways^ means. fi-qdeya conforms to cxoures, on the supposition that 

we have. S. § 229. 3 ; H. § 789. e ; K. § 176. 1. c. rovrov Uv rhv rpS- 

irov^ that very mode. irphs ^euv. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 6. 

21. airopcoy icrrl^ it is the part of those without resources. For the con- 
struction, cf. S. § 190; H. § 572. c; K. § 158. 3. (a). koI rovrcay -kovt]- 

pwy, and of those too (who are) without principle. Cf. N. on koX ravTa^ I. 4. 
§ 12. In this sentence there are two modes of construction combined, airo. 
p(ap icrl — TO e^-eAetv, which is the natural order, being changed to airSpcoj/ 

icrrl—oiTives i^e\ov(n. Cf. Mt. § 632. 6. o'tTiues = on. H. § 822. airi- 

(rrias^ perfidy, a.\6yi(rToi^ void of reason^ inconsiderate. 

22. ^hXKh Ti 5'/) u^as i^ov airoXecrat, but why, indeed, when it was in our 
poiver to destroy you. For e|oV, cf. S. § 226. b; K. § 176. 3; H. § 792. a; 

C. §868. €7rl TovTo ^jK^o/xev, ^'' hoc conati sumus.'''' Kriig. tovtov 

(i. e. rod ix^ iirl tovto i?\^s7u) depends upon a'lTioSj with which rod .... ycyi- 
c^ai is in apposition, being a varied expression of ovk iirl tovto ijK^ofjLey. 
Crosby (Gram. § 622) makes rb (put for tov) to7s ''EWrja-iy i[X€ mcxThy y^yi- 
<r3-at depend on ip^as, and translates, "wry desire of securing the confidence of 
the Greeks was the cause of this. Dind. and Born., after the Eton MS., read 
rb — y^yiff^ai. Although this is admissible (cf. Mt. § 543. Obs. 3), yet the 
common reading is to be preferred. See Mt. § 542. Obs. 1. b. j8; S. § 221. 2. 

^ has TovT^ in the next clause for its antecedent. S. § 173. ^^yiKcp 

is placed after the relative by attraction. S. § 175. R. 1. fjna-^o^ocrias is 

opposed to cvepysa-las. 

23. "Oo-a, in how many loays, limits the meaning of xpV^AiO'* S. § 182; 

H. § 549; K. § 159. 3. (7). See also H. § 548. tI Se fxeyiffToy. This 

refers to the idea hinted at in the next clause, which, if carried into execution, 
would place the Greeks on the same footing with Tissaphernes, as that on 

which they had stood with Cyrus. Tidpav — opb'^y, an upright tiara, those 

of the king's subjects being soft and flexible, and therefore falling on one side. 
Concerning this royal prerogative, cf. Cyr. VIII. 3. § 13; Joseph. Antiq. Jud. 

XX. 3 ; Dion. Chrysost. XI Y. t)]v S' M ti} uapdia — exot. Repeat op^^-jy, 

and render may have {= wear) «?i upright one upon (i. e. in) his heart. Tissa- 
phernes intimated to Clearchus, that he intended to revolt from the king, and 

308 NOTES. [Book IL 

should therefore need the assistance of the Greeks. This was done the more 
effectually to conceal his treacherous designs. 

21. clirep — €(^77, sc. 6 Kx^apxos. Kriiger remarks that when elTre is not 
accompanied by rdde or w5e, e(^?7 is added pleonastically, oitivcs repre- 
sents iK^Tuoi (S. § 172. 4; IL § 810) the omitted subject of eiVt. ds 

(piXiau = to promote friendshij). 5i a/3a Woyres, by slanderinc/, Clearchus 

suspected Menon to have been the author of the misunderstanding, yet he 
uses the plural, as a softer way of giving utterance to his suspicions. 

25. ol CTparTjyol — ol Kox^JoX arc in apposition with u^eTs the omitted sub- 
ject of ^ovhicr^^. iu T(p ificpay^T = (pavepCos, ^''palam^ i. e. sine insidiis,^^ 


2i7» 'E/c TovTooy drj twu AJywy, when the conference wan ended^ lit. after 
these coords. The reason that Tissaphernes did no violence to Clearchus at 
this time, was his hope to decoy more of the generals and cohort leaders into 

the snare he so artfully had laid, than were then present. irduv (piXiKccs 

oU^^vos diaK€7a^ai rep Tioraacpipv^i^ that he thoucjht his relations to Tissa- 
phernes icere very friendly = that Tissaphernes was very well disposed towards . 

him, ^LaK^aboLi is here used subjectively. eAeyej/. Cf. N. on ^icav^ I. 1. 

§ 6. ol . , . . dia^dWoyreSj who should be convicted of calumniating/ hiniy 

i.e. Tissaphernes. ruy 'E\\'f]i/caj/ depends on at S. §§ 188. 1; 559; E. 
§ 158. 3. R. 1. cl's .... uj/ras^ as being themselves traitors and evil dis- 
posed to the Greeks. avrovs is put for tovtovs (Mt. § 469. 8), and is the 

antecedent of oL 

28. ^Ivai rhy dia^dWovra McVwj/a, that Menon was the calumniator. Cte- 
sias apud Phot. Biblioth. p. 130, says: KXcapxos — koI yiivwv ael did(popoi 
aAATjAofs irvyxci'yoy • diSri r^ jaly KXedpxfp airayra 6 Kvpos cvye(iov\€V€ rod 

th M^ycoyos x6yos ovZ^ls ^y. crracrid^oyTa. avT$^ was creating a party 

against him (i. e. Clearchus). <!p[Kos -q Ti(Ta'ad)€pyei^ i. e. might commend 

himself to the friendly consideration of Tissaphernes, which he could the more 
easily do if he had the whole army under his command. 

29. irphs eaurhy exerz/ tV yyc^iJ-rjyy should be inclined to him^ should follow 
him as leader , lit. should have their attention directed to him. Cf. Thucyd. 
III. 25. § 2. On the use of the article in T)]y yycvfjLTjy, cf. N. on 'n-poo'^xoyTi 

rhy vovy^ I. 5. § 9. ayrcX^yoy — ^^7; Uyai irdyras^ spoke in opposition — that 

all should 7iot go. Cf. S. § 230. 3; H. § 837; K. § 177. 7. 

30. icx^pcos Karcreiyey^ exerted himself strenuously. The infatuation of 
Clearchus can only be accounted for in his excessive desire to expose the base 
intrigues of Menon, which rendered him blind to all prudential considerations. 

eo-re, until. ws els ayopdy^ as though going to market. They were 

consequently unarmed. 

32. aTrh rod avrov c-rj/xdoVy at the same signal. Diodorus says, that a 
purple flag was run up from the tent of Tissaphernes. 0.1^6^ from., refers 
to the issuing forth of a command by means of the signal. Cf. hah 

Chap. V.] NOTES. 309 

irapaYyiXcecos, IT. 1. § 5. ^rivi — Travras. Cf. S. § 172. S ; H. 

§ 514. d. 

33* liriracriay^ riding about. A verbal ncun from iTnrd^ofxat. S. § 139; 

H. § 460. a. o TL iiroiovy i]fjL(piyy6ouVj they were in doubt as to lohat (the 

Persians) were doing. "^pf-v-, until. 

34. 'E/c rovTov 07^, hnmediately. vofxl^ovres avTisca Yj^eiv avrovs iirl rh 

crpctToireBoy^ tJdnking that they (i. e. the Persians) ^could forthwith come to 
(i. e. attack) the camp. So any one would have supposed. For if the Greeks, 
in the first moments of their surprise and consternation, had been attacked by 
the Persian cavalry, they most likely would have all shared the fate of their 
unfortunate generals. But their foes contented themselves with cutting off a 
few stragglers, and then reacted the vain farce (cf. 1. §§ 7-23) of demanding 
the arms of those whom they had not the courage to attack, even when de- 
prived of their principal leaders. But as Rennell truly observes, ^'villany 
seldom sees its way clear enough to accomplish its utmost designs." 

86. d TLs. Cf IS' . on I. 4. § 9. €^7?. Cf S. § 215. N. 6 ; H. § 1U ; 

K. § 188. For the construction of crrpar-nyhs and Aoxayos, see S. § 175. 

2 ; II. § 809. 'iva awayyei\(o<ri, Cf K on I. 9. § 27. 

37. ^Opxofi^yios^ an Orchomenian. Orchomenus was a name common to 
several cities in Greece. The one to which Cleanor belonged was in Arcadia. 

TO. Trepl Tlpo^evov^ the things about (i. e. concerning) Proxenus = the fate 

of Proxenus. Xeipia'o(pos S* k. t. \. The absence of Chirisophus is given 

as a reason why he was not of the number who went out to meet the Persian 

38. ds i-jr^jKoov^ within hearing . distance. The preposition imparts to 

iffrricrav the idea of previous motion. See N. on I. 1. § 3. Koi re^vTjKe is 

epexegetical of rV diKrju^ and may be rendered, namely^ death. aTraire?. 

This verb signifies to demand from any one what is one's own or is justly due to 
him. Cf Y. 8. § 4. For its construction with v/j,as and oVAa, cf S. § 184. 1 ; 
H. § 553 ; K. § 160. 4. a. Kvpov .... dov\ou, they belonged to Cyrus his 

39. ol 'aXKoL^ sc. v^eTs. ovk al<Txyv^<^^^ .... av^pdoirovs. See N". on 

8. § 22. i](j.7i/ Tovs avrovs (piXovs Koi ix^povs uofJLieTuy to co7isider the same 

persons friends and enemies which we do. For the construction of ^ju?r, cf. 
Butt. § 133. K 14; S. § 202. 1 ; H. § 603. 2; K. § 161. 2. (b). vop.lClv. Cf 

K on Ka^iuv., 1. § 4. Cos in this place has furnished much trouble to 

critics and commentators. Some conjecture that it should be omitted, others, 
that it stands for o^ws, and others, that it should be written ias. But the MS. 
testimony is too unanimous to admit of its erasure ; and oixcas^ which Bind, 
calls " frigidam Stephani conjecturam," is equally as troublesome to dispose of; 
while C)s is never found except in the formulas, naX ws, oh^^ ws, etc. (cf. Mt. 
§ 628 end). But the difficulty disappears, if we suppose that the speaker, iq 
the vehemence of his feelings having overlooked his previous use of o'lrives = 

310 NOTES. [Book IL 

oTi (cf. Mt. § 480. c; Butt. § 143. 11 ; H. § 813), repeated &5 = on (cf. Mt. 
§ 628. 5; Butt. § 149; H. § 733. That the construction is somewhat dis- 
turbed appears from irpodoi/res — "n-podeZcoKores. ovk ala-xvuecr^e — oirivcs ojuS- 
ffavTcs — us^cnro\a)\€KaT€, may then be rendered, are you not ashamed — that 

lohen you had sworn — that you (I say) have destroyed. kqX tovs aWovs — 

€(^' Tjfxas. Kriig. conjectures that the order is, koI iir\ revs &\\ovs rj/xas (cf. 
Mt. § 595. 3) ffvv ToTs iroXcfjiiots epx^o'^^, thus omitting the participle TrpoSeSco- 
k6ts5. But if it be borne in mind, that the natural expression of high mental 
excitement is a multiplied and disordered use of epithets, we shall cease to 
wonder at the confused structure of the sentence, or the needless repetition of 
any of its words. 

40. K\4apxo5 ydp. The ellipsis implied by yap (cf. K on I. 1. § 6) may 
thus be supplied: (we have done no wrong) /or Clearchus^ &c. 

41. Kxiapxos fjieu roivvv ic. t. A. Xenophon in his reply does not intimate 
that Clearchus was guilty, but on the assumption that he was so, acknowledges 
the justice of his punishment. He employed the arguynentum ad horninem, 
i. e. he granted that Clearchus, if guilty, had suffered justly, but argued that 
Proxenus and Menon being, as Ariaeus and his party said, in high honor, 
should be restored to their troops. This was a brief but unanswerable argu- 
ment, and clearly exposed the duplicity of the Persians. 


1. ws paciXea. Cf. N. on I. 2. § 4. airoTfiyj^et/Tes ras KecpaXdsy hav- 
ing been beheaded. Cf. S. § 182; H. § 549; K. § 159. 3. (7). Prof. Wool- 
sey remarks (N. on ^schyl. Prometh. 362), that "all such cases may be 
resolved into exw with the participle of the verb used, and the accusative." 

CIS jueV. For els in apposition with CTpaTr^yoi, cf. N. on 4. § 1. fxey 

corresponds with Se in UpS^evos 5e, § 16. ofMoXoyovjuLij/cos €K ttolvtcov tcov 

ifiireipws avTov ext^^Twy, " 6y the admission of all who knew him.'''' Felton. 

ifxirelpcos — ix^yrcoy, being familiarly acquainted, Cf. N. on I. 1. § 5. 

iffxoiTcasy to the last degree, 

2. Kai yhp B'f}, for now. yhp illustrantis. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 6. ccas, 

as long «s, refers here to an event which is certain, and therefore takes the 

indicative. Cf. Butt. § 146. 3; Mt. § 522. 1. Tr6\€fios, i. e. the Pelopon- 

nesian war. irape/xeiveyf remained in the service of the state. Opposed to 

this is ovKeri irei^erai, § 3 infra. — rovs "EWTivas who inhabited the Thra- 

cian Chersonesus. Cf. I. 3. § 4. diaTrpa^d/xcyos ws idvvaro irapa rcoy 'E(p6' 

pojy, having obtained from the Uphori (as large supplies) as he was able, ws 
i^vyaroy sc. diaTrpd^aar^ai. The "Ecpopoi from time to time had assumed much 
greater powers than were originally given them by Lycurgus. They had all 

Chap. VL] NOTES. 311 

the outward symbols of supreme authority, were the arbiters of peace and war, 
had the control of the public money, and could even fine or imprison their 

kings. ws iro\€fX'}]<r(i)v. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 3. toTs — Qpa^iv^ sc. oIkov- 

civ. U^piv^ovy Perinthus, a Thracian city on the Propontis. 

3« fMcrayvouTes ttws, having somehow (i. e. for some reasons) changed their 

mind. ^JStj I'Iw vvtos avTov, when he had now departed. 'Icr^^jUoG, i. e. 

the isthmus of Corinth. 4x^'^° TrAecov, he sailed away. Cf. S. § 225. 8 ; 

K. § 1Y5. 3. (e); H. § 796. 

4t e^avardj^T]^ he was condemned to death. reXwVy magistrates = 

Ephori. — — oTToiois .... yeypairrat. A difficult clause, since, by referring to 
I. 1. § 9, we find only Kvpos rjyda-^ avrov. Kriig. thinks that Xenophon, 
memories vitio, thought he narrated more in I. 1. § 9, than he really did. It 
is evident that nothing can be said of the passage which is not mere conjec- 
ture. €7r€i(r€ Kvpov to give him 10,000 darics. 

5« cLTrh TOVToVy sc. Tou xp^^^^' €(l>€pe Kal ^yey, agebat et ferehat^ he 

Xavaged^ plundered. ttoXcjucou Sic^eVero, he continued to wage war. S. 

§ 225. 8; H. § 798. 2; K. § 175. 3. (c). f^^XP^s ov = ix€Xpi tovtov rod 

Xpovov oT€y until the time when^ until that. Cf. Mt. § 480. b. 

6* 4^6y. Cf. N. on 5. § 22. pa^vfjL€7j/ (from pd^ws^ easy, and ^v/ios^ 

temper\ to be easy-tempered^ free frmn care. In this place as opposed to -iro- 

yea/, it signifies to be at ease^ to be without labor. ^ovX^rai prefers^ a 

sense which Butt. (Lexil. No. 35) says this verb seldom has in prose, but which 

is here discoverable by its antithesis with ^^hv pa^v/xeTv. wa-re TroXejueTy, 

in order that he might carry on war, Cf. S. § 223. 1 ; H. § '770; K. § 186. 

1. (a). fieiopa ravra Trotety, to diminish it, i.e. his wealth. iraidiKd. 

See N. on § 28 infra. • ourw (S. § 17. 1), thus = to such a degree. 

7t TKurp, m this respect. re corresponds with koI in Kal eV rols ^eiyo7s. 

Cf. S. § 236. N. 3 ; H. § 855. a. ey ro7s d€iyo?s^ in the dangers (of war) 

— in battles. at irapSj/res, i. e. those who had personal knowledge of his 

courage and conduct in the hour of danger. 

8. apxiK6sy qualified to govern. cos dvvarSuy as far as was possible. 

6/c Tov roiovTov TpoTTOv oTou Koi iK€7uos ^^X^^i /^^^ such a disposition as 

he also had. TpSirov answers here to what we call turn of mind. c3s ris 

KoX ttXAos. See N. on I. 3. § 15. 'oirtcs e'let. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 11. 

ifXTToiriffaiy to impress upon. ireKrreov etrj KXedpxv =^ ^^^ irci^ea-^ai KA.6- 

dpx^^y. Cf S. § 178. 2; H. § 804. b ; K. § 168. 1. 2. 

9. €K rod xa^^^^y cTyat, by being austere, e/c here denotes the means. 
Cf Mt. § 574. For the construction of xaXeTrc^y, cf S. § 224 ; H. § 775. 2 ; of 

eJyaf, S. § 222. 2 ; H. § 781. bp5.v arvyvSs, harsh to look upon. S. § 222. 

6 ; H. § 767 ; C. § 620. c. avre? fi€Taixe\€iv. Cf. N. on I. 6. § 7 (end). 

€0"^* ore for ecrriy ore^ sometimes ; lit. there is when. Kaiy also, 

yvdffiriy purposely^ designedly^ is opposed to opyy. Both these datives are 
used adverbially. aKoXdcrrov .... clyaiy he thought an unchasiised army 

312 NOTES. [Book II, 

was of no use; lit. there was no use (i. e. service) /rom an unchasfised army. 
C. § 381. y, 

10. fxeWoi, sc. €K€7j/o5 referring to rhv (rTparicoTTjv. For the construc- 
tion of <pv\aKas (pvXd^etv, cf. S. § 181. 2; H. § 54V. a; C. § 431; K. § 159. 

2. (piKcou a(\>4^Q(xbai^ to abstain from (bringing injury M^on) friends. I 

airpocpao'ia'Tcas^ promptly. The most important qualifications of a soldier are 
here enumerated, viz., fidelity in keeping guard, abstinence from injuring 
friends or allies, and readiness to attack the enemy. 

11. ^^eXou avTov aKOveii/ {=: irei^apx^'ty) ccpSdpa^ they willingly paid 1 dm 
prompt obedience. For the construction of fJi^eAor, cf. Butt. § 150. p. 444. 

6.X\oy, sc. (TTparrjyov. (paidpSi/, pleasantness. iy ro7s Trpoffdoirois, upon 

his countenance. A rare use of this plural de vultu unius. ippooixivou, 

perf. pass. part, of pwyyvyA. S. § 133. P. 

12. e|w rod deiyav, out of danger. Cf. S. § 195. 1 ; H. § 589; C. § 363. 

TTpbs aWovSf sc. (rrparrjyovs. apxofJieyovSy to be C07nmanded (S. § 225. 

N. 5), referring to a-rpari^ras the omitted subject of airUvai. rb yap M- 

Xapt ovK €l%e;/, for he had no suavity of manners, irrixapt is opposed to xaAe- 

irhs and ojfxhs in the next member. ^Uk^ivto irphs avT6vy were disposed^ 

had the same feelings towards him. 

13. Koi yap ovv. See N. on I. 9. § 8. T^ray\xivoiy sc. irapcTyai avrQ. 

virh rod ductal {from their being hi want) is to be constructed with /carexJ- 
lx£voL. The meaning of the passage is, that no soldiers followed him, except 
such as were commanded to do so by their state, or compelled by their own 
wants and necessities, and these were to the highest degree obedient. 

14. r6 re yap irphs rovs TroXe/xiovs ^appaXicas ex^iv "^cipw 't literally, ybr 
both to feel bold against the enemy was with them = they were not afraid of 
the enemy. The clause t6 . . . . ex^iy is the subject ofTraprjy. Cf. S. § 153. a; H. 

§ 494. a. For the construction of ^appaXicos ex€£y, cf N. on I. 1. § 5. 

(po^uc^ai ; lit. to frighten one^s self i. e. to fear ^ in which new sense it may 
be regarded as transitive. Cf Butt. § 135. 4; H. § 544. a; S. § 181. N. 2. 

15. oif fxdXa i^eXeiy = to have been greatly averse. Cf. N. on ovdly f/'x^-e- 

TO, I. 1. § 8. 

16. €v^vs [xkv fjL€ipdKiop Icu, as soon as he was a youth = while yet in ex- 
treme youth. For the construction, cf S. § 225. 2. Topyla, Gorgias of 

Leontini in Sicily. apyvpiov, i. e. tuition money. Diod. says that Gorgias 

received from each pupil 100 mince^ which, according to the value given the 
Attic drachma by Hussey (cf. N. on I. 4. § 13), would be $1805.50. It was 
probably during his residence in Thessaly that Gorgias taught Proxenus. 

17. (ruuey4j/ero iKeivM, he had been with him = had been his pupil. . 

iKav6s. Cf S. § 224 ; H. § 775. 2. 'dpx^iv and rirracbai depend upon 

UauSs. To75 TTpdoTOiSf the first ov chief men. ■■ ^^ rirracbai cyepycrwi/, 

not to be surpassed in doing good^ i. e. to be able to repay all obligations undei 
which he might lie to his friends, cvepyercoj/, a participle from cucpyercw. 


Chap. VL] NOTES. 313 

18. Toffovrav S* ^inhv}iwvy hut while greatly (im-) desiring such things, 

(r(p6dpa ^yd'n\oy av Kal tovto clx^y, on the oth^er hand^ he very plainly 

showsd this. rovTcav refers to iirL^vfjLcov. See N. on ajua|as — rauras, I. 10. 

§ 18. fxera adiKias = adiKcas. In like manner avv r^ 5i/cc5iV Hal Ka\$ = 

SiKaicas Koi /caAws. rovrcoy rvyx^^^^^' ^®® ^* § ■^^^* 2> ^* § ^^^' ^i ^• 

§ 370 ; K. § 158. 3. (b). avev 8e rovrcay^ i. e. contrary to the principles of 

justice and honor. jj.^ is highly emphatic from its position at the close of 

the sentence. 

19» aidu)^ respect. — '■ — eavrou limits aldia and <l>6(3oy, and is used objec- 
tively. S. § 187. K 1; H. § 565; C. § 392. yax^vero ^aAAoz/ tovs 

(TTpaTL^Tas^ he stood in greater awe of his soldiers. 

20. "D.i^ro .... doKe7y\ lit. he thought it sufficient for the being or seeming 
to he qualified to co7nmand^ i. e. for the real exercise or outward show of com- 
mand. QiraivELv is the subject of apK€7y. ■ Kaya^ol rcov cvvovT^av. Cf. 

S. § 188. 1; H. § 559; K. § 158. R. 1. ^vfieraxeipiarrca, easily circum- 
vented; lit. easily handled^ easy to he managed. Cf. Thucyd. VI. 85. § 3. 

^y iriay us TpiaKoyra, he was ahout thirty years old. S. § 190; H. § 572. h; 
K. § 158. 3. (a). 

21. d?}\os '^y i7ri^vfj.S)y. See N". on I. 2. § 11. \a/jL^dyoi — Kepdaiyoi, 

The verb Xajx^dyety signifies to take as by force, to receive as wages ; Kepdal" 
vot, to receive as presents. The pres. optat. here refers to a succession of 
cases and to a whole course of conduct, while the aorist would have referred 
to single acts of receiving^ getting gain^ and suffering punishment. Cf. Good- 
win, § 13. (a). ix)] didoLT} dUrjy, he might escape punishment. 

22. 'EttI .... ^cro, he thought that the shortest way to accomplish what 
he designed. For the construction of oJy (i. e. ravra wv\ cf. S. § 193 ; H. 

§ 576; K. § 158. 6. I. (a); C. § 376. e. aX-nbh — sincerity. rh avrh 

'T$ 7jAi^i&), ^^i^ ««'^«^ l^^^^^f/ with folly. S. § 202. 1 ; H. § 603. 2; C. § 400. 

23. oTcp — TOVTO). Cf. S. § 173. TovT(^ dcpcuds on iTri^ov\€vwy. S. 

§ 201 ; H. § 605; K. § 161. 2. a. y. Tujy . . . . irdyTcoy depends upon 

KarayeXcoy (cf. S. § 193; H. § 583; R. § 158. 6. I), which here signifies 
laughing at, i. e. turning into ridicule. 

24. TO. ... . Kaix^iyuv, he thought himself the only one who knew that it 
loas most easy to take the unguarded possessions of friends. p^ffTov superlative 

of paZios. S. § 65 ; H. § 223, 7 ; K. § 52. 10. For the construction of 

6i5eVai— iJz/, cf. N. on I. 10. § 16. , 

25. Q(Tovs =■ Trdyras offovSy of which, irdyTas depends upon i(po^e7TOf 

ojs e5 oiirXicrixiyovs, as (thinking them) well armed, is opposed to avdydpoiSf 
unmanly, defenceless. XpTJcTi^-ai, to use = to practise on. 

28. aydWeTai, prides himself on, exidts in, followed by the dat either 

with or without the preposition. Tcp ^^airaT^y hvyacrbai, in his ability to 

deceive, Cf. S. § 206 ; H. § 609 ; K. § 161. 4. Tcay airaidevTwy—elyai, to 

he the part of th^ uneducated. S. § 190; H. § 672. e ; K. § 168, 8. a. 


314 NOTES. [Book II. 


Kal Trap* oTs fieu cTrexeipet 'srpareveiv tpiXia, 5ia)3aAAwj/ robs vpdiTOvSy roitTOvs \ 
4^T0 Be7y KT'fjo'ao'^ai, and when he desired to become the first friend {i. Q, to \ 
occupy the foremost place in the friendship) of any persons^ he thought that j 
(in order to effect this) it was necessary to gain their friendship hy calumni- 
ating their friends (i. e. his rivals). Trap* ofy, in whose estimation, <piKi(^, in 
respect to friendship. Trpcirous, former^ with reference to Menon. tovtovs \ 
refers to the persons whose friendship Menon wished to cultivate, and is the 
antecedent of oh in the first member. 

2T. T^ . . . . irapex^ff^ai depends on i^-nxavaro. S. § 179; H. § 493. d; 

K. § 145. 3. €/c Tov cvvadiKeTv avrols, *' by becoming an accomplice in 

their crimes." Spel. hl^ov^ he wished. on irXua-ra Zvvolito koX 4^4- 

\oi hv adiK€iUy that he was very able and willing to be a villain. cvepyeaiav 

de KaT€\€yev — oVf , he charged it upon himself as an undue act of benevolence^ 
that^ &c. ; lit. he spoke against his benevolence, that, &c. 

28. Kal TO jLLcv S^ a(l)av7] e^ca'Ti Trepl avTov ipevdea-^ai, now one may lie con- 
cerning him with respect to things unseen, i. e. there is room for falsehood in 
detailing those points in Menon's character more removed from public obser- 
vation. For the construction of ra a<pavri, cf. S. § 167. 'Apialcp Se fiap- 

0dpcp ovTi K. T. A. Reference is here had to the foul and unnatural crime of 
pcederasty. Cf. Rom. 1 : 27. ay^v^ios wp yej/eLcavra. This shows the ex- 
treme youth of the parties, the one being yet without a beard, and the other 
just having one. The position of these words is strongly emphatic. 

29t OTL, because. Cf. N. on I. 2. § 21. aiKia-^eis. Some think that 

Menon was mutilated by the command of the king (cf. I. 9. § 13), and after a 
year of ignominy and suffering came to his end. Others suppose, that refer- 
ence is had in aiKKr^els to the disgrace in which he lived in consequence of 
his vile deeds. 

30* Kal TovrcDy these also. Cf. K on I. 10. § 18. is tpiXiaVj i. e. with 

respect to their treatment of friends. 


Chap. L] NOTES. 315 


!• *'Oca .... fxdxTis is the subject of the first book, and bVa .... ciroy^aTsy 

of the second. \6ya) is to be taken of the whole preceding narrative. ip 

ra7s a7royda7s, during the time of the league^ i. e. while the league was un- 
broken. These words are to be taken with iycvcro, 

2« a-Kopia, embarrasstnent^ perplexity, lirl rtus $a<n\€ccs ^vpais. Cf. 

N. on II. 4. § 4. KVK\(p 5* avrois irdvTTj, about them 07i all sides. 

ovdcls ^rif no one any longer. For the construction of 'EWddos, cf. N. on I. 

10. § 4. TcXlov. I have followed the common reading, instead of ou ^eTcj/, 

adopted by Dind., Born., Pop., and several others. Kriig. well remarks, "oO 
fi^lov non satis aptum videtur cum GrseciaB (i. e. Ionise) distantia longe major 

quam hie dicitur fuerit." Cf. II. 2. § 6. ^i^lpyov^ " reditu arcebant.^^ 

Sturz. 01 ... . ^dp^apoi, i. e. Aria3us and his party. fj.6yoi Ze /caraXe- 

Keififi^yoi ^(xav = that they had been utterly deserted by their allies. ei'S?]- 

\ov, very evident, eu is intensive like the Eng. well^ in words with which it is 

compounded. vikuj/t^s, if they should be victorious. 7yT7]r>ez/Twz/, in 

case they shoidd be worsted. X^Kp^eiji, i. e. left alive. 

3. k^vjicQs ^xovTcs, cf. N. on I. 1. § 5. hxiyoi^ few = scarcely any. 

els tV etrirepav, in (lit. up to) the evening of that day. For the con- 
struction of airov, cf. S. § 192 ; U. § 576 ; K. § 158. 5. a. cVl th -rh. 'oirXa 

= to their quarters. 4rvyxav€v (sc. (ov)^ happened to be. irarpiZuv 

yoviiov K. T. A. The grouping of these objects of desire is rendered more close 
and emphatic by the asyndeton. The despondency into which the army sank, 
after the treacherous seizure of the generals, is here given with great pathos 
and force. 

4* %v avrhs ecpj] Kpelrro) kavrQ vo^i^eiv t?}s irarpiZos^ whom he (Proxenus) 
said he considered of more use to himself than his country^ i. e. Proxenus ex- 
pected greater advantages from Cyrus than from his country. 

5* vTV0Trr€V(ras fxi] ri Trphs r'Tjs iroXcdos ot vTvairiov c'lt) Kvp(p <piKov ysveff^rai^ 
fearing lest perhaps he should be blamed by his city (i. e. Athens), on account 
of his having becorne a friend to Cyrus ; lit. lest his having become a friend to 
Cyrus might be a cause of blame^ &c. t1, in somethirig or other. Butt. § 150. 
p. 439. For the construction of ol virairtov efrj, cf. S. § 206. 4 ; II. § 600 

316 NOTES. [Book III, 

(end); C. § 40Y ; K. §161. 2. (d). Bind, reads inairtov, Kvpos 

cvinroXsp.rja-ai. The Peloponnesian war is here referred to. iX^6vTa» 

See N. on Xa^Spra^ I. 2. § 1. tj? ^€w, i. e. Apollo. 

6* TiVt "hv ^ewv, to which of the gods. A different inquiry from the one 

which Socrates directed him to make. KaWKxra koX &pL(rra. See N. on 

II. 1. § 9. eA3-oi T^u 626j/j he might perform the journey. Cf. S. § 182. 

2; II. § 552; K. § 159. 3. (6). beols oh, by inverse attraction for ^^ohs 

oh, Cf. N. on 6.\\ov ouTivoSy I. 4. § 5. 

T» fiayreiaj/j response of the oracle. icpiuas, having determined. 

Itsov = TTopevTeoy, For the construction, cf. N. on I. 3. § 11. tovtq re- 
fers to the clause beginning with oircos &u. H. § 679. a; C. § 513. (1). 

ijpov. 2 aor. mid. of epojxai. H. § 424. 9. 

8. KaraXafx^oLv^i, finds, meets with. ikiKKovras ^tt\ Spfiav t))v &V(a o5Jj/, 

being ready to march into the interior. For the construction of fxeWovras — 
6piJ.S.p, cf. S. § 89. 2; H. § 'Zll ; K. § 125. 16. Hutch, supplies ch or M be- 
fore 6d6u, but it is better to refer it to S. § 181. 2; H. § 552; K. § 159. 3. : 
(6) as the cognate accus. a-uyecra^Tj, was introduced. 

9» Upo^v/jLOVfiei/ov .... avToUy and Proxenus soliciting (him), Cyrus also 
united hi soliciting him to remain = Cyrus joined with Proxenus in soliciting 

him to remain. eTreiSav rdxLffra 7] crpareia K'hiVt ^^ soon as the expedition 

was ^,nded. ds Heta'tSas. Cf. I. 1. § 11. 

10. ovTOds e^a7raT7;^eis, having been thus deceived in respect to the object 

of the expedition. jjSet, sc. 6 Upo^ivos. ca(ph = ^vZ-qKov. ol ttoX- 

Ao/, the greater part. Cf. Mt. § 266. Si' ala-x^ynu Koi aXX-iiXwi/ Kal Kvpov, 

through fear of being objects of shame both to one another and to Cyrus. 
alcrxyvr]v is here used subjectively, in the sense oi feeling of shame, dread of 
disgrace. When taken objectively, it signifies the cause of shame to. Had any 
of the generals deserted the expedition, they would have been stigmatized as 
cowards and traitors by their fellow commanders (cf. I. 4. § V), and as men in- 
capable of gratitude by Cyrus (cf. II. 3. § 22). 

11. 'EttcI 5*. The narrative is here resumed from § 3. fxiKphv 5e vttvov 

Xaxoiv (==: Tvxcioy), having obtained a little sleep ; lit. a small (portion) of sleep, 

S. § 191. 2; C. § 370; H. § 574. c; K. § 158. 3. (b). (TKyjirrhs^'n-aa'av, 

The construction unchanged would have been a-KYjirrhs — Trwcra. e/c in e/c 

TovTov denotes the cause. So Kriiger. iraffav, sc. r)iv olKiav. \ 

12« Uepicpo^os, exceedingly terrified. irepX in composition is often inten- 
sive. avnyep^T] = avfjypcTO. Cf. Butt. § 136. 2 ; S. § 208. N. 2 ; H. ! 

§ 432. 5; C. § 268. ttt] fieu — tttj Se, m one respect — but in another. 

ix AlSs, (coming) from Zeus. i^€7u eSof e, he seemed to see in his dream. 

■ pacTiXecos, " regum tutoris et regi^ gentis apudPersas auctoris." Poppo. 

■ fjL^] ou dvuaiTo, lest he should not be able. Cf. N. on I. 7. § 7. 

13* 'OttoTJ;/ Tt fiivroL ^arl rb tolovtov vvap iduu, what kind of thing ^ ; 
however, such a dream signifies, i. e. whether such a dream forbodes gopd or 

Chap. L] 

NOTES. 317 

evil. The dream itself left Xenophon in doubt as to what it meant, but the 
events which followed furnished an interpretation. 'OttoToV tl is the predicate, 

and rh Toioirov tmp tSeTj/, the subject of ^(TtL eypoia avT$ eiMirr^i,^ the 

thought occurs to him, TrpojSaiVe:, advances = is passing away. et/co's, 

sc. ia-ri, it is probable. ri ^ixiroUu ^xh ohx\ k. t. A., icliat will hinder our 

dying ignominiously, after having witnessed all the most cruel sights, and suf- 
fered the most dreadful torments, ^iiiroUv, before the feet, in the way. fih 
ovxL S. § 230. N. 1. v^piCoiiivovs, being insulted = iimi^^l insults. 

14. ^(TTrep li6v, SC. WLv, as though it were in our power, Cf. N. on II. 6. 

§ 22. 'E7(i, olv Tbv Ik iroias (S. § 164; H. § 825. a) irSXews (rrparTj' 

yhy irpotrSo/co) raura Trpd^^^iu, from what city, then, am I expecting a general to^ 
do these things. "Xenophon metuisse se significat ne arrogans videretur, si 
cum Spartanus dux Chirisophus adesset, ipse Atheniensis exercitui prospicere 
studeret." Kriiger. Cf. VI. 1. § 26. raCra refers to the means of defence, 
alluded to in the beginning of the section, -irptil^iv. Cf. S. § 222. o;^H. 

§ 765. vXudav. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 13. oh yap %yo>i %ti 'irp^o-fSirepos i(SO' 

fiai = I shall forthwith be put to death. W?Atcpoy, to-day. The civil day 

began with the Greeks at the setting of the sun. 

15. 'E/c Toirov, hereupon. oijr^-^o^r^, neither—nor, connect the two 

infinitives. vi^^ts. Supply Ka^ei^^iv dvmcr^e from the preceding clause. 

obd\ not even, belongs to these omitted verbs. eV oiois, sc. irpdyfMaa-iy. 1. §16;yil. 6. §24. ., .; xr 

16. Sr^o^ on (sometimes written drjKovSTL), it is clear that, evidently. ±1. 

§ 868. a; C. § 611. 4. ov rhu irSh^ixov i^ecpTjvav, did not declare the war. 

K-aAws T^ eavTuju irapea-icevdcr^aL, that they had well arra^iged their 


17. d vcprjaoiJi^^a, if we shall be remiss. M /3a(n\€?. Cf. N. on I. 1. 

g 4. t,s refers to ^oLcriMt, and has the force of a conjunction, in that he. 

H. § 822. It serves to introduce the reason for the foregoing question. 

fcal T^^v-nKOTos ^'577, even when he was already dead. was 5e k. t. \. 

Xenophon employs the argumentum a fortiori. He argues that if the king's 
revengeful spirit led him to dishonor the lifeless body of his own brother, much 
7nore vindictive would he be towards the Greeks, who had conspired with Cyrus 

to dethrone and kill him. K7)defji^y, protector, intercessor. Allusion is here 

made to the powerful influence which Parysatis exerted in behalf of Cyrus. 

d,s— TTOt-^o-ozn-es, in order to make. Cf. N. on I. 1. § 3. ^ovXov.^ S. 

§ 185 ; H. § 556. avrhv the first accusative is omitted. ira^^'tv has tii^s 

for its subject. So Poppo. But Kriig. regards the construction as a kind of 
anacoluthon, the writer commencing with ^as, as though he would have sub- 
joined ri Uv iroiricrai oiSfxe^a. Schneid. thinks ^i^as should have been ^fx^h. 
But there seems to be no difficulty in the usual method of explaining the con- 

18. '^Ap* ovK Uv €7rl irav eA<^oi, would M not resort to every measure ? liter- 

318 NOTES. [Book m. 

ally, come to vtery thing, ws ^/^as ra ^(rxo-To. aiKiccifxevos^ in order that b^ 

Itaving injlicted upon us the severest torture, (b6^ov — roO crpareia'ai irore, 

fear of ever maki7ig tear. Cf. S. § 222. 2; H. § 781; C. § 620. (b). 

'A\A* oTTcas Toiy but yet in order that. eV iKeivct)^ in his power. Sec § 17 


19» ovirore iTrav6f.L7)v — olKT^iptuVy I never ceased pitying. aurcDj/ has 

usually been construed with xdjpav^ iis though written avriav x^spav ocrju filp 
Kol K. T. A. But Mt. (§ 317) says, ^^the genitive is used particularly with de- 
monstrative pronouns, which are explained in order to show in whom a certain 
quality is found." Before avrwu, theu, we may supply ravra or raSe, refer- 
ring to x^pay, iTTLT'fjdeia, ^epdirovras, etc., in the following clauses. 

20. oTrJre ii/^vfiolfjL7]v. See N. on I. 2. § 7 ; eVel didoKoi, N. on I. 5. § 2. 

TO. S' ad Twv CTpaTKaTOiv is opposed to (raSe) avrwv in § 19. aya^Siv here 

= i7riT7}dei(ay. So in the following section. For the construction of ou5e- 

vhs—ficTei-n, cf. S. § 191. 2; H. §571; C. § 364; K. §158. 3. (b). 6'tov 

— exoyras. The order is, ^deiy oXiyovs en ^xopras (cf. N. on I. 10. § 16) 
orov 0}j/r)(r6iJLe^a {loith which to buy ; lit. with which we shall buy), orov de- 
notes the price (S. § 200. 4; II. § 567; K. § 158. 7. 7 ; C. § 874), and re- 
fers to t\ the suppressed object of ^xouras. cuyTja-SiJiel^a is put in the first per- 
son, because oXlyovs to which its subject refers, is included in the preceding 

7]fjL7y. For its construction in the future, cf. S. § 217. N. 2 ; H. § 710. c. 

&\\(05 de ircasy in any other way. ^ uyovfiej/ovs, than by purchase. 

opKovs .... TjfjLcis is to be construed with ^Se^r. ravr ovv Koyi^6[x^vos is a 

repetition of ra . . . . Qv^vfjLoi/jLTjVy which is separated by intermediate clauses 
from the proposition iviore .... iroKcfxav, upon which it depends. 

21. eKvcav — XeXixr^ai. There is a play here on these words, the former 
being taken in the sense of to break, to violate ; the latter, to cease, to come to 

an end. 'Ey yueVw, in the midst = open to any who may wish to contend 

for the prize. a^A.a, as prizes. This allusion to the games of their coun- 
try was eminently adapted to arouse the disheartened Greeks. The lands, 
houses, treasures, &c., of the faithless Persians, are represented as the prizes 
for which the army is now to contend; while the gods, the avengers of viola- 
ted oaths, sit as the aywyo^-eVai, to regulate the contest and award the prizes. 

' a^Aa is limited by rourcoy, the omitted antecedent of oirSrcpoi, For 

the construction of rif-iQ^v, cf. S. § 198. 1 ; E. § 585. h; C. § 351. K. Y; K. 
§ 158. 7. /3. 

22. Olroi refers to the Persians. avrovs^ i. c. the gods. Cf. N. on II. 

4. § 7. Twv 3-ewj/ opKous. See N. on II. 5. § 7. e|e?wr. Cf. N. on I. 

6. § 2. Construct iroXv with jxei^oyi. (ppovijixari, confidence. 

23. *'ETi §6, and furthermore. tovtcoj/ is the possessive genitive, rap 

ccaixdrcau being understood (H. § 585. h ; C. § 391). Render, we have bodies 
better able than theirs (fully, their bodies) to bear, &c. For the construction 
of the infinitive, cf. S. § 222. C ; 11. § 767. crvu toTs ^eoTs, with the assist- 

Chap. l.J NOTES. 319 

ance of the gods. a/jLeiuoyasy sc. tovtcov, at ^vdpes, referring to the 

Persians, is here used in its common signification, me?i, homines, rpwroi, 

vulnerable. S. § 142 ; H. § 398. 1. 

24# The order is, dAAa — irphs tuj/ (^eoDv ^'/; ayaficvco/i^u ^AAous /c. r. \., the 
clause, 'ia-cos yap koI ^Woi ravrh. ij/^vp,ovvTai, containing the ground for the 
apprehension expressed in the main proposition. aAAous, i. e. the officers of 

the other divis'ons of the army. irapaKoKovvras. On this form of the fut., 

cf. S. § 109. K 1 ; H. § 374. 1. For the construction, see S. § 225. 5 ; H. 

§ 789. d; K. § -76. 1. (e). eip|co^ey tov i^opfM-na-ai. Cf. S. §§ 222. 2; 

189; H. §§ 781; 544. b, (pdvTjre — upiffroi, show yourselves the bravest. 

After (paipe<r^ai, tie participle &y (cf. N, on I. 9. § 19) is sometimes omitted, 
and only the adjectve connected with it is given. See Mt. § 549. Obs. 3. 

25. ovdsv irpoc^ari^oixai tV riXiKiaVy I do not plead my age as an excuse, 

oLKixd^^iv Tiyovfjui ipvK€iyy I think I am at the acme of age (i. e. the very 

best age) to repel, hvK^iv, a poetic word. It is found in the aor. in Y. 8. 
§ 25. 

26. IIaVj ^^^^- ^OLcaridCcay ry (pcoyy, ^'' Boeotorum dialecto et vocis sono 

uteiis.^^ Kriig. ^Kkous 'ircos — ij. See N. on § 20 supra. ffcoTTjplas tcu 

Tvx^^i^i could obtain iafety. v) (iaaiXia ireiffas, than by persuading (S. 

§ 225. 3; H. § 789. b; K. § 176. 1. d) the king, i.e. obtaining his consent. 
el duyaiTo, sc. irch'ai. koI afjLtty and at the same time. 

27. ^6To|u, sc. Aeyovra, while he was speaking. Cf. S. § 225. N. 1 ; H. 

§ 795. c; K § 176. l.a. '^Xl ^av/jLaa-icaTare oLy^pwire, Omost admirable man. 

A sarcastic address = wonderfully stupid person. *Ej/ TavT$ — tovtois 

(for eV TouT$—x^ph TovTfav. Cf. S. § 202. N. 1 ; H. § 603. 2; K. § 161. 2. 
b ; C. § -^00), in the saine place with these, i. e. present with the other captains. 

ixey. (lypoyfjcrasy having become highly elated. iirl rovrcp, i.e. the 

death of Cyrus. 

28o The argument in this and the next section is, that when the Greeks 
showed a bold and independent spirit, the king succumbed to them ; but as 
soon a they confided in his promises and became more unguarded, he treach- 
erousV seized their commanders, and summoned the whole army to an uncon- 

ditionl surrender. irapca-K'ny^orQ^fj.ey avrw. Cf. II. 2. § 18. ri ouk iiroL- 

7i(T6y ohaf did he not do ■= what did he leave undone ? 

2/» €is x6yovs avToh — ^\bov. Cf. N. on 11. 5. § 4. Ksyrovfxeyoi ; lit- 

eraiy, pricked or goaded, as beasts of burden are excited to greater efforts by 
theipplication of the goad. Some think that a particular kind of Persian tor- 

tur' is here designated. Cf. Herod. III. 16. ol rX-f^inoyes, miserable men ! 

is ii apposition with iKeTyoi. koI fid\\ although greatly. rovrov, i. e. 

dejth. For the construction, cf S. § 193; H. § 576; C. § 376. €; K. § 158. 

6.1. a. aiJLvyea'^aif to defend ourselves. Trei^eiy, sc. ^aciXia. Uy* 

TS, by going to him, i. e. the king. See N. on § 26. 

3i>. i]ixty avToTs (i. e. to7s Xox^yo'ts) is opposed to rots (rK^v6(popois implied 

320 NOTES. [Book III 

in CKcirj aua^evras — having made him a a-KevScpopov. For the conalruction, 

cf. N. on TovTOLSy § 27 supra. us roLovrcp = Cjs CKevofpSpo), — — OZros 

here denotes contempt, like the Latin iste. toiovtos, i. e. suet a dastard. 

*''' tarn ig7iavus esty ^vug, 

81 1 rovT(^ .... ovZiv^ nothing of Boeotia pertains to this fethw = he has 

no connection with Boeotia. eTrei, si7ice^ inasmuch as. uairep Avdhy 

a;j,(p6T€pa ret. d)Ta rerpvTrrjjJLevoj/, having both his ears bored throigh like a Lyd- 
ian. It was the custom among the Oriental nations to bore th^ ears of slaves, 
as a badge or mark of their servile condition. Cf. Ex. 2^ : 6 ; Ps. 40 : 6. 
Some think that Agasias means to charge him only with belciiging to the ser- 
vile and imbecile race of the Lydians (cf. N. on I. 5. § G), ai/d not with having 
been in a state of personal servitude. Others suppose that his ears were per- 
forated to receive ornaments, such as the Lydian and Phrygian youth wore, 
and thus he was detected by Agasias. / 

32. Kal ^x^v — o\>T(»is, It was found upon examinati(|4i, that the charge of 

Agasias was true. o^ixoiro^ luas gone = had been slab. *' An established 

usage," says Butt. (Irreg. Verbs, p. 185), *'has existed in the common lan- 
guage from Homer's time, by which dLxoiJ-ai never meaas / am going^ but al- 
ways I am gone^ This usage is continued in the impeif., which time o^lxoito 
here takes from the context. Cf. S. § 211. N. 5 ; H. § 098. 

83. cts .... oirXcoj/. Cf. N. on II. 4. § 15. ^'Gra^corum duces pro cas- 

tris sedent et de summa belli deliberant." Zeune. aficpl rovs HarSv, See 

K on I. 2. § 9. ixicrai vvKres. See N. on I. 7. § 1. | 

34« TO. irapoi/ra — the present posture of our affairs. avrots^vye^^eiyy 

to come together ourselves. avTo7s is opposed to elf rt Svya^^e^a aya- 

b6v. Cf. ]Sr. on II. 1. § 8. uaX irphs rjfjLas, sc. I'AeJas from the preceding 

clause. 1 

S5t ravra ^teV. H. § 862. a (end). ijijlwu depends upon roifpvs un- 
derstood, the antecedent of ovs in the preceding member. b?j\ou oif. See 

N. on § 16 supra. de ye oJfiai. Porson conjectures S' iyS^fjLai, oi which 

crasis Kriig. says, "vereor ut sit Xenophontea." \ 

36* fieyiffTov exere KaipSy. Hutch, renders ^^ commodissimam I^hetis 

Dccasionem.^^ But this interpretation does not accord so well with ot ^a/i 

hLiro^Xeirova-i which follows, as the one given by Leuncl. and adopted by Slurz., 
Born., Kriig., and Pop., " in vobis plurimum est sittim " = you are the m<n to 
think and act in this exigency. Xenophon expresses the same idea in dher 
places by imKaipioi, = o! iKavd^raroi koI (ppove'iv koX cvfjiirpaTTeiv e'i ri Scot. IjCf. 

Cyr. V. 5. § 43, 44 ; III. 3. § 12. irphs v/jlus airo^xiirovffi for an exantle 

of cheerfulness and bravery. uhv by crasis for nal idv. 

3T« "Icrws is used here per 7nodestiam for certainly^ truly. dia(f>€petnri 

rovTcuv, to somewhat surpass these. For the construction of rovrcuj/^ cf.^. 

§ 197. 2; H. § 581. yhp in v/xeTs yap icre introduces the reason why tip 

oflBcers should excel the common soldiers. XP'^H-^^^ ^^^ rifjiaTs are dative^ 

Chap. L] NOTES. 321 

of respect E. § 609 ; S. § 206. 2. rovrcov depends upon ttKcov in iirXe- 

ov^KTetre. Cf. S. §§ 191. 2; 198. 2 ; H. § 581. vvv roivvv, now then. 

€7rel ir6\€fj,6s i<TTLv. The opposition of this clause to oTe dp-fiur] 'r,v, is too 

obvious to be overlooked. a^iovu SeX vjias avrovs a/j.eivovs, it is Jit that 

yoit should consider yowselves better^ &c. tov wK-fj^ovs, i. e. the commoD 


38. clvtI twv aTro\(o\6rct)v, in the j^ldce of those who have perished. Cf. S. 

§§ 207. X. 2; 225. 1; H. §§ 712; 786. ws fieu cvv^Xovtl direTy, sc. Ao- 

■,cp, to speak brieflij. Cf. S. § 223. 2; H. 772; C. § 623. Note the force oi 

crvveXovTi, 2 aor. part, of (Tvvaipica, to draw togetlur^ to contract. Repeat 

with Travrdiraoriv the preceding ovolv .... yevotro. The sentiment is, that in 
times of peril, it is pre-eminently true that nothing can be done to advantage 

without leaders. doKeT does not here mark uncertainty, but rather what is 

so apparent as to admit of no doubt. iidrj GTroAc^Ae/cey, has already de- 
stroyed. Cf. S. § 207. N. 2; H. § 712; K. § 152. 4. R. 1 ; C. § 233, 

39. *E7rei5a;/ he KaraffTi^crea-^ey but when yoit shall have appointed. 

offovs Set, as many as are necessary to supply the places of those who are 

gone. '/jy .... 'iron]crai. This sentence contains a protasis (-/;*/ .... irapa.' 

^appvvrjTe)^ and an apodosis {oI/jLai .... TroiViorai). For the moods, cf. S. 
§§ 215. 5; 215. 1; E. §§ 783. a; 747. 3. irduv eV Kaip$, very timely. 

40. yap illustrates what is said in the preceding section of the necessity 
of encouraging the soldiers. — — ovro) ye ix^urcoUf while they are thus, i. e. in 
this state of dejection. The ri after deoi is synecdochical. S. § 206. K 2 

41. yvdofias, thoughts. rovro refers to ri ireicrovTai. aAAa Kai, But 

also. The philosopher as well as the general is seen in this advice. 

42. yap d^irov, for surely. rj . . . . ras viKas iroiova-a, that which gives 

the victoi^y. tj Troiovcra = iKeij/Tj ^ irouT (cf. S. § 225. 1 ; B. § 786 ; K. § 148. 
6), of which iKeivTj is the predicate nominative of icri. The gender of t}, i. e. 
iKeivTi '/], is drawn from icrxvs. "With this noble sentiment, cf. Ps. 33 : 16 ; 

44: 3, 6. oTrSrepoi refers to tovtovs for its antecedent. S. § 173. 

\f/vxous. S. § 206. 2; E. § 609; K. § 161. 4. ippccfxcu^Tcpoi, S. § 63. 

5 ; B. § 221. d. <ys iirl rh iroXv, for the most part as a common 


43. ^Evre^vixTjfjLat, S' 'iyooyQ Koi rovrOy bid for my part I have observed this 

also. oTTocToi refers to ouroi in the next clause. So oirScoi — tovtovs below 

is put for TOVTOVS — oirSffot, This inversion of the antecedent and relative oc- 
curs so frequently as to require ordinarily no further notice. e/c 'jravThs 

TpoTTovy in every way. ^^ summo studio.^^ Sturz. Trepi Se roO Ka\cos ctTro- 

^vic-K^iv, for an honorable death. Cf. S. § 222. 2; E. § 781 ; C. § 622. 

hiayovTas, SC tIv ^ioy. The sentiment of this passage is, that those persons 
who desire to save their lives at the expense of their honor, oftentimes find a 
more speedy death than they who place their honor before life. 

44* avTovs re &ydpas aya^ovs eluaif both to be ourselves brave men, 


322 NOTES. [Book III. 

rovs tlWovs irapaKaXe?]/, Supply &v^pa5 ayaMs elmi from the preceding 

45t roffovrou juouou re iyiyvwcxKov ocrov (= offoy rovro^ on. C. § 532. R) 
iJKovoy ^A^Tjyaioi/ clyai, all I knew of you was from hearsay^ that you was an 
Athenian; literally, / kneio so much only of you as that I heard you was an 
Athenian. For the construction of iJKovov — elvai, cf. N. on I. 3. § 20. It 
seems from this that hitherto Xenophon had strictly maintained the character 
of one who went merely as the friend of Proxenus, and had taken little or 

no part in the public matters pertaining to the expedition. on (see N. 

on I. 1. § 6) irXeia-Tovs cluai roiovrovs. Chirisophus wishes that the prudence 
and activity of Xenophon may be found in all the leaders. 

46. fi^ fi€\XcaiJLey, let us not delay. Cf S. § 218. 2; H. § 720. a; C. 

§ 698 ; K. § 153. 1 (a). fxeWco here and in the following section = Ppa- 

dvyca. Cf. Thucyd. Y. 3. § 2. o! deo/jLeuoi is in apposition with vfjLeis the 

omitted subject of af/jeTc^-e, do ye ivho need choose. Cf. S. § 156. 1 ; H. 

§ 506. cvyKaXovfxei/ *' futurum est, non praesens pro future, quod somniat 

Hutchinsonus." Person. Cf N. on § 24 supra. 

47. a,aa ravra elircby aviffrriy as soon as he said this he rose up. Cf Butt. 
§ 150. p. 443; S. § 225. K 1; H. § 795. 3; K. § 176. K. 1 (end); C. 

§ 616. 3. d/'S fi^ /jLeWoiro aWa irepaij/oLTO ra deovra^ that what was Pieces- 

sary to be done might suffer no delay ^ hut he accomplished; or more briefly, 

that the necessary business might he transacted without delay. Aap^av^vsy 

of Bardanus, a city of Troas. 

k hM ^ CHAPTER II. 1 

!• ^/*6/)a T6 (Tx^Sb;/ viritpaive, day teas just beginning to break. €ty t^ 

fxicroy, sc. rod (TTpaToiredov. Cf 1. § 46. cSo|ez/ avTo7s. Cf. N. on I. 2. 

§ 1. Trpo(pv\aKas. Cf N. on II. 3. § 2. A precautionary measure to 

guard against surprise. KaratrriicravTas. Cf N. on Aa/BoVro, I. 2. § 1. 

2. roiovT(av^ i. e. so eininent. dirore as well as ore has sometimes a 

causal sense, whereas^ since. crrepSiie^a (from o-repw, the simple present 

of (TT€p4oi)^ Mt. § 193. 065. 5), we are deprived of=we are in the state of per- 
sons deprived of; we are without. This form, which according to Passow is 
used by prose writers only in the pres. and imperf , must not be confounded 
with crrepov^ai. Cf Butt. § 114. p. 258, and his more extended history of the 

word, Irreg. Verbs, p. 230. irp'hs 5* erf, and besides, irphs is the only 

preposition employed by the Attic prose writers as an adverb. H. § 615; S. 

§ 234 ; C. § 657. p. oi a/icpl 'Apia7oy. Cf K on ot irepl rhu ^Apialov^ 11. 

4. §2. 

3. fK rwu irap6vT(t}v &vdpas aya^ovs re i\^e7y^ to come forth as brave men 

Chap. II.] NOTES. 323 

from our present diffictdties. Weiske interprets : pro prccsenii rerum statu 
viros fortes venire (= esse). But in that case, as Kriig. remarks, epxea-^ai 
would have been employed instead of cAid-eTy. d Se fx-fj, but if not^ intro- 
duces an opposite supposition to the one in koAws viKdvr^s cwCca/xc^a. 

a^Xa — 76, yet at least. airo^P'fia'Kcoixej/ {let us die) and yev(i>ix€^a follow 

oTTws, to be supplied from the preceding clause. roiavra .... Troiiiceiav^ 

should undergo such sufferings as may the gods inflict upon them. For the 
construction of Trot^o-emy, cf. S. § 216. 1; H. § 721. 1. "-^t^ 

4rt *E7ri rovTQ}^ after him^ corresponds with irpwrov fxlv in § 1. ani' C 

(TTiaVy perfidy, "Trepl irXdarov. See N. on I. 9. § 7. M rovrois, "^ ^^ 

moreover^ besides ; literally, after these things. The repetition of avrhs is ../J^X 

highly emphatic. p,iviov. This epithet was given to Jupiter because h& ' V \ 

presided over the laws of hospitality. Cf. ^n. I. 735, ^'— hospitibus nam te 

dare jura loquuntur." KAecipx^- S. § 202. 1 ; H. § 603. 2; C. § 400 ; 

'K. § 161. 2. b. SfjiOTpdircCos = cvj/denryosl It greatly enhanced the per- 
fidy of Tissaphernes, that he thus violated the laws of hospitality. avroTs 

rovTois^ by these very means^ i. e. by means of the oaths, pledges, and friendly 
professions just before mentioned. 

5* %v . . . . Ka^KTrdvai. Cf. II. 1. § 4. koI ovros^ even this man. Cf. 

N. on II. 2. § 20. idu)Ka/jiev. The aor. e5a?/ca is used by Attic authors 

principally in the sing, and 3 plur., the aor. being generally preferred in the 
1st and 2d pers. plur. Cf. Butt. Irreg. Verbs, p. 68 ; Carmichael Gr. Verbs, 

p. 78. idci>Ka/j.€y Kal iKdfiofjLCU iriffra = $ idd^KUfxey Koi a(j>* ov i\d/3o/j.€v 

iria'Td. H. § 818. C. rbjc re^vrjKSTci = rhy yeKp6v. iK^yov ix^io'rovs. 

*' Adjectives signifying 'useful,' 'inimical,* &c., are usually construed with 
the dative, but sometimes with the genitive." Mt. § 391. Obs. 2. The in- 
gratitude of Ariseus in joining with Tissaphernes to destroy those who would 
have made him king of Persia, and who were the friends of his former bene- 
factor and prince, is forcibly set forth in this speech of Cleaner. 

6» 'AAAoi .... airoTia-aiyrOy but may the gods pay back to them their de- 
serts. Cf. IS", on TToi^a-eiay, § 3 supra. — — ^^irore — iVf , never again. 

Tt icTToKfiiyos^ being arrayed; perf. mid. of creWca, to place in order ^ to 

fit out^ and hence to array ^ to deck one's person. r$ yiKay, victory. 

op^oos €x^iy, that it was right, depends on yofjil^coy. For the construction of 
Twy KaXKiffTwv kavrhy a^idoarayTa, cf. S. § 200. K 2 ; H. §§ 578 ; 584. c ; K. 

§ 158. 7. 7- ey rovTOLs, i. e. in his most splendid armor. tt)s reAeu- 

rris Tvyx^^yeiy {= airo^yfjcTKeiy). S. § 191. 2; H. § 574. c; K. § 158. 3. b. 
rod \6yov 5e iipx^ro. Cf. K on I. 6. § 5. 

8. ^ov\ev6iJL€^a = diayoovfjLe^a in the next sentence. avraiis dib, cpiXias 

ley at = <pi\ovs €iyai avTo7s. For this periphrastic use of 5tc{, cf. Mt. § 500. c. 

opwyras rovs crTparriyovs — ola TreTrSy^aariy (2 perf. of iratrxctf). For the 

prolepsis of the substantive, see Ns. on I. 2. § 21^8. § 21. dia ir/o-Tewy, 

confidingly. avraiis depends upon iyex^picray and refers to the Persians. 

324 NOTES. [Book HI. 

wv = rovTtav o, of which, nrovrcov depends upon St/cTjj'. See N. en I. 3. § 10. 

Tt) XoiTvov. Cf. N. on 11. 2. § 5. Zih. iravrhs TroKefioVy ^^ omni genere 

belli.'''' Sturz. '''• oia iravrhs Q^t perpetuo.'''' Kriig. 

9t irrdpvvrai rts. Divinations were drawn from sneezings {irrapixoi)^ espe- 
cially when occurring at some critical moment. rhv ^eoy, i. e. tIv Aia rhv 

1,ojTripa. The omen taking place just as the word cwTTipias was spoken, Xeno- 

phon regarded it as coming from Zevs Sojt^/). ?/juwj/ K^ySvrcay, uhile we 

were (i. e. I was) speaking, S. § 226; H. § 790. a; C. § 638. Rule, r cw- 

r'fipia^ sc. ^v/jLara, sacrifices for our jJ'^cservation. (rvye7rev^a(r^ai, ^^ simul 

voverey Pop. Kara dvyafjuv^ according io our ability, orcp .... x^^P^' 

" Graecorum exercitus multis nominibus rerum publicarum imaginem refere- 
bant ; et hunc praesertim exercitum civitatem peregrinantem dixeris. Ut 
domi, ita hie quoque de maximis quibusque rebus decernebat concio ; prastores 

quodammodo oratorum vice fungebantur." Kriig. iTraLd^vicav, The pa}an 

was not only a battle and triumphant song, but also a hymn of thanksgiving, 
and, as it appears from this place, was sung to the honor of other gods 
besides Apollo. Cf. Hell. lY. 7. § 4. naXus cTxcy, were duly per- 
formed, I 

iOt ^'Ervyxot'Vov Xeycau, I happened to be saying when the omen (§9) took 

place. i7ricapK'f}(riy have sworn falsely, Ourw S' ^x^VTiev (sc. tu3V Trpa- 

y,adr<ay\ things being thus. Cf. S. § 152. 2. (a); H. § 504. c: C. § 545. a. 

rovs fjL^ydXovs = the powerful. A similar tropical sense must be given to 

the antithetic fiiKpovs ; literally, small ^ i. e. weak, 

11. For the construction of ayafjivfja-oj yap vixas — rovs KivZvvovSy cf. S. 

§ 192. K 2; C. §430; K. § 158. 5. b. aya^o^s—^Tvai, Cf. S. § 224; 

C. § 617. 5. yap Jlepcuy tc. r. \, Instead of continuing the construction 

from eiretra 5e, the speaker apparently turns aside to explain rovs mvlvvovs^ 
and thus carries on the construction from the parenthesis. Cf. Mt. §§ 631. 2 ; 
615 (end). See also K on II. 5. § 12. Reference is had in this place to the 
invasion of Greece by Darius Hystaspis, whose generals, Datis and Artapher- 

nes, were defeated in the celebrated battle at Marathon. -jrajuirArjSeT crS- 

Xcp is the dat. of accompaniment. H. § 604. 3 ; S. § 206. 5 ; C. § 415. 1 ; K. 
§ 161. 1. c. (a). The most commonly received estimate of the numbers of the 
Persian army, is the one given by Corn. Nep. (Yit. Miltiad.), viz., 100,000 

foot, and 10,000 horse. ws a<paviovyrwy, fut. for a(payi(r6vra}V^ as if to blot 

out. av^is. Sturz after Hesych. defines this word by ev^vs. Unless it is 

employed in this sense here, or to designate the return of Athens to the state 
in which it was before it was built (cf. Theoc. I. p. 33, cited by Bom.), it had 

better be rejected as a vicious reading. 'A^rjyaToi. The Athenians sent to 

Lacedaemon to obtain aid against the common enemy, but although the Spar- 
tans promptly responded to the summons, yet being forbidden by an ancient 
custom to march before the full of the moon, they did not set out with their 
forces until several days after the reception of the message. The Athenians 

Chap. II.] NOTES. 325 

were left therefore to fight the battle alone, being assisted only by the Pla- 
tseans, who sent 1000 men to their aid. 

12. ev^ajjisyoi ry ^Apr^/jLidL. The Schol. on Aristoph. Eq. 657, says that 
Callimachus the polemarch, vowed to Diana an ox for every en^my who should 
fall in the approaching battle, but when so many Persians perished that oxen 
could not be found to sacrifice, an equal number of goats was substituted. 

Some say that Miltiades was the general who made this vow. t^ .^eqJ. A 

noun of common gender, although rj t^ea exists as a special feminine form, 
which, however, the Attics less frequently used. Cf. Butt. § 32. N. 2 ; H. 

§§ 118 ; 125. D. 2. ovk eixo^ — eupeTp^ they could not find. See N. on II. 

2. § 11. e5o{ey avToh^ it seemed good to them^ they determined. With 

this implied personal subject, eu^diievoi in the beginning of the section belongs. 

KoX €Ti Kcd vvv airo^vova-iVj and even to this time they are sacrificing^ i. e. 

so great a number of Persians were slain, that in order to fulfil the vow, they 
were up to the time of Xenophon sacrificing 500 goats each year. Tho 
Athenians killed about 6000 Persians in the battle, and having pursued them 
to their ships, took seven vessels and set many others on fire. Many of the 
invaders lost their lives in their haste to get on board the ships, so that the 
whole number who perished in battle, in the burning ships, and in the sea, 
must have been very great. 

13. va-repoi/. Xerxes made his expedition into Greece b. c. 480, about ten 

years after the battle of Marathon. r^v before avapi^ix-qTov is restrictive 

= that well known. See H. § 527. a. avapi^ixrirov. According to He- 
rodotus, the land forces of Xerxes amounted to 2,000,000 men, his sea forces 
641,610, making in all 2,641,610. The servants, eunuchs, women, sutlers, 
and other people of this sort, are reckoned at as many more, thus making the 
whole number 5,283,220. By the rejection of suspicious estimates, Rawlinson 
reduces the combatants to a million and a half, and concurs with Grote in 
making the number of non-combatants far less than that given by Herodotus. 
But with all reasonable deductions the term aj/api^fLTjrov may well be applied 

to such an army. koI tSts^ then also^ as well as in the battle of Marathon. 

TovT(>}v, i. e. Tissaphernes and his army. Kara. yi]v. He refers here 

to the battle at Platsea. koltci. ^dXaTrav. The sea-fights, in v/hich the 

Athenians and their allies were victorious, were fought at Artemisium, Sala- 
mis, and Mycale, the latter of which victory was gained on the same day with 

that of Platasa. ra rpSiraia^ the trophies. The word is derived from rpi- 

irca, to turn about These trophies were frequently erected where the enemy 

first gave way and turned to flight. fiaprvpiou = rcKixiipiov. dAAa = 

aAAa ix6voy. A contemptuous allusion is made to the Persian custom of doing 

homage to their kings by prostration. toiovtcop fxev eVre irpoySvcoj/^ from 

such ancestors you are descended. Cf. S. § 197. 2; H. § 572. d; C. § 855. 

14. Oy fx\v ^)) tovt6 76 epw, nor in truth (see N. on I. 9. § 13) do I say 
this z= I would by no means be understood as saying this. dAA* . . . . oS, 

326 NOTES. [Book IIL 

for not yet (are there) many days since. a<p^ ou, sc. xp<^^ov, cKelpwv^ i. e, 

the Persians who invaded Greece. vfiwv avrcov. For the construction, cf. 

S. § 198. 2; H. § 585. i. 

15t Kat t6t6 fxkv 5^, and then indeed. Trepl t-^s Kvpov ^aciXelas. 

i^riig. supplies fxax^^Ji^voi. S^ttou rnxas irpocT'fjKei = certainly you ought 

to be. 

16. 'AA\a fi-fiv. Cf. N. on I. 9. § 18. aireipoi ovres avrcoy^ being un- 
acquainted with them, i. e. having made no trial of their strength. For the 

construction of avTuv, cf. S. § 18Y. 2; H. § 584. c. irarpifp <l>pov'i]ixaTi, 

i. e. with a spirit becoming your high descent. ureTpay — exere is opposed 

to iZTTetpOL UVT€S. OTl .... VfXUS. Cf. I. 8. § 19 *, 10. § 11. 

17. Mrjde . . . . do^rjre. ^'In prohibitions with ji-fj, the imperative of the 
present is commonly used, but the subjunctive of the aorists." Mt. § 511. 3. 
Cf. S. § 218. 3. The imperative is used when the action is regarded as con- 
tinued. H. § 723. a ; Goodwin, § 86. For the construction of toOto, cf. S. 
§ 167. fLe7ov — exeij/, are weaker. el = or/, a softened form of expres- 
sion for that which was absolutely certain, viz., the defection from the Greeks 
of 01 KupeTot, i. e. the Persians who had followed Cyrus. Cf. Mt. § 617. 2; 
Butt. § 139. p. 379; Goodwin, § 56. KaKioves, more cowardly. 

18. iy^vfiTj^Tire is put in the plural, because reference is had to the fore- 
going t\s used collectively. See N. on I. 4. § 8. The second person is em- 
ployed because r\s is used of those whom the speaker is addressing. jjlv- 

pioi. Krlig. accents ixvpioi making it the plur. of fivpios, innumerable. Cf. 

Butt. § 70. p. 91. ol iroLOvvr€S .... yiyj/Tjrai, the ones who do what takes 

place in battle = who wound and kill in battle. 

19. linricov depends on aa-cpaXea-repov. eV — oxh^-^'Tos is explained by 

€7rl T'/)s 7>)s, infra. e<^' iVTrcyy KpefxavraL, hang upon their horses, opposed 

to eVl TTJs y?]s ^€^7]k6t€Sj Standing firmly upon the ground. Hesych. defines 

^e^rjtcSres • Pc^alccs ipeCTTjKSres. ttoXu 5* ert ^aWov orov hy ^ovKdofic^a 

rev^Sfie^a, and we shall also reach with far surer aim whomsoever we may wish 

to strike. iA fxSi/co, in one respect only. 7rpoexov(nj/ — rjfias. Cf. S. 

§ 198. 2 (end). 

20. fidxas. S. § 182; H. § 549; C. § 437; K. § 159. 3. (7). rovro 

ii.X^^<^^^^ (y^O/^^^ tii'oubled at this. The position of rovro is more emphatic 
than though it preceded the clauses, commencing with on S* oi/Kcri, and ouSe 

PacTLX^vs to which it refers. ^ . . . . KeX^vca/xev, than (to have) those men 

(as guides) whom being our captives ice may command to guide us. For ovs 

izudpas, cf. N. on 1. 2. § 1. ir^pl ras havriav yf/vx^s — a/jLaprduovCL = shall 

suffer death. ra adiixara. refers to punishment by stripes or mutilation. 

21. jxiKpa fiirpa ttoXXov apyvplov^ a small measure for much m,oney. jj.€rpa 

is in apposition with eTrzr^Seta, and apyvpiov is gen. of price. firj^h rovro 

%rL ^x^^T^^^ ^^^^ ^^o longer having this (i. e. money), wherewith to purchase 
Bupplies. avrohs — vfias avrovs. Cf. S. § 160. b ; H. § 669. b ; C. § 509. 


Chap. II.] NOTES. 327 

2. fjLcrpo) xp^iueVous 6ir6(rc^ hy 'iKaCTos ^o^\r]Tai^ making use of as large a 

measure as each one pleases. 

22. Et §6 . . . . Kpeirrova, hid if you know these things that they are better. 

For the prolepsis of raCra, see N. on I. 2. § 22. ^iropoi/, sc. XP^I^^- ^^^ 

reader will bear in mind that Xenophon is disposing of such objections as 
would naturally arise in the minds of the soldiers, in view of the untoward cir- 
cumstances in which they were placed. In answering these objections, he con- 
trives to substitute for each one a bright and glowing hope. This will be seen 
in his remarks respecting the defection of Ariaeus, the want of cavalry, 
market,' guides, etc. He now proceeds to dispose of a formidable objection, 

presented by the great rivers which lay between them and their country. 

Kol fAeyaKcos 7jye7cr^e i^airarrj^rivai dia^di/res, and think you have been greatly 

overreached in having crossed them. o'/c€;|/ao'3-6 ei — ol pdp^apoi = see 

whether the barbarians have not done^ &c. The argument is, that if the Per- 
sians had induced the Greeks to cross the Tigris, with the hope of cutting off 
their return to Asia Minor by an impassable river, it was a most stupid device, 

since the army could go up to the head-waters and there cross over. 

Trrjyay. Cf S. § 188 ; H. § 590. a. irpoiovai—dta/ia.Tol. Cf. S. § 206. 

4 ; H. § 604 ; C. § 40'7. k. 

23* Ei Se /ii'f}^' ol irorajji.oX dioicovcny^ but if the rivers do not differ in re- 
spect to width at their sources and mouths. Some translate, but if the rivers 
luill not permit us to cross over. Pop. and Kriig. read dL^a-ova-iv, 3 pers. plur. 

fat. of duTjfii. o'jS* Sjs. See N. on I. 8. § 21. (paitjfjLev = viro\ajj.Bd- 

poifxey. Schneider, following the Eton MS., edits ol eV ^aciXecas x^P^ 

UKoyros, by which the repetition of ^aa-iXecas (cf. N. on I. 3. § 14) is avoided. 
The argument is, that if the Mysians, Pisidians, and Lycaonians, held a footing 
in the Persian dominions against the will of the king, the Greeks liad nothing 

to fear, even if they could not cross the rivers or were without a guide. 

XletcTiSas. Cf. I. 1. §11; H. 4. § 13. ojcavras =: dfioicas. aifTol = 

7)fj,€ls avroL See N. on avrovs, § 21 supra. c'ldofiev. The forms of the 

2 aor. of e'ldco in the sense of to see^ are used to complete the verb opacy, which 
has no aorist. Cf. Mt. § 231, e'idca. Concerning the Lycaonians, cf. I. 2. 
§ 19. Tovrov refers to the Persian king. 

24. tiy <painy, I would advise. S. § 215. 3; H. § ^22; C. § 604; K. 

§ 153. 2. c. fjL'fjTTco^ in no manner^ by no means. cos avrov irou olK-fi- 

coyras, as if we were going to settle somewhere here. rov ad6\cos €/c7re)u\(/€fj', 

that he ivould send them aioay without frauds is an adnominal genitive limiting 

ofjL'fipovs. /col €t, even if. nal "Ofuy .... TrapacKeva^ofieyovs. Cf. S. 

§ 215. 2 ; II. § 746. 2. The sentiment is, that rather than have so formidable 
a body of men as the Greeks settle in his dominions, the king would furnish 
them with every facility for a safe and easy march to their own country. 

25. 'AAAa ydp. The ellipsis may thus be supplied : but (I do not think it 
best to stay here), for I am afraid^ &c. jx^ — fi^ &a^€p. Cf. V. 6. § 19. 

328 NOTES. [Book m. 

A similar repetition on account of intervening clauses is seen in ct — et\ § 35 
' infra. fid^wfiev — Qy. In the sense of to perceive^ fxa^uj/ takes the par- 
ticiple, in the sense of to learn, the infinitive. Cf. Mt. § 530. 2 ; H. §§ '799. 

3; 802; K. § 175. 2. R. 4. (c). fxcyaKais = sfatehj. oi \caro(pdyoiy 

the lotus-caters. Cf. Odyss. IX. 83. Xenophon here indulges in a little pleas- 
antry, to cheer up the despondent minds of the soldiers. 

20t OTL cKoj/Tes ir^uoyraiy that they are willingly poor. il6v, Cf. N. 

on II. 5. § 22. Tovs — iroKiT^vovTas = iKeivovs ot iroKirevovcri, a.KX'f}' 

povSy poor ; lit. w'.lhout a lot or portion, eV^aSe Koixtcraixivovs, having re- 
moved hither. For the case, see K on AajSJj/ra, I. 2. § 1. 'AAAa 7a/?, 

but (why need I say more), for, &c. 

27. iJ,axoiiJi.e^a. Kepeat clv from the preceding member. 'iva fi)) rh, 

C^vyt] u]ixCi)v (TTpar'nyy, that our beasts of burden may not be our generals, i. c. 
that the movements of the army may not of necessity be conformed to the 

transportation of the baggage. av ux^oy jxlv irapix^vaiv 'dyeiy, are equally 

troublesome to carry, ay, *'*' par iter ut to. (evyr].^'' Schneid. ux^ov, trouble, 
'dyziy has the force of the synecdochical accusative, limiting ux^ov irapi- 
Xov(riv. ^ . 

28. airaWd^oj/xey, let us, &c. See N". on ju)/ ficWoojxey, 1. § 46. t^ * | 

'rrepiTrd, the things which are superfluous, Cf. N. on II. 2. § 4. Xparov- 

ixivwy .... aWSrpia, for you know that if we are conquered, every thing (be- 
longing to us) becomes another^. I have translated this clause in the first per- 
son, in order to make it correspond with *]v Se Kparcoiney, to which it is op- 
posed. rovs iroXefiiovs voy.iC^Ly, S. § 185; H. § 556; C. § 434; K. 

§ 160. 3. 

29. AonrSy [xoi elireiy, it remains for me to say. 'OpSre yh.p Koi rohs 

TToX^jjiiovs, yap introduces a reason for Se? ouy iroKv k, t. A. in § SO. In such 
a case it may be translated since. See H. § 870. 4. For the prolepsis of tovs 
TroXcfjLiovs, see N. on 1. 2. § 21. 

30. ody, therefore, in view of the foregoing reason. r&y irpScr^ey, i. e. 

Clearchus, Proxenus, Menon, &c. For the construction, cf. S. §§ 168. 2; 198. 

1 ; H. §§ 493. a; 385. h. rohs apxafieyovs, i. e. the soldiers. to7s &p- 

Xovcri vvy, to the present commanders, limiting Trei^oixeyovs. S. § 201. 1 ; H. 
§ 595. b. 

31. ""Uy 5€ Tis. Cf. K on I. 4. § 9. fjy KoXdCeiy, if you will de- 
cree, that whoever of you for the time being is present, shall assist the com- 
mander in punishing. Prof. Woolsey (N. on Eurip. Alcest. p. 92) remarks 
that " ael like our ever has two senses, always and at any time. In the latter 
sense, it is joined with the article and usually follows it immediately." Cf. V. 
4. § 15; VII. 5. § 15; Thucyd. III. 77. § 1. ovroos, i.e. with such disci- 
pline. rohs ovV kv\ iiriTpi^^oyras KaKcp clyaiy who will suffer no one to be 

neglectful of duty, 

32. 'AAAa ydp^ hut (I will say no more), for, &c. irepaiy^iv — &pcu 

Chap. II.] NOTES. 329 

Cf. S. § 222. 2; H. § ^767; C. § 620. h, '*Post ^ ravTrj repete BokcI ko.- 

\(ti5 exety." Krilg. ToXfAdToo Koi 6 idicoTTjs Sioacr/ceij/, let him though a pri- 
vate soldier boldly propose it. The article is generic. See H. § 529 ; C. 
§ 470. 1. 

83« irpbs TOVTOLSf ill addition to those things. oh stands for ^ after 

cl-Ts. S. § 175. 1 ; H. § 808. 2 ; C. § 526. avriKa is opposed to cos ra- 

Xicra, and may be rendered, presently^ by and by. 

31* ^v irpoa'de?]/ doKu jj.oi^ what it^seems to me we yet need. On the conjec- 
ture of Wyttenbach, irpoa-ds?!/ is substituted in the best editions for TrpoadoKaj/. 
oirou = iKe7(r€ ottov^ to that place where. Cf. N. on II. 1. § 6. 

35* ei Koi ovroi, if these also = in like manner. For iroXef^ioi — ovroi, cf. 
N. on I. 10. § 18. 

36* irXaia-ioi: Cf. K on I. 8. § 9. iroXvs ux^os, i. e. the servants, 

women, boys, sick persons, etc., attached to the baggage. rij/a xph vy^"^' 

a-^ai Tov irXaialov^ whose duty it shall be to command the square. rh. irpS- 

(T^eu^ the front of the square. rtVas, sc. xp^. eVl rw;/ irX^vpoip kKari- 

posv eij/ai, to be zipon (i. e. to take charge of) both wings. Connect ovk av 

with Seoi. ro7s Teray/jLevoLSy those who have been arranged^ i. e. have had 

their place assigned them. - 

3T. ci h% jLL^, Xciplcrocpos riyoTro, but if not ^ let Chirisophus take the lead, 
&c. riyoiTo and iTny^cXotcr^j/ are softer and politer forms than the imper- 
atives, r,ydar^(o and iinfiEXeicr^coj/. Cf. Mt. § 515. c?. 7; S. § 218. 2; H. 

§ 722. b. eVetOT? Kal k. t. X. Cf. YI. 1. § 26. rh vvv cJyai, for the 

present. Cf. S. § 223. 2 ; H. § 772. • 

38. T5 56 Xonv6v,for the rest, for the f dure. Cf. S. § 182; H. § 6^4. a; 

C. § 441. T7)s tclI^ojs, the order in which the army were to march. For 

the construction, cf. S. § 192; C. § 375. jS ; K. § 158. 5. (c). Rost refers 
ir^ipaa^ai, to try, to make trial (i. e. to become experienced) to the rule in his 
grammar ((§ 108. 4. c), that the expressions experienced, skilled, acquainted, 

&c., take the gen. of that in which one is experienced, &c. as:, for the 

time being, on each occasion. 

39» B€doyiJL€va = rprjtpia'fMaTa. ov — aAAws, i7i no other way. fjL€fjLjrfj' 

<r^oi) — ehai, let him remember to be. The participle tav after this verb, would 
give the sense, let him remember that he is, &c. See H. § 802; K. § 175. 2. 

R. 4. (e). TovTov, i. e. the sight again of his family. Construe twv — w/cc^v- 

Toiv with eVrf, it is the part of victors, &c. Cf. S. § 190; H. § 172. e; C. 
§ 390. See N. on II. 1. § 4. Xenophon appeals to their love of home, life, 
and riches, than which no chords of feeling could be more easily and effec- 
tually touched. 

330 NOTES. [Book III. 


1. KareKaiou^ began to burn, ruy ircpiTTcou limits orov^ and has for its 

antecedent the omitted object ixcTedl^ocrav. Render, of the superfluities^ what- 
ever any one needed they shared with one another (S. § 202 ; H. § 602. 1). 

ipplirrovv. This verb expresses the alacrity with which they destroyed 

their superfluities. Tjpia-TOTroiovi/TO = Tjpia'Tcov. Cf. TV. 3. § 9. els 

i-K^Koov, Cf. N. on 11. 5. § 38. 

2. evyovs (S. § 58. 5 ; H. § 208), well disposed. Supply elfil from ^u in 

the foregoing clause. iroW^ <p6^r^. The design of Mithridates was to 

draw out from the Greeks, under pretence of being their friend and in similar 

peril, the plans which they had formed for their preservation. koI rovs 

^epuTToyras icdvras ^X^''^i '^Hh (see N. on €%ajv, I. 2. § 3) all my followers. 

Ti eV y$ e%eTe, what is your purpose; literally, what you have in 


8. KoX eAeye X€ipi(To<pos. Cf. K on II. 3. § 21. The allusion in rh is to 

4. 'Ek tovtov. Cf. K on I. 2. § lY. "Ev^a St}, then indeed. on 

.... €*/77, that he was sent as a spy. Tor virSirefjLTrrosy cf. S. § 142-T02 ; H. 

§ 261. c. Kol ydp. Kriig. would supply, accedebat etiam aliud argumen- 

tum. By carefully noting the train of thought, the student will have no diffi- 
culty in supplying the ellipsis implied by yap. TriVreajs evcKa, i. e. to se- 
cure fidelity on the part of Mithridates, and to see whether he faithfully dis- 
charged the duty assigned him, and brought back to Tissaphernes a true 

5* cK TOVTOV. Kriig. makes it = fx^To. toCto, after this. But Sturz, Bom.^ 

and Pop., render it hac de causa^ for this reason. ^cAtiov. An ellipsis is 

implied in this comparison : better (than not to make the decree). Cf. Mt. 
§ 457. Thy irSXcjjLou aK'f)pvKTov \ lit. a war in which no heralds are em- 
ployed^ i. e. in which no terms of peace are given or received. co-re cV tJ 

7roA.6/iia, as long as they should be in the country of the enemy. Koi — 76, 

and even. NiKapxop. The same officer who was wounded in the belly 

when the generals were seized. It is so strange that he should desert, after 
such experience of Persian faith and magnanimity, and even before his wounds 
could have been healed, that Beck, thinks reference is had in this place to some 

other individual. ^x^to amcby = air^cL. Cf. S. § 225. 8; C. § 637; K. 

§ 175. 3. (e). 

G. dia^duTes Thv ZctjSaroy. We cannot help wondering with Rennell, that 
Xcnophon should be silent respecting the mode of passing the Zabatus, espe- 
cially as it was performed in full day-light and under the very eye of the en- 
emy. There has been much discussion as to the place where the passage was 

Chap. III.] NOTES. 331 

made. Col. Chesney thinks that the Greeks crossed the river in boats near its 
confluence with the Tigris. But Layard and Ainsworth with more reason make 
them to have crossed at a place where now is the principal ferry, about 25 

miles above the mouth of the river. i\a<ppovsy light y agile. evfc^yous, 

well-girded^ i. e. well prepared for fighting, running, &c. 

7. Ppaxvrepa rcou Ilepcrccj/, a shorter distance than the Persians, The skill 
in archery for which the Cretans were celebrated, has been alluded to in N. 
on I. 2. § 9. ^'Persas quoque sagittandi arte exceluisse constat." Kriig. Cf. 
K on I. 9. § 5. Ka\ a;j.a i{/iAoi ovtcs, and being at the same time light- 
armed. rCov oTrX(ay =. toov 6t?\itwv. fipaxvrepa — ^ us i^LKyeTcr^ai, too 

short a distance to reach; lit. a shorter distance than so as to reach. *' When 
it is an entire proposition with which the subject is compared, and the com- 
parative expresses that a quality exists in too high a degree to allow something 
mentioned to follow, -/) has after it the infin. with were." Mt. § 448. b. 

8. *Ek TovTov. Cf. N. on § 5. idicaKov, sc. iKeTuoi the omitted antece-' 

dent of 01. tcDj/ SwhiTuy. See S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 559 ; C. § 362. )3. 

D. ot Tre(ol K. T. A. The idea of the passage is, that the Greeks {ol tt^^oX) 
in a short space (Jv 6\iya) ycopicp) could not overtake their enemies (tovs ttc- 
Cov5)y who had much the start (e/c iroWov <p^vyovTOLs. Cf. N. on ck irXeoj/os, I. 
10. § 11). The reason why the pursuit could not be continued far, is given in 
the next clause. 

10. Koi (f)€vyovT6s oi/xa, even while retreathig. oljua is often placed after the 

participle with which it is constructed. eis rovinffh^v (sc. [x^pos. Sturz) 

Tof euoyres airh rcay 'iinrcov, by shooting behind them from their horses ; i. e. 
while fleeing on horseback. Such was the custom of the Parthians. 

11# ddXrjs. Cf. N.'onl. 8. § 8. els ras K^fxas. Probably the villa- 
ges spoken of, 2. § 34. t'/Js cpdXayyos, i. e. the main body. koI . . . , 

^KaTTTety, and was none the more able to injure the enemy than though he had 
remained with the phalanx. 

12. KoX . . . . fiapTvpoiT}, and the affair itself was a ivitness for them^ i. e. 

it justified their charge against him. iu rep /xeyeiv^ while standing still in 

order to repel the attack of the enemy. 

14. To7s .... x^P^^9 sc. eCTW, let thanks be to the gods. oXiyois, sc. 

ffTpaTKarais. &(TTe iSAa^ai juev fJL^ fxeydXay so as to do us no great injury. 

S. §223. 1; H. §770; C. § 628. 

15. ocroy oVre ol Kprjres ayriTo^eveiy BuyavTai^ further than the Cretans cart, 

shoot their arrows in return. ol e/c x^^P^^ /^dWoyres (sc. aKSmia) = aicov- 

TKTTai. TToXv — X'^P^^^^i ^ great distance^ is opposed to iv oXlywj a short 

distance^ in the following clause. oux o'iojf, i. e. it was not consistent with 

safety. The subject of this clause is Siw/cety, the verb 9iv being understood. 
ire^hs Trevor. See N. on § 9 supra. e/c rS^ov pvfxaros, havi7ig a bow- 
shot the start. Cf. N. on I. 10. § 11. **s^ ejactu sagittce^ sive e spatio quo 
sagitta scopum ferire potest peditem persequi incepit?'' Weiske cited by Kriig. 

332 NOTES. [Book in 

16. *li/xe7s (nom. by attraction with the omitted subject of fxeWoficv) is put 

for 'ijfjuyy and is to be construed with 5c?. rV Taxla'T7]v = rdx^ffra. Cf. 

Mt. § 282. 2; S. § 135. 2. 'Pooiovs, Rhodians. rt) jSeAos, i.e. the 

stone or leaden bail, (xcp^v^ov^v has by meton. the same sense, and depends 

on hLirKa.<Tiov. 

17. *E/c6?yai, i. c. the Persian slings. 5ia . . . . ccpej/dovajy^ iri conse- 
quence of their slinging large stones ; lit. stones that fill the hand^ i. c. as largo 

as the hand can grasp, reus {xoXv^Ua-iv^ leaden halls. These being much 

smaller than stones of the same weight, would meet with less resistance from 
the air, and thus fly much further before their force was spent. 

IS. TLVQs. "In connection with some verbs implying search or investiga- 
tion, ris, tI stands instead of oans^ o ri^ Butt. § 12Y. N. 6. rovroov 

limits T$ /.teV, and refers to TiVej. In regard to avTwv, for them (i. e. the 
slings), the thing bought is sometimes put in the genitive, in which case the 

Verb of the proposition docs not signify, to buy or sell. Cf. II. § 578. c. 

Ty he corresponds with to? fxcv. tiAAo, other than money paid for slings 

already made. tm c<p€voovav eVrerayjitcVro i^cKoj/ri, to him zcho volunteers 

to be enrolled as a slinger. ibiXovri, voluntarily^ of one's own accord. 

IxWriv TLva. arcX^iaj/, some other immunity. '■'' honestus i7i militia locus^ nam 
C(p€ud6pi^ erat hovXiKhv oirXov.''' Sturz. 

1 9. rw KAeapxro KaTaXGXeifijjLQj/ovs. So we say of one who is dead, he left 

such and such things. rovrovs irdyrczs cKXeqayres, having selected (the best) 

from all these. S. § 185. els linreas KarcKTKevdcrcafjLey, shall prepare (by 

suitable equipments) for horsetnen. tI — ayidaovo'iy, will furnish some 


20. ^'ESoJe ravra. See I. 3. § 20. QdoKijuda-^rjcrai^j were approved. 


lo r?7 'dXXrj. See N. on II. 1. § 3. x^'P^^P^^i ^ ravine^ bed of a tor- 

rent. ec^* y, at which. diafBaipovcij/, while crosshig over. 

2. Ata/BePTjKoori, just as they had passed over. The perfect here refers to 

that which has just taken place. Cf. Thiersch, § 85. 3. roffovrovs yap 

yT7](re TLO'crapQpj/rjj/. Cf. S. § 185; 11. § 553 ; C. § 436. iu ry i:p6c^^P 

'n-poa-poXy, in the former attack. S. § 1G9. 1. 

3. ocror, as many as. diepaive, began to cross. Uap'tiyycXro .... 

oTrXtTuj/, orders had been given to such of the targeteers and heavy-armed as 
ivere to pursue, ovs = ^kqlvols ovs, of which eKciyois limits irap'lyyyeXro, and 

is followed by rcou ir^Xracrruv (S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 559. a ; C. § 362. )8). cos 

4(p^^o;xej/7]s eKai/Tjs dwd/ncajSy inasmuch as a force sufficient (to support them) 
should follow. Cf. S. § 225. 4 ; H. § '795. e; C. § 640; K. § 1'76. 3. R. 2. 

Chap. IV.] NOTES. 333 

4« KaTei\'fi(f>€t, had overtaken the Greeks.- (r(p€v^6vat. See N. on 3. 

§ 16. icriiixTivs. Cf. N. on I. 2. § 17. 6ix6<T^y toward the same point. 

Schol. ad Thucyd. IV. 29. § 4, 'O^Jce i4vai avrl rod els X^tpas, koX irX-qaiov, 

ijroi ava-ra^^v //axr?s. dls dprirOy who had been (thus) ordered. ol 

8€, i. e. the Persians. 

5« To?s ^ap^dpois belongs to airc^avov, as the dat. incom. See N. on I. 1. 
' § 9. Such datives may often be translated as adnominal genitives. See N. 

on ol 'iiriroi avTo7s didepraij § 35. avrol KiXevaroi is explained by Suidas, 

ovK e/c irapayyiXixaTos, tincornmanded^ of their own accord. The reason why 

the Greeks mangled the bodies of the slain, is given in the next clause. 

ws. ... opay^ in order that it might he as shocking a sight as j^ossible to the 
enemy. - For the construction of bpav^ see S. § 222. 6 ; H. § 'ZCV ; C. 
§ 620. h. 

ۥ QvTO) irpd^ayres, i. e. having suffered this defeat. rh Xoinhv rrjs ?^^6- 

pas, the rest of the dag. Cf. S. § 188. 1 ; H. § 559. a; C. § 362. (. 

7. Adpicrcra is supposed to be the city whose ruins are now called Nimroud. 

rh ttolXcliSu, anciently. vvf/os, height. — — rov Se kvkXov tj TrepioSos, 

the whole circumference J *''' icniversits aynbitiis.^'* Sturz. irXlv^ois Kepa/jLiaiSj 

bricks made of potter'^ s clay. 

8. Paa-iXevs 6 Uepa-ajy, i. e. Cyrus the Elder. '/iXiou Se ve^iXyj irpoKaXv- 

^a(ra. This reading is adopted by Brod., Muret., Hutch., Weiske, Dind., Pop., 
and Kriig. The MS. reading, '^Xios Bh v^<piXy]v irpoKaXvilas^ is however re- 
tained by Bornemann. This obscuration of the sun was probably an eclipse, 
the cause of which being unknown to the inhabitants, was attributed to a cloud. 
Au illustration of the terror anciently inspired by eclipses, is furnished in the 
consternation of Nicias and his troops at an eclipse of the moon, when they 
were just ready to leave Syracuse. Zonaras relates, that Hannibal was terri- 
fied by an eclipse of the sun before the battle of Zama. For the manner in 
which Columbus wrought upon the fears of the Indians, by predicting an 

eclipse of the moon, cf. Irving's Columb. Vol. II. p. 144. i^eXnrov, sc. 

r^y irSXiy. Cf. ep^/ir;, § 7 supra. koI ovtcds caAw, a7id thus it was takeji. 

kdXoo, 2 aor. act. with a pass, signif. (cf. S. § 207. N. 2 ; H. §§ 408. 12; 447. 
1) from 'AAHMI. Cf. S. § 133 ; H. § 408. 12 ; C. § 301. 1. 

9. Ilapa ravTTjv tV i^^Xiy^ near this city. See N. on I. 2. § 13. iru- 

pa/xisy pyramid. '* Quae figura apud geometras ideo sic appellatur, quod ad 
ignis speciem, rod 'irvp6s^ ut nos dicimus, extenuatur in conum." Amm. 
Marcell. XXII. 15.-^ — 'EttI ravr-ns (see N. on I. 2. § 16), upon this, i.e. the 
pyramid. It served for a kind of fortress. . 

10. Tetxos, castle. Cf. N. on I. 4. § 4. irphs ry irSXct, near the city. 

A fortress like this being usually built for the defence of some city, when 
spoken of, suggests the idea of the city or place defended. Hence when the city 
is mentioned, it takes the article as though it had been previously mentioned. 
SchsBf. however edits wp6s re TrJAct. Mea-TriXa (i. e. middle gates or 

334 NOTES. [Book IIL | C 

pass) has been identified by Rennell with Nineveh, by Col. Rawlinson with 
Mosul. Ainsworth thinks it comprised both or portions of both. In regard 
to this question of the locality of Nineveh, I am indebted for the following note 
to the Rev. Dwight W. Marsh, whose long residence as a missionary of the 
American Board at Mosul, entitles his opinion to great weight. *'Wc can 
hardly limit the term Nineveh to the space within the seven-mile wall opposite 
Mosul. Her kings at times certainly resided in the i:)alaces of Nimrood twenty 
miles south, and of Khorsabad fifteen miles north. These three-walled inclo- 
sures were the strongholds. The Tigris defended the west. The detached 
mounds of Bahsheika, Karamlis, Karakosh and others on the east, seem to 
have been unquestionably designed to protect the whole diamond-shaped area, 
about thirty miles long, and in the centre nearly half as wide, but E^t larger 

than we know Babylon incloeed within its walls." xi^ov ^^(Ttov koyx^^^^' 

rov, hewn stone containing shapes of shells. These shells were petrified. 

11, *E7rl te ravrrj^ ttpon this^ i. e. the foundation of variegated stone just 

spoken of. aTrc^Aecay, adopted, on the authority of Steph., by the best 

critics, for the common reading airuKkuffavy is here used transitively in the 
sense of amiitere^ to lose, virh Ucpcrajy is however constructed with it, be- 
cause it has the sense, were deprived of the government hy the Persians. 

12» 6 Il€p(Tuv ^acriXevs. See N. on § 8 supra. ovre XP^^V — ^^"^^ ^^'?» 

neither hy siege nor hy storm ; literally, neither hy time nor hy force. e^u- 

fipoyrrjTovs. The Schol. explains this, KapdioirX'qKrovs^ fiaiyo/jiiyovs^ €K(ppoyas. 
^' missis fulguribus eos sive in stuporein sive in furorem conjicit^ ita ttt non 
resisterent.'''* Sturz. 

13. rhy (Trabixbv here denotes time, and hence ds is to be explained as in 

I. 7. § 1. ovs T€ . . . . exojz/. The full construction would be, iKeiuovs re 

€xa>y otfs avrhs ix<^v l\\h^. This part of Tissaphernes's force consisted of 500 

horse. Cf. I. 2. § 4. ^Xb^v to Babylon. rov exoyros. Cf. 11. 4. 

§ 8. 0V5 Kvpos €X<W2' ayc^Yf fiap^dpovs^ the barbarian forces with ivhich 

Cyrus marched up against the king. 6 jSacfAecys adsXcpos. Cf. II. 4. § 25, 

TTphs rovroiSy in addition to these. 

14. Tois .... /carao-T^cray, a part of his troops he opposed to the rear of the 
Greeks, elx^y — Karaffrdiffas = KaTecrrrio-^. Cf. S. § 225. 8. Repeat eTxey 

with Tvapayaydiu in the next clause. els tcl irXdyia^ in the direction towards 

the flanks of the Greelfs. — ^A^ej' ovk irSXfjL'na'ey corresponds to Be irap^yyeiXe 
in the following member ^ 

15. oifBels 7][jLdpTay€v aydpSs. Every stone and arrow took effect in the 

dense masses of the enemy. ouSe yap — pddioy ^y, for it was not easy. 

irpo^v}xo7ro^ sc. afxaprdyeiy aydp6s. e|a) jSeAwj', i. e. beyond the reach of 

the missiles. 1 

IG. 01 fiey, i. e. the Greeks ; ol d\ the Persians. aKpo^oXiceu This 

word designates a skirmish, in which missiles are thrown from a distance. 

The T^ in yap ol re belongs to rwy Uepffwy. See Bornemann's note. Prof. 

rroi. m 


Chap. IV.] NOTES. 335 

Long thinks that this particle is hardly admissible here. rwv Uepcwv de- 
pends on fiaKpSrcpoy. 

17. Kai, also^ connects to. rS^a with fxaKpSrepov — iccpeydovccv^ the sense 
being that in addition to the superiority of the Rhodian slingers, the Persian 
implements of archery, which were also superior, being used by the Cretans, 
gave the Greeks in every respect the advantage, in these skirmishes with mis- 
siles at a distance. to7s Kpijcrl limits xp^^f-t^^- I^ regard to these Cretan 

archers, see I. 2. § 9. diercXovy xP^/^^^^h ^^^y *^'^^'^ continually using, 

Cf. S. § 225. 8; H. § ^798. 2; K. § 1Y5. 3. (c); C. § 633. 3. e>€Aerwy 

Tojeuety &v(i3 Uyres ixaKpdv^ they shot up vertically for practice^ sending (their 
arrows) far icp^ i. e. as high as they could shoot them. Kriiger conjectures, 
without sufficient ground, that a/xa iovres is the true reading. 

18. fJLc7oy exoyr€5. See N. on 1. 10. §8. aKpo^o\i(6/jLeyos^ skirmish- 
ing, Cf j:^. on g 16 supra. 

19» ort .... ^irofieycay, that a square (cf. N. on I. 8. § 9) loas a bad order 
of march^ when the enemy were pursuing, cvyKvirrri signifies to bend to- 
gether. The reason is given in -/) 6dov k. t, A. 'AvdyKTj yap ia-riv — iK^\i- 

Pea-^ai rovs oirxiras^ of necessity the heavy-armed troops must be forced out of 
their ranks. For the construction, cf. S. § 222. 2 ; H. § 767. Notice the 
construction of aydyKTj with the infinitives ehai, Szao-irao-^-az, etc., below. 

TCL Kepara = at irX^vpal^ § 22. a^a fih — afxa de kou^ both — and 


20. dia(rxy signifies to separate^ relax, rh fiecov is the subject, and 

K€yhy the predicate of yiyyea-^ai. Zid^acriv (literally, a passing over) here 

signifies the place crossed, as a ravine^ morass^ defile^ &c. ^ouXofxeyos 

(p^dcai TvptaTos^ wishing to be first to cross over. cveiri^eroyj sc. t^ TrAai'- 

crzoj/, it was easy to make an attack u'pon the wing. For ro7s iroX^ixiois 

after eveTri^croy^ see S. § 206. 4. 

21. aya eKarhy 6.ydpas, of one hundred men each, iicio'T'qo'ay .... ivoD- 

fxordpxas. For the construction, cf. S. § 185 ; H. § 556. ^XXovs — ^AAovs, 
some — others, are in apposition with Xox^yovs. The order of rank in the 
Spartan army was, 1. ^a<nX^vs\ 2. iroxifjiapxos \ 3. Aoxa^Js; 4. TreyrTjKoy' 

r-hp ; 5. iyco/jLorapx-ns. Cf. Schol. ad. Thucyd. Y. 66. § 3. Ouroi Se iro- 

p€v6fjL€yoi at Xoxayoi, while the lochagi were on the march. The construction 

is similar to that in I. 8. § 27, on which see Note. inrefieyoy va-repoi, 

stayed behind. &(rT€ = tVa. t6t€ 5e, i. ^ after the wings were drawn 

together. ^ 

22. rh fxiffoy aye^eirlfjiTrXTja'ay, they again filled up the centre. It appears 
that the 600, who marched in the centre, halted, when it was necessary to 

-draw in the wings. This brought them in the rear, after which they filed off 
and marched outside of the wings. When the wings separated again, by an 

inverted process they (i. e. the 600) resumed their station in the centre. 

rh 5i€xoy, the opening, vacancy. narh x6xovs, by companies of 100 7nen 

336 NOTES. [Book III. 

each^ which would be more compact than 12 bodies of 50 each, or 24 of 25 
each, as was the method of filling up the centre, when the space was more ex- 

23* eV T<^ /-tep€f, vicissim^ in tiirn^ in due order. ol Xoxayoiy sc. rcav 

c| Kox^V' e^ ^oy ^^OL TL T'/)s (paXajjos, supply iirnrapuyai from iirnrap'^^ 

aray, and if perchance there was a necessity for some part of the jjhalanx (to be 
present). <pa.Kayyos depends upon ttov. Mt. § 324. 8. 

24* *Hyt/ca 5e tSov ireixTrroy iiropevovroy but while they were maJciny the 
fifth (day's march). Notice the force of the imperfect, compared with the 

momentary aorist iTropev^na-av which precedes. r^v o^hy is governed by 

flBou. y7}\6(pojy v\p7}\coy, *^The first hills that are met in proceeding 

northward from Assyria to Karduchia, are those which constitute the triple 
range, designated as the Jibel Abyad by the Arabs, and Cha Spi by the Kurds, 
both signifying * white hills,' and immediately beyond them is the castle of 
Zakhu, with valleys around it, like a feudal castle of olden times." Ainsworth. 

0^1 Ka^TJKoy airh rod opovs, which extended from the mountain (to which 

the hills belonged), i. e. ran out as spurs from it. xxp^ ^, wider which = at 

the foot of which. ws elKosy as teas 7iaturaly with reason. 

25. Karl^oLLVoVy they began to descend. ds . . . . ava(3a7€v, in order that 

they might ascend the other, i. e. the second hill. For ccs telic, see H. § 875. e. 

airh TGv v\p7j\ovy from the eminence. cis rb TrpaviSf downwards. 

Hutch, supplies x^ptoj/. virh fiaa-TlycaVy under the lash. Concerning this 

habit of the Persians, cf. Herod. VII. 22, 56, 103, 223. No wonder that such 
slaves made worthless soldiers. 

26. As the Greek slingers and archers could not cast their missiles or shoot 
their arrows up the mountain, it showed no want of bravery in them to retire 
from so unequal a contest to the ranks of the heavy-armed. 

28» ravrdy the same things. irpXv is followed by the finite verb, the 

action being expressed as something really done. See H. § 771. icphs rh 

vpos, i. e. the mountain spoken of, § 24. 

29. at TToXiixioiy i. e. the Persians, ol uroXcfjuoi in the next clause refers to 
the Greeks. BsdotKSres. Cf. S. § 211. N. 6; H. § 712; C. § 233. 

39. oi fxivy i. e. the main army. n-y 6d$ Kara rovs y7}\6(povs, in the 

way over the hills (§ 24). oi Se, i. e. the targeteers, who had ascended the 

mountain. iTrnrapiSyreSi passing along. els ras Kdofxas spoken of, 


32. ou irpSjTovy where first. K(aix7]v. There is a Chaldean village now in 

the plain, called Bidari. The ancient village probably stood where is now 

found a mound of ruins called Tel Kubbin. IV^, any longer. ■ oLiro/ia- 

Xot, unable to fight ; lit. aioay from the combatants. 

33. TTphs tV KcofjiTju, i. e. the one in which the Greeks were encamped. 

TToAi; Trept'^cay, were far auperior. iro\\j yap diicpepoVy for it was far dif' 


Chap. IV.] NOTES. 337 

34. BeiKri, Cf. N. on I. 8. § 8. 

35* Uov7jp6y, a useless thing. ol 'linroi avTois Zi^^vrai = ol Xttttoi avrwv 

did€j/Tai, their horses are tied. C. § 412. 3; S. § 201. 5 ; H. § 598. b. 

«s . . . . eVe/ca, as a common thing are shackled^ to prevent them from running 

away. For the construction of ir^iro^Lcr^ivoL — [i-h, see N. on I. 3. § 2. Se? 

— Tlepcrri av^pi — Se? — ^capaKiab^vra. The impersonal Set is constructed with 
the dative (S. § 201. 1 ; H. § 59Y. 1), or with the accus. (S. § 153. a; H. 
§ 494. a). Here both constructions are combined. Cf. Mt. § 411. 5. Ohs. 2. 

h.Tr^(TKi\vovv =. a-K^arpaTOTceB^vovTo, as they had burned their tents (III. 

3. § 1). 

36. diayye\o/jL€uovs. *' Opinor esse : cum inter se hoc denuntiarent, alter 
alteri (fortasse duces militibus) projiciscendum esse acclamaret.^^ Weiske, 
quoted by Kriig. and Born. SzayyeAAo^eVovs, passing along the word of de- 
parture. eK-fjpv^E, sc. 6 Kr)pv^. K on I. 2. § lY. (rutr/ceuafeo-^-ai, to 

put themselves in readiness to march. aKovovrwv twv TroAe/^tW, in the 

hearing of the enemy ^ is to be taken with iK'fjpv^^. eVeVxoj/, sc. kavrovs. 

—Xveiu {=z \v(riTe\€7j/) is governed by idoicei. Tropeuecr^-at and /caraye- 

c^aL form the subject of eSo/cef. 

3T. Kot avroi, they themselves also. ava(ev^avT€s, having broke up 

their encampment. The Greeks were enabled by this stratagem to proceed 
three whole days and a part of the fourth unmolested by the enemy. During 
these three days, the Greeks had been marching across the plain of Zakhu, 
and had now reached the hills wliich come down from the Jibal Judi to the 
banks of the Tigris. These heights were therefore necessarily to be passed by 
the Greeks, and of this the Persians were aware, and had taken their measures 
accordingly. aKpcawxia-v opovs, the suinmit of a hill. This is in apposi- 
tion with xojptoy v7r6pSe|ior, a place on the right over (the way), and the same 

eminence which is called \6(poj/ in §§ 41, 44. 5> ^^^^'^- ^<P'^ ^^i under 

' which. The accusative implies previous motion towards the place mentioned. 
> See K on I. 1. § 2. 

38. irpoKaTeiKTjfifieyTjv, taken possession of beforehand^ preoccupied. 

airb T^s ovpasyfrom the rear. 

39. i-n-Kpaivofievoj/, coming in sight. The Greeks were now in extremities. 
The hills, at the foot of which lay their route, were preoccupied by a detach- 
ment of the enemy. On the right hand were the mountains, on the left the 
Tigris, while Tissaphernes with the main army of the Persians was hanging on 
the rear, so that no troops could be spared from that division to assist the van 
led by Chirisophus. It will soon however appear with what address and gal- 
lantry they were extricated from these difficulties. Vf^^^t ^^.t. incomm. 

et fJL^j rovTOvs airoKS^ofxey, unless we dislodge these men. 

40. 'O 5e, i. e. Xenophon, who is also the speaker in the sentence com- 
mencing with 'AAAa fi^u u)pa. €p7]fj.a KaraKiire'iv ra uTrio'^ev, that the rear 

shoidd he left defenceless. rh = ^jueTs, like our use of one for we . 


338 NOTES. [Book IIL 

41 • rod tpovs r)jv Kopv4>'f}v. This was a higher elevation than the one a 
little in advance occupied by the Persians. Hence if the Greeks could get 
possession of this commanding eminence, they could easily drive the enemy 

from the heights, upon which they had posted themselves. virhp avrod rov 

kavTujVy above their very army. Xea^ai. Cf. N. on I. 5. § 8. rh &Kpov^ 

i. e. Tov upovs T^v Kopvcl)^}^. et jSouAei, if you are willing. €70; 5e. 

The omission of <rv fiey with the preceding juej/e, imparts emphasis to the will- 
ingness of Xenophon to do either of the things here mentioned. et Se XPV' 

(eiSy but if you desire to go. 

42. €\€(T^ai is the object of didufn. fiuKpav .... Xa^^ip = rh aTr^ t'/js 

ovpas Xa^e7y ^v /jLUKpciu. As it respects the construction of AajSe?*/ with fiaKpay, 
it is usual to give the positive in such cases the force of the comparative, and 
supply ^ Sxrre before the infinitive. But Mt. (§ 448. p. 746) says, "properly 
speaking, the positive is not here used for the comparative, but the infinitive 
expresses either the respect in which the adjective is to be taken (Mt. § 534), 
or the effect of the obstacle included in the adjective, so that it is to be taken 
in a negative sense, far, so as to prevent bringing, i. e. too far to bring." 

43. T0V5 rpiaKoaiovSy i. e. half of the ej \6xot spoken of, § 21 supra. 

44. rov Xocpov, i. e. the x^P*-^^ virepd^^iou of § 37. rh &Kpou refers to 

the higher elevation spoken of, § 41. a^iAAao-^-at iirl rh aicpoy, to con- 
tend for the height, i. e. to reach it before the Greeks. " In Xenophonte 
a/jLiWaa^ai semper de summo studio.perveniendi aliquo reperitur." Sturz. 

45. crparev/iaros diaK€\evojj.evQ}y. Cf. N. on KSirrovreSf II. 1. § 6. 

TToAA^ lJL€y icpavy^ — iroAA)^ Se Kpavy^. The consciousness that they were striv- 
ing in the sight of both armies, the shouts of encouragement with which they 
were cheered on, and the great interests at stake, must have exerted a power- 
ful influence upon these rival bands, as they strove for the summit of the 
mountain. Kriig. thinks that the repetition of Kpavy^ is needless. 

46. *'Avdpes, vvp eh k. t. X. No appeal could be more powerful than this. 
The repetition of yvv is exceedingly spirited and emphatic. 

47. €| 'lo'ov — iffixivy " cequali conditione sumus.^^ Kriig. x^^^"^^^ 

KdfjLvcD r)]v affiri^a (pepajy, I am greatly fatigued with carrying any shield. S. 
§ 225. 8 ; H. § 800 ; K. § 175. 1. (d). Kriig. joins xaAeirws to (pipoov, carry- 
ing with difficulty, 

48. Kal %s=Ka\ olros. See N. on I. 8. § 16. virdysiv, to go for- 
ward before the one, who TrapeKeAeuero, i. e. Xenophon. ijl6\ls, with dif- 
ficulty. TTOLpUvai, to pass by Xenophon whose progress was retarded by 

the weight of the soldier's shield in addition to his own cumbrous armor. 

49. 'O 5e, i. e. Xenophon. ava^ds, sc. eTri rhv 'iinrov, ewy ^darifxa 

^u, as far as he could proceed on horseback; lit. as far as it was accessible to 
a horse. ^dcLjxa. Verbals in the predicate, not referring to a proper subject, 
are often put in the plural. Cf. Mt. § 443, 1. 

Chap, y.] NOTES. 339 


1. &\\r}u o^hu ^^x^j/TO. For the construction, cf. S. § 181. 2; H. § 647; 

K. § 153. 3. (6). eh rh irediov, into the plairi. This plain is found in the 

one lying between the spur of the Jibal Judi referred to in 4. § 3Y, and the 

eminences which block up the plain to the north opposite to Jizirah, 

aya^cHy in regard to necessaries for the army. 

2« /cttid-* apiray^u, for plunder, koX .... KaT€X'l)(p^T]a'av, for many 

herds of cattle were taken while being transported across the river ^ i. e. while 
the owners were attempting to pass them over to secure them from the 

3. ivvooiixevoi fi'fj. Cf. S. § 230. 3; 11. § 743; K, § 111. T; C. § 665. 

€t Kaioiev (sc. ras Kciffxas) refers to the enemies, ^xoi^v refers to the 

Greeks. ono^cuy any place whence. Xaix^dvoLcv governs ra iriT-ii- 


4. rrjs ^oTj^eiaSf the relief of the foragers, who had been suddenly attacked 

by the Persians. See § 2 supra. anh rris IBo-n^cias^ (returning) from the 

relief (of the foragers). This belongs to ot ''EWrjues, referring to Chirisophus 
and his party. 

5* 'Opar€ .... cJyai, you see that they (i. e. the Persians) are acknowledg- 
ing the country now to he ours. a, for iKuva a, refers to fx^ . . . . x^P^^- 

avTol Kcdovaiv is put for avrol Troiovai Kaiovres, of which, iroiovci governs 

iK€7ya, the suppressed antecedent of a. ws aKKoTpiav, as if it belonged to 

another =. to us. idy irov = wherever. 

6. 0)5 ... . rjfxeTepas, sc. x^P^^y ^^ if ^'^^ defence of our country. A playful 
remark of Xenophon, not intended as sober advice. His object was to arouse 
the drooping spirits of the men, and therefore he indulged in a vein of pleas- 
antry. d\Aa Kal 7]fxe7sy bid we also as well as the Persians. 

T# i-n-l ras (TKrjvds. As the tents had been burned (III. 3. § 1), this means 
nothing more than that they retired to their respective stations in the camp. 
Rennell thinks that they adopted the plan of bivouacking after their tents were 

burned. at fi^v ^AAot, the rest (in reference to the CTpari^yol and Xoxayol 

spoken of in the next clause) = the common soldiers, irepX — ^aav, were 

engaged about. The preposition has here a tropical sense. H. § 651. 

cVraD^a, i. e. in the council of officers. "'E.vbev ixkv — eV^ev 5e. See N. on 

II. 4. § 22. opri — vTrepvxpTjka. These were the Carduchian mountains (lY. 

1. § 2). TTOTUfjios^ i. e. the Tigris. roaovros rh jSa^os (accus. synecd.), 

so much in depth = so deep. ws = wo-Te, so that. H. § 875. d. In this use 

it generally, as here, expresses result rather than purpose. Cf. Goodwin, 

§ 98. K 1. vTrepix^LV (sc. rov vZcltos. S. § 189; H. § 583), stood out 

above the water. Treipcofievois rod ^d^ovsy trying the depth, Tr^ipw^ivois 

340 NOTES. [Book III. 

limits ^Spara, S. § 201. 5 ; H. § 598. b ; C. § 412. 3. For the construction 
of ^d^ovs, of. N. on III. 2. § 38. 

8. Kara r^TpaKL<rx^\iovs, hy 4000 at a time. Cf. Mt. § 581. p. 1017. 

9. *Ao-«:cDy, bottles made of skins. ravra = iyrav^a, S. § 163. N. 2; 

II. § GTS. a. ^^ouros and oSe are often used instead of the adverbs *here,* 

* there,' the speaker pointing as it were with the finger." Mt. § 471. 12. 

^pva-rj^evra. *' Brevitatis studio ductus ad bestias refert quod de bestiarum 
pellibus dicendum erat." Kriig. Concerning this mode of crossing rivers, cf. 
I. 6. § 10. 

10. TovTOis .... aW-fiXovs^ ivitli these (i. e. ol SetTjUol) having fastened the 

leather bottles together. Kirovs apr'^cras (sc. e;c ruy dcr/cw;/), having tied 

stones to these bottles. These participles have the relation of time to iiriPaXco 
and iTri(pop^(rccj when I have fastened — I will cast upon^ &c. See H. § 788. a; 
S. § 225. 2. a/^</)or€p<w<5-er, at both ends^ i. e. on each bank of the river. 

11. avrUa fxaXa, forthwith = on the very spot. fid\a gives emphasis to 

avTiKa. iras, every. €|6t rov fx)) Karaovvai, will prevent from sinking, 

S. § 197. 2 ; H. §§ 580. 1; 838; K. §§ 157; 177. 7. ''iyjiv, to prevent, is 
followed by the infinitive alone, or with the article in the genitive." Cf. Mt. 
§ 542. 7. 

12. T^ ij/^v/jLTj/j-ay the device. rh %pyov, the execution. ol . . . . ttoi- 

cZy. The order is, ot ev^vs tiy iirerpeiroy to7s irpurois (i. e. they who at- 
tempted first to cross over) Troie7y oifdey Tovrcav, sc. el iirex^^povv. Tissaphernes 
had probably stationed this body of cavalry on the opposite shore of the Tigris, 
in order to prevent the Greeks from crossing if they should attempt it. 

13. els .... BalBvXcoya. The best solution of this passage is the one given 
by Born., '''' Postridie via Babylonica (i.e. ea, qu83 e provinciis Babylonem 
ducebat) relicta aliam viam higressi sunt illi contrariam.^^ Bind, would reject 
'5 before irphs Ba^vKSiva. In that case the sense would be, that the Greeks 
turned back again towards Babylon. But it can hardly be conceived that they 
would again expose themselves by a retrograde movement to the attacks of 
the Persians, from whom they had suffered so much in their recent march over 

the hills. KaraKavcavres, sc. ras Kdofias. Cf. § 3. o/jloioi ^crau ^av/j-d- 

(etu, seemed to wonder, were like persons who loere iti a state of wonder. This 
is the readmg adopted by Bind. But Born., Pop., and Kriig. make ofioioi 
^(Tav = i(pKC(raUy and read o/jloiol rjcau bavfidCovres. That this construction is 

admissible, cf. Mt. 555. 06s. 2. ottol ttotc rpiy\iovTai ol "'EWrjpes, whither 

the Greeks coidd possibly be going, oiroi iroTh corresponds to our familiar 

expression, where in the world. Tpiy^ovrai — exoiey. The indicat. and 

op tat. are here interchanged. Cf. Mt. § 529. 5 (end). 

14. afji<pi. See N. on Trept, § 7 supra. ^Xeyxou .... cYtj = ^Xeyxov 

{rovs alxiJ^oX6rovs) rls e'lrj 7] x^P^ eKda-rrj k, t. A. Cf. N. on II. 3. § 1 1 (begin- 
ning). ^Keyxov takes two accusatives. S. § 184. 1 ; H. § 553. 

15. TO ixkv .... c'/tj, the regions towards the south belonged (S. § 190; H. 

Chap. Y.] NOTES. 3<il 

§ 572. e) to the country (H. § 509. b) towards Babylon, ^ Se . . . . <^epof, 

but the way {oZos^ H. § 609. b) eastward would lead^ &c. dia(2dyrL^ to one 

having crossed. In the construction of the dative denoting one in whose view 

a thing is true, the participle alone is frequently used. H. § 601. a. (pi- 

poLj sc. oBos. oTL is repeated after ^Xeyoy to be supplied from the begin- 
ning of the sentence. ^y^a .... ^aa-iXcvs, Cf. N. on II. 4. § 25. eh 

Kapdovxovs. See N. on I. 8. § 5 (end). "The Carduchians are the ancestors 
of the modern Kourds^ who have extended themselves along the ridges and 
valleys of Mt. Taurus, from Asia Minor to the neighborhood of Ispahan, and 
who occupy the country named from themselves Kourdistan.^'' Rennell. 

16. /SacTfAeccs ouk aKoveiv {== did not obey). H. § 576; S. § 192; K. 
§158. 5. (b). aAAa . . . . /uupiaSas. This sentence is grammatically co- 
ordinate with those which precede and follow. Emphasis is thus given to the 

size and strength of the invading army. tV Suo-xcopiaj/ = ra oprj. In the 

narrow defiles of these rugged mountains a large army would be embarrassed 

in its movements and easily cut to pieces. acpooy = rivas ccpcau (Mt. § 323. 

5), Tims being the subject of 4irifjLiyi/vj/at, which takes in this place the middle 
signification, to mingle with, C. § 364. 2. iKeivosv refers to the Cardu- 
chians. The sense of this passage is, that there was a friendly intercourse 
between the mountaineers and the inhabitants of the plain. 

17. x^Pl^ • • • • €i5eVa/, apart from those (persons) who said that they knew 

the way in every direction. ^leX^ovres refers to olvtovs (i. e. the Greeks), 

the omitted subject of ril^iv. iroKKris and cvdalfiopos belong to "Kpfieviav^ 

but are attracted to the relative clause. S. § 175. 2 ; H. § 821 ; C. § 525. 

18. 'EttI TouTots, i. e. in reference to their contemplated route through the 

Carduchian country. oinjviKa koI doKoir) rrjs u>pas, when it seemed the 

'proper time, wpas limits birqviKa^ at whatever hour. S. § 187. 3; C. § 363; 
H. § 589. <rvve(rKQva(rfjL4yov5 is middle in signification. 

342 NOTES. [Book lY. 


1. oca is the subject of eTroAc^u^^T/. — irapapdj/ros .... Ticca^epyovSj the 

Icing and Tissaphernes violating the league = in consequence of the violation 
of the league by the king and Tissaphernes. S. § 226 ; H. § 790. c ; K. 
§ 176. 1 (b). 

2t ^vba = iK€7<r€ eV(&-a. iravrdiraffiv ^iropos^ totally impassable, 

cAAa .... iKpefjLaro, but the Carduchian mountains hung precipitous over the 
very river, c/cpe^aro, imperf. mid. of Kpe/ndi/yvixL^ as from a theme Kpc/x-rjixi, 
Ainsworth says that this pass of the Tigris is just beyond Jizirah ibu Umar 
(see JSTs. on III. 4. § 37 ; 5. § 1), where the Carduchian mountains hang pre- 
cipitously over the stream. The hills over which the Greeks made their way 
are from six to seven hundred feet in height. 

3. Tuy aKiffKOfxivtav, S. § 192. N. 3; H. § 582. 3. ci hU\^OLev—u]V 

^ovKoovrai — dia^yjcTojrrai. The conclusion has here two conditions, to the sec- 
ond of which it conforms. ras irrjyas is governed by dia^-ficovrau ■ 

irepiiao'i has a fut. signif., and hence is connected with ^la^-^crovrai, 

4* aiJLa fjL€V \a^e7y . . . . ra &Kpa, endeavoring both to conceal their move- 
ments and anticipate the enemy in taking jiossession of the mountains. 

5. Koi .... TreSioj/, and so much of the night remained as that they could 
cross the plain in the dark =:just enough for them to cross, &c. Cf. VII. 3. 
§ 22. For oG-oy (— rocovrou c^crre) SfeAr^eTv, cf. Mt. §§ 479. Obs. 2. b; 545 ; 

S. § 223. 1 ; H. § 815 ; C. § 628. (TKoraiovs. See N. on II. 2. § 17. airh 

irapayyeXcrecos, at the word of command. TrapdyycXais is used of a command 
issued by the general and passed from one to another, when, as in the present 
instance, to give orders by the herald would expose their designs to the 
enemy. ctTro has here a causal sense. II. § 623. c. 

C* rjycTro rod CTparcvfjiaToSy led the army as cojnmander. His position was 

also in the front of the army. haPcby = with. rh afKj)* avrov, the (part 

of the army) about him =: his own men. 'dvca irop^voi-Uvccv, sc. avroov, while 

they were ascending the mountains. ck rod oTricr^eVj from behind, in 

the rear. 

7. T^ vireppdWoy rod crparevfiaros, the portiooi of the army continually 
crossing over, rh vvep^dWoy (S. § 225. 1 ; II. § 786) is the subject of €(^ei- 

Chap. L] NOTES. 343 

TT^To. The sense is, that the divisions of the army, as they successively passed 
over the summit, followed on continually after Chirisophus^ who commanded 

the vanguard, and was on his way to the villages. ^yKccri re Kal fivxo7s, 

valleys and recesses, ** After the summit is gained, the line of hills and cliffs 
gradually recedes from the river Tigris, till suddenly from having a nearly hori- 
zontal stratification, additional beds of rock make their appearance in front of 
the cliffs, dipping nearly vertically to the west, and rising in rude, irregular 
conical summits. The recesses thus left between the hills are in the present 
day the seat of villages, as they were in the time of Xenophon, and the crags 
in front and in the rear bristle with the small and rude rock-forts of the 
Kurds." Ains worth. 

8. vTro(}>eid6jii€yoL .... Kapdovxot, spariiig them (to see) whether the Cardu- 
chians hy some means would he icilling. ^' Of a future event wliich is yet doubt- 
ful, et is often used elliptically with the omission of -Trefpco^eyos, (Tkoitwv. 
When the doubtfulness of the result is to be strongly marked, the optative is 
used of present actions." Cf. Mt. § 526. 

9. ovTs KaXovvrwy vir'fjKovov^ did not liste7i to their calling (see N. on III. 
5. § 16) =paid no regard (to the Greeks) ichen they called to them, i. e. the 

10* (TKOTOLoi. See N. on 11. 2. § 17. oXiqv tV w^P^v — iyey^ro == 

consumed the ichole day, Tiixipap, S. § 186. 2 ; H. § 550. a. rSre re- 
sponds to cTrei at the commencement of the section. 6\iyoi rivh ovresy 

being but feio ; lit. being some few, e| aTrpoa^oK'fjTOv = airpotrdbK'fjTovSj 

unexpectedly. rh ^lE.XK'riviKbv = ol ''ETO^rives. Mt. § 269. 1. 

11. iKtvBvyeva'ev clv dLa(p^ap7Jvai, would have incurred the danger of being 

d^Mroyed, ttoAi/ tov CTparevixaTOSf much of the army. iv rats Ktvfiais. 

The villages where the Greeks encamped, are found by Ainsworth at or near 

the modern village of Fynyk. iroWd, sc. fiEpj], a-vvcccpwy a?\A'f}\ovs, 

i. e. the Carduchians communicated with one another by means of fires and 
other signals. In this way the alarm could be rapidly given to great numbers. 
Some erroneously translate the passage as though ot Kap^ovxoi Kal ot '^EAA??- 
y€s were the subject of (rvveiapttjv. 

12. T(av re ... . duvardoTara, the beasts of burden ichich were necessary and 
most able, inro^vyicoj/ depends upon ra avayKola and dwcLTborara, S. § 188. 

1 ; H. § 559. a; K. § 158. 3. R. 1. (c). koX in Koi biroda. corresponds 

with T€ in Tcav re. veojarrX alxf^dXajra = vewaTl eaKooKora, Kriig. 

13. 2xoA.aiaz/ .... iropeiai/, rendered the march slow^ retarded the march. 

inl TovTois, in charge of these. " With the dat. iirl is put to express 

occupations or employments." Mt. § 586. (. airofxaxoi. See N. on III. 

4. § 82. Ao^av he raOra, these things having seemed best or having been 

determined upon. For the construction, cf. S. § 226. a; H. § 792; R. § 176. 
3 ; C. § 638. The part. sing, is here joined to the neut. plur., on the same 
principle that the verb is oftentunes so connected. Cf. Mt. § 437. Obs, 3. 

344 NOTES. [Book IV. 

14. cV (TT^y^, in a narrow pass. From Fynyk to the heights where is the 
village of Finduk the distance is not more than eight miles, which Ainsworth 
thinks is the extent of this day's march of the Greeks, as they did not start 
from Fynyk until after breakfast. Along the line of road thus traversed, there 
is only one pass adapted for the purpose of scouting, as here related, and that 
is the ravine of the rivulet of Zawiyah, which is deep and narrow, and to 

which there is only one descent on either side. rwu elp7)ixiv(»v^ i. e. tovtwv 

tc a(p€7yaL e'ipyjTO, So Krlig. fi^ acpiefxej/ou a^r)povyTOy they took away from 

the one who had not given it up. For the construction, cf. S. § 185. 1 ; II. 

§ 553; C. § 436; K. § 160. 4. (5). ttAV « ris (see JST. on I. 4. § 9) ri 

c/cA€^ey, sc. ovK iTrei^ero, rcay evirpeirwi/ is th^ partitive gen. ra {xiv 

ri fxaxofieuot^ sometimes fighting a little, ra fieu and ra 5e are synecdochi- 
eal accusatives, as to some things — as to others = now — now. C. § 490. R. 

tI does not belong to ra p.4v^ but communicates indefiniteness to ixax^- 


15» els T^v vcrrepalav. See N. on I. 7". § 1. %6ijuci)y ttoKvs^ a great 

storm. " The ascent of the highlands of Finduk is the very place to expect 
a storm." Ainsworth. 

16. avaxaCovres (= avaxoopovj/Tes. Suid.) is found in prose only in the 
writings of Xenophon. The deponent is the usual form. Cf. lY. 7. § 10; 
Cyr. VII. 1. § 24. 

17. ^Wore julv ore, at other tifnes when. ore Trapeyyv^ro, i. e. when 

the word was passed by Xenophon for him (i. e. Chirisophus) to halt. 

r6r€ Se, but then, i. e. on the occasion here referred to. on irpayixd n 

c'lTj, that there was some trouble. We are told what this irpayixa was in § 20 

infra. irapeX^6vri to the front of the army. rh a'lriou rrjs (nrovdris, 

the cause of the haste (object, gen.). SfjLola ^vyrjSy similar to a flight. S. 

§ IST. 3. o7r£cr,^o<^i5Aafi limits Tropda. Cf. S. § 201. 5 ; H. § 598. b. 

18. diafjLTrepeSj through and through. A Homeric word. 

19. lliCTTcp elxer, just as he was, immediately. aA.A' .... fjidxecr^ai, hit 

(so led them that) they loere obliged to flee and fight at the same time ; literally, 
to fight while fieeing. kolI vvv Zvo k. r. A. The oratio recta is here em- 
ployed. H. § 734. b. ri^varov. The perf. and pluperf. of ^v^ckcd are 

syncopated in the dual and plural. Cf. Butt. Irreg. Verbs, p. 126 ; Carmi- 
chael Gr. Verbs, sub voce. The army in these trying circumstances could ill 
afford to lose two brave men, and hence no wonder that Xenophon, before he 
had learnt the cause, was disposed to censure Chirisophus for not halting when 
the word was passed to him that the rear was attacked. 

20. B\€\poy .... VSe, cast your eyes upon the mountain^, said he, and see. 
$\4\pou has reference to the mere act of seeing, tSe to the actual perception of 

the object. For the imperat. aor. see N. on II. 1. § 17. e(|)77 after airoKpi' 

yerai is in a manner pleonastic. fiia .... op^ia, this which you see is the 

only way (being) steep. Kriig. translates ^K^aciv, exitum in reference to 

Chap. I.] NOTES. 345 

the valleys and recesses in which it is said (§ 'T supra) the Greeks were in- 
closed. But Hutch., Sturz., Born., and Pop. interpret it, aditum ad mentis 
jugum. At the entrance of this pass, which Chirisophus had endeavored to 
reach before the enemy, there is now a ferry and villages on either side of the 
river known as Kulak. By taking possession of overhanging eminences and 
engaging in several separate conflicts, the Greeks eventually forced their way 
through, and reached houses filled with abundance of provisions (2. § 22). 

21. TaQra, i. e. 5ia Tavra, Cf. Mt. § 4'70. '7 ; C' § 432. 3. e^ ttws Su- 

vaifiriv^ (trying) if in some icay I might he able. For the ellipsis of some such 
word as ireipfv/xej/os with et, see N. on § 8 supra. 

22* TjjMV irpdy^a.ra irapuxoy. See N. on I. 1. § 11. oVep .... iirolria'e^ 

which also enabled us to take breath. avrov tovtov eVe/cey, for this very 

purpose, TOVTOV refers to ottus .... xp^o'<^^V-^'^«- Bind., Born., Pop., and 
Kriig., after Schneid., adopt the reading xpV^^^^^M-^^^' ^^t that the common 
reading xRVO'doy-^^a is defensible, cf. Butt. p. 375. E. 1; Mt. § 519; Rost, 
§ 122.11. N. 4; S. §214. K 1. 

23. ovK €<|)77, denied that he knew of any other road. Cf. K on ovk icpa.- 

<ravy I. 3. § 1. Kol fidXa. See N. on I. 5. § 8. opwyTos tov eTcpov, 

the other seeing = in sight of the other. 

24» 'O 5e Xoiirhs = but the second; lit. the one left alive. Trap' h.v^p\ 

iKdedajjievT], with a man (to whom) she had been given (in marriage) = married 

to a man there. avThs .... oScJy, and he said that he himself icoidd lead 

them., in a road that was passable for even beasts of burden. For avThs with 

the infinit. see S. § 222. c ; H. § 7 '75. b. viro^vyiois limits dwaT-fjv. S. 

§ 206. 6 ; H. § 600. 4. iropcvea'^ai depends on Suz/arV and has viro(vyiois 

for its expressed subject. oSbj/ depends on Tiyfja-aa^ai. C. § 431. 

25» dva"irdptToy^ difficidt to pass. h depends upon TrapeK^eiy. S. § 163. 

2. — -tU, Cf. K on II. 3. § 23. 

26. ireKTaa-Tas is here used as an adjective in agreement with \oxayovs, 

Tuj/ dirXiTwy, some of the heavy-armed. Cf. S. § 188. 1 ; K. § 158. 3. 

R. 1. TO, irapSuTa, the present state of affairs. virocTTOLS i^eKovT'fjs, 

having offered himself as a volunteer. 

2T. KoX oItos. Cf. I. 10. § 18; H. 6. §30. 'Eycb ydp, ^cpn, olda 

K. T. X. Notice the change to the or alio recta. See K. on § 19 supra ; cf. I. 
3. § 14. 

28. TU3V yvfjLvfjTcoy would have been joined in the same construction with 
Twu fx€v oirXiTOJv in § 2Y, but the writer having paused to notice the noble 
strife between the captains of the heavy-armed, resumes the narration with a 
somewhat different construction. 


346 NOTES. [Book IV. 


1. OL 5*, i.e. Chirisophus and Xenophon. cvvTl^evrai, they (i.e. the 

generals) arrange tvith them (i. e. Aristonymus and his associates). This verb, 
from the idea of command contained in it, is followed by the infinitives <pv\dT- 

rciv, C7]}xaivciVy and Uuai. t))v vvKra qualifies (pv\dTT€tv, H. § 550. a; 

S. § 186. 2. rovs fjLcu, i.e. Aristonymus, Agasias, etc. 'dpca ouras, 

being above, i. e. having reached the eminence spoken of, § 25 of the preced- 
ing chapter. tV <l>av€pap iK^acriv. Cf. lY. 1. § 20. avToX Se refers 

to the generals. See K on 1. § 24. 

2. irXri^os, in number. S. § 182; H. § 549. b; C. § 437; K. § 150. 3. 

(7). vdcop — e{ ovpavov^ rain; literally, loater from heaven (i. e. the clouds). 

Cf. the Lat. ccelestis aqua. -iic^affiv in reference to the escape of the 

Greeks from their dangerous position. oirtas .... irepuSvres, in order that 

the enemy anight turn their attention that way, and that those going around 
might escape (their) notice as much as possible. 

3. €7rl x^P^^P'^' ^^* m* ^' § !• ^^^ common reading is xapctSpa?/, yet 
the dat. is the more usual construction, and has in this place the approbation 

of the best critics. ^y . . . . iK^aiveiv, which it was necessary for them to 

cross in order to go forth to the ascent (lit. the steep place). 6\oirp6xovs. 

Suid. defines bXoirpSxovSy crpoyyvAovs, Hesych. crrpoyyvXovs Xi^ovs. 

afjLa^iaiovs, suitable for a xoagon, i. e. very large. /xd^ovs Koi ixdrrovs 

than the stones just mentioned. irphs ras irirpas irraiovr^Sy dashing 

against the rocks. dieccpsydovwyTOy leaped about in every direction. Hutch. 

renders, ''^tanquam e funda contorquebantur.'''' The word happily expresses 
the impetuosity and force with which the splintered fragments of these rocks 

were hurled about in their descent to the valley below. ou5e ir^xdffai oT6u 

T* ?j/ ry efVJ5^, nor was it possible to approach the entrance. S. § 223. 1 ; 
K. § 814; C. § 628; K. § 182. R. 3. 

4* et . . . . dvyaiyro (sc. ireXdcai), %chen they were unable to proceed this 
way. " When 6* accompanies an action often repeated in past time, it takes 
an optat. like the proper particles of time followed by the imperf. or aor. in- 
die." Mt. § 524. 5 ; cf. N. on I. 5. § 2. Hoiovv. Cf S. § 211. N. 10 ; 

H. § 701 ; K. § 152. R. 4. (c). M^XP' a-KSroSy until dark. <po^o{)fjL^voi 

drjXov oTi. These words have been added from the Paris and Eton MSS. by 
Schneid., and after him by Dind. and Born., but are regarded as suspicious by 

Zeune, Kriig., Pop., and some other respectable critics. ^iravcravTo . . . . 

Xibovs. Kriig. reads avcTTavaavrOy followed by a comma, and gives as the 
sense: ne somnum quidem ceperunt, per totam noctem lapides devolventes. 
But this erroneously makes the deprivation of sleep in the Carduchian army 
the main object of attention to the reader, whereas, the simple idea intended 

Chap. IL] NOTES. 347 

to be conveyed is the uninterrupted descent of stones during the whole night. 
For the construction of i7rav<Tavro—Kv\Lj/dovyres, see S. § 225. Y ; H. § 798 ; 
K. § 175. 1. (e). aveirava-avTO is never found in construction with the par- 
ticiple. T6? yl/ocpcp is dat. of means. 

5* Oi 5', i.e. the party under Aristonymus, &c. uis rh &Kpou /care- 

Xoyrcs, supposing that they had possession of the height^ i. e. the eminence 
spoken of, 1. § 25. For the use of ws, de re sperata^ cf. K on I. 1. § 10. 

€• -Trap' 6V, near which, €<|)* ^, where, y refers to 655s going before. 

iKd^vro, were sitti^ig. Cf. S. §'l33. K; H. § 406. 2; C. § 275. C 

ouT(^3'6v, from that place^ i. e. where the Greek detachment was passing the 

7t were .... irpoo'eX^ojrr^s, so that unperceived they came close to them, 

iirccp^^y^aro^ ** ad aggrediendum sonavity Kriig. The vulgar reading 

is icp^iy^aroj which Pop. supports on the ground that iirccp^ey^aro is opposed 
to the usus loquendi of Xenophon, and that the idea insonandi ad aliquid does 

not suit in this place. Uvro. Cf. N. on I. 5. § 8. <p€vyoi/r€5 hxiyoi 

airc^yqa-Koy^ few while fleeing were killed. 6\iyoL is in apposition with ol 5*. 

Cf. N. on €yioi, II. 4. § 1. yap in the next clause introduces the reason 

why the Greeks succeeded in killing but few of the enemy. 

8. Ot 5* a;u(/)i Xeipio'ocpoy, but Chirisophus and those loith him. J'erro 

.... 65oV, went up in the plain way. Opposed to Kara rV <pctv€pav oBhu is 

Kara arpi^eTs oSous, in unfrequented paths; as we say, in by-paths. avi- 

jLtwy .... ^opouri, they drew tip one another with their pikes, avifxwv (from 
i'uas, a thong or leather strap) signifies to draw up (=z ai/et\Kov. Suid.) with a 
cord^ as water from a well. The word in this place finely expresses the steep- 
ness of the ascent, the soldiers above drawing up with their spear-handles those 
below, in some respects as a bucket of water is drawn up from a well. 

9» Kal ovTOiy i. e. those who Kara aTpifi67s d^ous iiropcvoyro. exwv rwy 

oTLcrbo(pv\dK(av robs rjixicrets = robs 6Trta^o<f>v\aKas robs rjfj,i(T€is (cf. Mt. § 442. 

1), having half the rear guard. See N. on I. 9. § 26. iiropsvero yircp ot 

rhv riycpLova exoyrey, proceeded the same way as those having the guide; i. e. 
the detachment spoken of, § 1. evodcordTTj yap ^v^ sc. bhos. 

10. Kal .... ^AAot, but these (i. e. the part of the army led by Xenophon) 
woidd have marched , the same way which the others had taken. "The use of 
tiv in past actions to express ability, is founded on a suppressed condition." 

Mt. § 599. 2. b. Cf. also S. § 215. 3 ; H. § 752 ; Goodwin, § 52. 1. 6.KKri 

^ ravrr}, any other icay than this^ viz. the way under the hill possessed by the 
barbarians. For the construction, cf S. § 159. 1 ; H. § 586. a; C. § 461. 

11. op^iois ro7s Koxois, '''' rectis ordinibics.^'' Kriig. ^^ ita ut lochi singuli 
procederent, non latam frontem facerent.''^ Weiske. The expression op^iois 
answers to our military term, in columns, i. e. a body of troops drawn up, with 
the divisions so arranged behind one another as to present a narrow front to 
the enemy. Accordingly as the intervals between the divisions are compressed 

348 NOTES. [Book IV. 

or extended, the column is said to be in close or open order. ov kvk\cc, 

i. e. not entirely surrounding the hill, as that would have rendered the enemy 

12. Teojs, as long as. oirtj iZvvavTO eKacTos, where they each could, 

€Ka(rros is in partitive apposition with the omitted subject of idvvavro. S. 

§ 150. N. 3 ; H. § 514. b. iyyhs 5* ov irpoffUvTo = but they did not wait 

for the Greeks to approach very near them. KaT^x^fx^vov by the Cardu- 

chians. avbiSy forthwith. 

13. ^'Evvo'hcras — ix'i). Cf. N. on III. 5. § 3. tIv rj\caK6Ta \6(poVy the 

hill which had been taken. Cf. S. § 20Y. N. 2; H. § 408. 12. iirl iroXv 

.... 7rop€v6fjL€j/a, for the beasts of burden formed a long line^ inasmuch as they 
were passing along a narrow way. iirl iroXvy ^'' in longum explicata.'''* Sturz. 
Etq (i. e. a, Te)'-Trop€v6fjL€m. S. § 226. a ; H. § 795. d. 

14. TToAi; op^idoraTosy by far the steepest. Steph. conjectures op^id^Tcpos ^, 
on the ground that the eminence, at the foot of which the Carduchians were 
surprised (cf. §§6, 7), was already taken by the Greeks. But a reference to 
those sections will show that the barbarians were only said to be driven from 

the ope7i road^ and not from the eminence. 6 inrlp rrjs .... <pv\aK7}s, 

the one above the guard which had been surprised at the fire. See § 5 

15. iyivovTO ol ''E\\7)V€S. The common reading is ^yoy (sc. tV (Trpariav) 

ol "EWrjp^Sj which Mt. (§ 496. 1) approves. ^av/xaa-Thv iraari, wonderful to 

all. vird^Trrevcj/^ sc. irdyrcs elicited from the preceding iraci. The order 

is vircvTrrevey aifrovs airoKiireLV teioravres fx)] KVKXcc^evres. Ot 5e Upa — 

Ka^opc^vresy but they then looking doion. introduces an explanation of the 

abandonment of their position by the enemy, and is here = the fact was. 

TO. oiria-^ey yiyvo/jLcya refers to what is detailed in § 17 infra. 

16. vTrdyeiv. See N. on III. 4. § 48. iy T<p ofiaXw, sc. X^P^^V) ^'^ ^ 

level placcy where they could be drawn up. bicr^ai rh, oirKa. See K on 

I. 5. § 14. 

17. re^vaiTu Cf. N. on 1. § 19. Kal ^AAof, and others. /cara rrjs 

irirpasy down from the rock. 

18. ^tt' avTiTropov K6<poy. This seems to have been the second hill spoken 

of, § 12 (end). t$ fiaarr^, i. e. the elevation which Xenophon ascended 

cvy Tols yeooTdrots (§ 16), fxaar^ limits ayriiropoy. S. § 196. 1. 

19. if $ (=eVl Toircp ^)s. Butt. § 150. p. 440; H. § 813 ;'C. § 628; 
Goodwin, § 99), on condition that. — - Kalay. S. § 223. 1; H. § 813 ; K. 

§ 186. E. 3. eV ^. Cf. N. on I. 10. § 10. 'd\Xo arpdrevf^a refers to 

the division of the heavy-armed, who marched in the rear to protect the bag- 
gage. See § 9 supra. ol Se refers to Xenophon and his company who 

were parleying with the enemy. irdyres .... iroXefxioi. The text follows 

the reading adopted by Dind. and Born. But Pop., Krlig., and Long edit 
irdyns ot, the reading of the MSS., and place a full stop after a'vyfppvrja'ayf 

Chap. IL] NOTES. 349 

which perhaps gires a better solution of the passage. Born, places a comma 
after both Travres and (rvveppvr]<Tav. 

20. fjp^avTOy i. e. the Greeks with Xenophon. liWovs .... iK^ivro re- 
fers to those who were drawn up eV tw 6fxa\(d, § 16. The same band is 

referred to in rovs a-vvTeTay/jLej/ovs, § 21 infra. e//3-a, where. Kare- 

a|ej', aor. act. oi Kardyvvixi. On the augment, see S. § 93. 1; H. § 312. 

e'xa?;/ tV ao'TriSa air^Xiirey, having his shield (i. e. carrying oft his shield) left 
him. Perhaps from apprehension of no attack, he had gone to some other 
part of the army, but it is, however, more natural to refer his absence to fear, 
inspired by the sudden assault of the enemy. 

21. irph afKpoTu irpo^efiXTj/j.iyos, holding (his shield) before them both, Cf. 
I. 2. § 17. 

22. iraj/ .... *E?0^rjviK6y, i. e. Chirisophus and Xenophon reunited their 

forces. eV constructed with iwiTTjdeiois is to be taken in the sense of in 

the midst of. Kolkkois KoviaTo7s, plastered cisterns. This shows the great 

abundance of the wine. 

23. dieirpd^ayTO ware, brought about that. irduTa iiroiTja'av rois airoba- 

vova-LVy i. e. they buried them with all military honors. e/c twv dwaruv, 

according to their ability. wo-irep yojil(€Tai (sc. ■TroteTy from the preceding 

member), as is customarily done. 

21. For the construction of otvt] e^?;, cf. Mt. § 527. 2; S. § 217. 1; H. 

§ 758. TrpoKaraKaixfidvovTes, preoccupying it. This participle and fiaxofie- 

voL denote the means. inooXvov. The imperf. is here used of an attempted 

action. ras irapS^ovSy their passing along ; a secondary signification of 

the word. 

25. oTrJre — KcoXvoiey. Cf. K on eVei t(s 5icc/coi, I. 5. § 2. rovs irpdo- 

tovs, the van of the army. eAue r^u O7ro0pa|fy rrjs irapSdou^ removed the 

obstruction of the way^ i. e. drove the barbarians from the passes, where they 

had posted themselves in order to obstruct the march. ro7s irpdirois. S. 

§ 202. 1 ; H. § 595. a. ireipctifxeyos avcaTepcD yiyj/ear^ai, endeavoring to be 

above, i. e. to ascend some eminence which commanded the pass occupied by 
the enemy. In the next verse we find that Chirisophus in like manner as- 
sisted the rear, when they were pressed by the enemy. ruu kv\v6vt(»3v. 

S. § 198. 1; H. § 585; C. §351. 

26. i^o'n^rja'ap a\\'f}\ois, they furnished aid to one another. S. § 201. 
1 ; H. § 595. b. icrxvpcos . . . . iireficXovrOy toere very attentive in render- 
ing assistance to one another. Cf. S. § 193; H. § 676; C. § 376. 5; K. 
§ 158. 6. I. (b). 

27. '^Hz/ — biroTe, sometimes. Cf. ISTs. on I. 5. § 7 ; II. 6. § 9. Kai^ 

also. avTols limits irap^^xov. wcrre koI iyyv^ev (p^vyovres airocpevyeiyy 

so as to escape lohen fleeing from (a point) eveji near (at hand). iyyv^^Vy 
i. e. e| 6\lyov, "cui oppositum est c/c ttoAAou." Krug. Cf. e/c Tr\4oyos, I. 10. 
§ 11. The idea is, that the Carduchians were so agile that they could ap- 

350 ^ NOTES. [Book IV. 

proach very near to the Greeks for the purpose of annoying them/ and yet 
easily escape, although having very little the start of their pursuers. 

28. iyyus rpiir'fjx'ny ^^^^ nigh three cubits long, Cf. YII. 8. § 18. 

irphs rh Kdrco k. t. A. This passage has puzzled critics not a little. Hutch, 
reads irpo^alyoyrcs and interprets, ^^ nervos cum sagittas missuri essent^ ad 
imam arms partem adducehant^ sinistrum pedem projnoventes,'" But this po- 
sition is so usual for archers when about to discharge their arrows, that we 
can hardly suppose Xenophon would gravely tell his countrymen that such 

was the posture of the Carduchians. Besides, if irphs to^ou is connected 

with any thing in the sentence, it must be with irpoa-^alvovres, and not, as 
Hutch, and Belfour suppose, with ^XKkov ray pcvpds^ which seems to make no 
conceivable sense. The various solutions given to the passage, by Leun., 
Amas., Brod., Weiske, &c., are all unsatisfactory. Schneider's interpretation 
seems to be the best of any yet given, and is cited approvingly by Born., Pop., 
and Krlig. *^ Difficultatem omnem facile explicabit si mecum et cum inter- 
prete germanico, Halbkart, statuas arcum affixum fuisse fusti canaliculato, 
qualem medium sevum arcubalistam vocabat, unde Gallicum arbalete originem 
duxit, quod telum Armbrust appellare solemus. Ketinaculum retinet nervum 
summa cum vi tensum ; impulsum vero manu ejaculatur telum canali imposi- 
tum. Ita apparet quomodo nervus summa cum vi, pede sinistro arcui imo 
imposito, adductus retineri potuerit in arcu sublato." A very convenient way 
of fitting the arrow to the arbalist or cross-bow^ would be to place the left foot 
upon the bow where it was joined to the stock, and with both hands to draw 
the string home to the notch, at the head of the groove in which lay the arrow. 

iXpc*>yTO avroLS — aKovriois^ used them (i. e. the arrows) for darts. XP^^' 

fiai is here followed by two datives. See N. on iriffTOTdrois, I. 4. § 15. 

ivayKvKwyreSj fixing the ayKvXt] upon them. Yates (Smith's Diet. Gr. and 
Kom. Antiq. p. 60) shows conclusively that the ayKvKri must have been differ- 
ent from the amentum or leather thong fastened to the lance. It was proba- 
bly, as its name imports, something crooked or curved, which was fixed to the 
middle of the shaft as a rest for the hand, when with the aid of the amentum 
it was about to launch the spear. 


1. vTTcp Tov TTeSiou, ovev the plain. KeyrplTrju. This river separates 

the country of the Carduchians from Armenia. It is now called Buhtan-chai. 
Layard thinks that the Greeks attempted to cross the river at Tilleh or Til, but, 
as Xenophon relates, found a more practicable ford higher up. Ainsworth 
finds the place where the first attempt was made to ford the river, higher up 
than Tilleh, where it is hemmed in by low hills, and the actual crossing-place 

Chap. III.] NOTES. 351 

a little above these hills. os opiC^i^ which bounds. opioiv. Cf. N. on 

I. 2. § 21. rcov Yiap^ovx<*3v is to be taken with rSov opioov^ from which it is 

separated, either to avoid the termination cov in so many successive words, or 
for the sake of a rhythmical ending of the sentence. 

2* jxaXa. ^Seojs, very gladly. iroKXa. .... fxyrjfiovevovres. Cf. Cic. de 

Fin. Lib. II. 32. *' Jucundi acti labores." "Sua vis laborum est prssteri- 

torum memoria." A similar sentiment is found in Yirg. ^n. I. 201-3 : 

" revocate animos, moestumque timorem 

Mittite ; forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit." 

'ETTTa yap ^iixepas. If we make the first of these days embrace the events de- 
tailed, lY. 1. §§ 4-11; the second, IV. 1. §§ 12-14; the third, lY. 1. § 15. 
—2. § 7; the fourth, lY. 2. §§ 8-23 ; the fifth, lY. 2. §§ 24-28, there will be 
wanting two days, which Eennell supplies from the time given to rest, lY. 2. 
§§ 22-23. But Kriig. more correctly supposes three days to have been con- 
sumed in what is narrated lY. 2. §§ 24-27, the writer having omitted to men- 
tion the particular events of each day. oaa. .... Tia-ffacpcpvovs, more than 

all the evils put together which they had suffered from the Icing and Tissa- 
phernes; literally, as many evils as were not all (i. e. as all did not equal 

which they had suffered) from the king^ &c. ^5ews iKoifi-fi^rja-av. They 

little knew what dreadful sufferings awaited them in the snows of Armenia. 

3* vx^ais ; literally, banks of a river. Here it designates the eminences 

pertaining to the Centrites, yet some distance from the stream. Cf. § 5. 

6,vca rS)V iinrecav, above the cavalry. This explains more definitely the locality 
of these foot forces. 

5« CLTrh Tov irora/xov aircTxov. Cf. S. § 223. xe/poTroiTjTOs, artificial; 

literally, 7nade with the hand. 

6* uTrep rwu fxacrTcaVj above their breasts. rpaxvs .... oKic^T/jpoTsy the 

river (i. e. its bed) was rough with large and slippery stones. et 8e )u^, 

otherwise^ i. e. if they attempted to hold their shields in the water. Cf. Butt. 
§ 151. lY. 7; C. § 671. 6; H. § 753. a.— — yvfivol in reference to the shield, 

i. e. unprotected^ exposed. -■ t\s is collective, and hence is referred to, as in 

I. 4. § 8 (on which see N.), by the plur. avrov^ there., in that very 


7. *'Ej'3-a .... -^trar, but where they had been the preceding night. Cf. K 

on ^fcrav^ I. 1. § 6. Notice the anaphora in 6pw(Ti [xlv — bpwtri Se — bpoocri Se. 

tV ^(Tiroplav, the difficutty of passing. opSxn .... oiricr^ev, and saiv -, 

the Carduchians behind loaiting to attack them when they had crossed over. 

8. iy TreSats SeSeVj&at, to have been bound in fetters. avrai de. Supply 

edo^aj/ {they seemed) from the preceding clause. avrSfxaroi ir^pippvrivai^ to 

fall from him of their own accord. The 2 aor. pass, of pioo is used by the 
Attics in an act. signif. Cf. Butt. § 114. P; Sophocles, Gr. Yerbs, p. 229. 

352 NOTES. [Book IV. 

The word is here tropically applied to the parting asunder and falling off of 
fetters, to express the ease and suddenness of the act, as it appeared in the 

dream. ^lafiaiveiu, ^'' divaricatis pedibus stare?'' Born. The word happily 

expresses the long and irregular strides with which a prisoner, in the first mo- 
ments of his freedom, assures himself that he is really free from the chains 

which have so long restrained his movements. cATrtSas €%6i kolXws ecear^aiy 

he had hopes that all would be well. Adverbs sometimes follow clfMl and other 
such verbs in the predicate. Cf Mt. § 309. c. 

9. ws rdxio'Ta ecus viri(paivev, ** quam primum aurora illucere cospisset.''^ 
Person, cos rdxiCTa in the sense of as soon as, is usually disjoined by one or 
more words. iirl rod TrpcDrou, sc. lepeiovy which is added, YI. 3. § 2. 

10. irpoffirpexov Svo veai/icKco, two young men came running to. This 

union of the plural and dual numbers is not uncommon. C. § 3 3*7. e'let?; 

avT$y any one might go to him. clir^tv .... irSKc/uLOv^ to communicate 

whatever intelligence he might have respecting matters pertaining to the war. 

IL KoX Tore^ and then^ i. e. on the occasion here referred to. oti 

.... irvpy that they happened to be gathering brushwood for the fire. iv t$ 

Trepay, on the other side. KabriKovcais .... irora/xSu^ extending down to the 

very river. Cf S. § 160. a; H. § 669 ; C. § 508; K. § 169. R. 1. 

12. ovdh .... TovTOy for this place could not be approached by the enemy'' s 

horse^ on account of the rocks Ka^r)Kov(rais ctt' avrhy rhy irora^6v. iKdvy- 

T6S, putting off^ sc. their clothes. ws yevcov/xcyoi, supposing that they 

would have to swim across. Cf. N. on ws, I. 1. § 10. vevarovfievoi is the Dor. 
fut. mid. of j/ew, a form which in some verbs is employed by the Attics. Cf. 

Mt. § 183. Obs. 3; S. § 109. K 1 ; H. § 377. 4 (end); C. § 200. 3. 

iropevo/JievoL to cross over. jSpefat, aor. infin. of ^p^x^' irdXtj/ rjKeiy^ 

had come back. Cf S. § 211. K 5; H. § 698; K. § 152. 4 ; C. § 579. /. 

13. ecTTreySe, sc. olvov. to7s veavio'KOLs iyx^^^ iKchevcrSy he ordered the 

young men to pour out wine into the cup. Some with less propriety render : 

he ordered (his attendants) to pour (into the cup) for the young men. For 

the construction of evx^a-^ai — ^^eoTs, cf C. § 392. 2. 

14. rovs re e^uTrpocr^-ei/, i. e. the army of Orontas and Artuchus. Cf § 4. 
Twj/ oTTia-^ev refers to the Carduchians. 

15. 7]ye7a'^aiy lead the way^ take the lead. dtA^aiveip. The pres. infin. 

is here used, because the passage of the army is regarded in the aspect of a 
continual crossing over of its parts, while the aor. infin. ^la^rjvai (§ 12) indi- 
cates the mere act of passing the river without reference to its continuance or 
repetition. Cf Butt. § 137. 5 ; S. § 211. 1. 6; H. § 695; C. §§ 565. 1; 
797(a); K. § 152. 12. 

16. 'ETrei .... elxey, whe7i these things (i. e. the disposition of the troops 

and the baggage) were well arranged. rjyovvTo as guides. odhs = dis" 


17. avTnrapii€<rav, marched along on the opposite shore ^ in order to inter- 

Chap. III.] NOTES. 353 

cept the passage of the Greeks if they should attempt it higher up. e^ev- 

TO TO. oTTXa. See K on I. 5. § 14. airodvs of his outer garments. 

irap'iiyyeWe. Supply from the preceding clause aTrodvuras Kaix^av^iv ra ottAc?. 
op^lovs. Cf. N. on 2. § 11. 

18. icrdfayidCoyTO els rhy irora/j.oj/. Sacrifices were frequently offered to 
the divinities supposed to inhabit rivers. Sometimes the animals were slain 
during the passage of the stream. Alexander is said to have sacrificed, in the 
middle of the Hellespont, a bull to Neptune and the Nereids. The Trojans 
ofi'ered bulls and horses to the Scamander. Cf. Hom. II. XXI. 180. See also 
Herod. YII. 113. For the use of eis, cf. N. on €ts ao-iriBa, II. 2. § 9. 

20. iirl .... vprj, to the ford opposite the way leading to the Armenian 

mountains. Cf. § 5 supra. irpoa"jroLovix€vos. See N. on I. 8, § 14. 

rods .... iTTireis, These horsemen had gone up the river to oppose the pas- 
sage of the Greeks (§ 17), but when they saw Xenophon hastening back to the 
principal ford of the river, supposing it was done with the intention of crossing 
over and cutting them off from the main army, which was stationed upon the 
eminences (§ 8), they returned with all speed, and thus enabled Chirisophus 
and his men to pass over without molestation. 

23« AvKios. Cf. III. 8. § 80. fi^ aTroKeiTrea-^aiy that they (i. e. Lycius 

and his party) 7nust not be left behind = must not give up the pursuit. These 
encouraging shouts were not lost upon Lycius and his company, as many be 
seen, § 25. 

23* ev^vs .... i^e^aiyey^ but forthivith both proceeded along (/cara) up the 

high banks extending to the river. irpo(rTjKov(ra5 vx^cls corresponds to 

irerpais Ka^rjKovcrais, § 11. rovs ayco, i. e. the infantry drawn up on the 

banks above the enemy's horse, § 3. 

24i tV raxi(TT7]i/. '' Sine oBhy est celerrime.^^ Kriig. 

25. Toi 'dp(o =■ ra 6.Kpa, § 23. iirix^ipiia-as imdica^aif continuing the 


26. a/cju V Sie'iSaive, were just passing over = in the very acme of crossing. 

a/cjuV is the adv. accus. Kar ij/cafiorias. Cf. III. 4. § 22. irap" acnri' 

das .... (pdXaY/os, having extended each company to the left in the form of a 
phalanx^ i. e. in a line fronting the enemy, without any space between the 
ranks. Trap' acTriSas, to the left^ the shield being on the left arm. So cttI dopv 

(§ 29 infra), to the right^ the spear being in the right hand. irphs rSbv Kap- 

5ovxw> facing the Carduchians. KaracTT^craff^ai^ to standi to station 

themselves. This intransitive use of the aor. mid. of 'ia-TTjfjLi is rare, its sense 
being almost invariably transitive. Cf. Butt. Irreg. Yerbs, p. 185 ; Sophocles, 
Gr. Yerbs, p. 165. irphs rod 'jrorafiov. Cf N. on II. 2. § 4. 

27. rov ox^ov depends on \f/i\ovix€uovs (cf I. 10. § 13), diminished (in 

number) by the camp followers having now crossed the river. hxiyovs 

^5?7 (paivo}xivovSy appearing now (comparatively) few. ^5as Ttvas^ certain 

(war) songs. 

354: NOTES. [Book IY. 

28* haPalvovras, i. e. on the pomt of crossing over. avro(, i. e. Xeno- 

phon and the rear guard. Avavrlovs .... hia^^troix^vovs^ they should de- 
scend (into the river) on each side (tv^ev Ka\ ^vb^v) opposite to them (i. e. 
Xenophon and his men), as if designiiig to cross over, iyayriovs — acpcoy. S. 

§ 198 ; H. § 587. f. di7]yKv\i<rfJLeyovs, holding the javelin by the thong in 

readiness to throw. See N. on IY. 2. § 28. This participle is the perf. mid. 

See Butt. § 136. 3. im^e^Xrifxej/ovs (perf. mid.), having their arrows 

on the string, i. e. being prepared for action. ju^ . . . . TrpojBaiyciVy but not 

to advance far into the river. Cf. § 540. 

29. acirls ^o<p^^ the shield should ring, with the stones, darts, etc., thrown 
against it by the enemy = should be within reach of their missiles. Hutch, 
renders aa"irls ^o<^5> " ^^'^ scuta pulsata (by the Greeks as a signal for the 
charge) sonar ent."^^ So Weiske, Zeune, and Sturz. But this interpretation 
does not so well accord with c<p^vZ6p'i] i^iKPrJTai, and is rejected by Born., 
Pop., and Kriig. 

30. Tovs XoiTTovs. Schneid. supplies rovs 6iri(T^o<l)v\aKa5 from § 27. 

^^ovTo .... viroCvyicov, had gone away, some to take care of their beasts of 

hcrden. Sxovro has here the force of the pluperf. Cf. N. on I. 4. § 8. 

ivTavba 5^ is used, as though ii:^\ Idjpwv, instead of opcDj/res, had preceded. 
So Kriig. 

33. /cai . . . . <p€vyoj/T€Sy even when the Greeks were on the other side (of the 
river), icere seen still to fee. 

34. Oi dh v7ravT'f)a'avT€s, i. e. the troops sent by Chirisophus. Cf. § 27 

supra. irpoffooTcpep rod naipov, farther than was proper ; lit. further than 

the occasion (demanded). 


1. Aeious, gently rising, i. e. not steep or uneven. Kriig. following Morus 
interprets, non asperos virgultis aut lapidibus. vphs = carried on against. 

2. Els §€.... ^j/, but the village into which they came was both large. 
" This spot, by the distance given, would appear to correspond with the town 
now calied Sa'art or Se'ert." Ainsworth. Kio/nriv here stands for ndofiyj, and is 

attracted by, and put after, its relative. Cf. K on I. 2. § 1. fiaariXciou 

elxe Tw crarpdirr}, contained a palace for the satrap (i. e. Orontas). For the 

dat., see S. § 201. 1 ; H. § 597. 1. Tvpceis, Probably the houses were 

turreted as a defence against the Carduchians. 

3. vircpriKbcVy they passed over. rov Tlyprjros irorafjLov. Not the Tigris 

proper, but the eastern branch called Arzen. TT^AejSoay. This river is 

doubtless the Kara-su, and the place where the Greeks crossed the stream is 
found by Col. Chesney at the village of Arisban near Mush. Layard makes 

Chap. IY.] NOTES. 355 

the Teleboas to be the river of Bitlis, but the best authorities are against this 
view. Trepl rou iroTafxou, around (i. e. on both banks of) the river. 

4* TOTTos, region, 'Ap/xeyia .... kffiripav. This was the western sec- 
tion of Armenia Major, separated from Armenia Minor by the Euphrates. 

7) irpos icirepay, that (lying) towards the west = western. C. § 4'<'5. b. 

avi^cLXXsv = aye^L^aCey. Cf. Cyr. YII. 1. § 38. 

6* €(p' $. Cf. K on 2. § 19. avrhs — adiK€7u. Cf. N. on avrhs a-Kii- 

vai, II. 2. § 1. iK€iyov5 does not refer to the subject of the principal verb, 
and hence is put in the accusative. fjL-fire — re. Cf K on 11. 2. § 8. 

0. UpeTa. The Greeks caUed any animal they slaughtered for food /epeTor, 

because a part was always burnt on the altar. Twy Se airoo'KeBayyvfjL^ywy 

Tivis^ some of those who had straggled away. 

10. In the common editions, a full stop is put after crrpdrevfxa, and thus 
irdXiy is made to commence the subsequent sentence. But after Holz., the 
best editors place the period after irdxiy. Adverbs are often found at the close 

of a sentence, especially when emphatic. Biai^pidCeiy, to clear up. Some 

interpret it, to encamp in tlie open air, sub dio agere. 

11. yvKTcpcvoyrcay S' avrSoy, while they were passing the night. okvos 

—^yi(TTa(r^ai. Cf. S. § 222. 6; H. § 767; C. § 620. (b); K. § 1Y2. 3. 

a\€€iyhy (sc. xpVf^^) • • • • Trapappvelr]. The idea is, that the snow served as a 
warm covering to those upon whom it lay undisturbed as it fell. 

12. iTSX/nTja-e, dared, i. e. had the courage and energy to do the thing here 

spoken of. iK^iyov a(p€\6fxeyosy sc. rrjy a^iyw- Cf. S. § 184. N". 2 ; H. 

§ 680. a. 

13* ixp'ioyro, " ut artus frigore torpentes redderentur agiles." Zeun. 

€/c TQJy TTiKpcoy, sc. aiJ.vydd\coy. 'E/c Se rcoy avrcoy, sc. repefiiy^ccy. 

!!• oT€ rh -TTpoTepoy air^ccray refers to what is said, § 10 supra. virh 

TTJs al^pias, in the open air. The Paris and Eton MSS. read virh aTaa-^aKias^ 
ob stultam petulantiam. 

15. 'Eyrev^ey = e/c rovrov, then, after this. aydpas doyres, having 

given (him) men as attendants or followers. ra oyra k. t. \., things beijig 

as being, and things not being as not being = the truth exactly as it was. ra 
ii)] oyra ■=.ifa thing was not, and hence the negative ix-l]. 

17. iro^airhs e'lrj, of what country he was (cf. S. § 76. 1), is the accus. of 

the thing after ipcord^fieyos. S. § 177. 3 ; H. § 553. a; C. § 436. rh 

crTpdTevi.La is the accus. after ripdorojy (S. 184. 1 ; H. § 553), being proleptically 
drawn from its position in the dependent clause. H. § 726. 6'!r6(Toy .... cw^- 

X^yiiiyoy is a subst. sentence in explanatory apposition with crpdr^vixa. 

M riyi a-vyeiXsyfieyoy, for what pwpose it had been collected. 

18. di) excoy, was having = had. C. § 637. II; H. § 788; S. § 89. 1. 

XdXv^as. If, as Strabo asserts, the Chalybes of his time had changed 

their name to that of Chaldaei, these mercenaries of Teribazus are probably the 
same people who are called XoASaZof, 3. § 4. Cf. 6. § 34; 7. § 15. Kennell 

356 NOTES. [Book IV. 

says that the name Chalybians here appears to be a mistake, the Chaldseans 
being certainly intended. However this may be, these people are not to be 
confounded with those of the same name, mentioned, Y. 5. § 1, who are rep- 
resented as few in number and subject to the Mosynoeci. TaSxovs. Cf. 7. 

§ 1 ; Y. 5. § lY. ^Trep fxovaxv ^'^V T^opeia^ the only direction in which the 

road lay. o)s is to be constructed with iTri^rja-Sfxei/oj/. Cf. N. on ws airo- 

kt^vSjv^ I. 1. § 3. Tov opovs is the obj. gen. See N. on I. 2. § 25. 

ivTavba. is added for the sake of perspicuity. 

19t Soph^netus was left in charge of the camp, probably on account of his 
age. Cf. Y. 3. § 1. 

20. TiKworav^ were taken. Cf. N. on III. 4. § 8. Tor the lengthening of 
the radical vowel, cf. S. § 126. 1 ; H. § 400. 4. n. Xenophon writes riXwu 
and kdXccv. H. § 408. 12; C. § 300. 1. The latter is the Attic form. Cf. 
Butt. § 114. p. 224. ?; CKTju'f). The tents of eastern princes and comman- 
ders were often filled with articles of luxury. Cf. Herod. IX. 80. tpo^CKov- 

T€5 ehai, professing to be. 


1. crvW^yripai — irdXiv, assembled again^ reassembled. rb arTparevfia 

refers to the enemy. rh crevd. Cf. § 18 of the preceding chapter, rb 

&Kpov below refers to the same pass. 

2. Evcppdrrjv. This was the eastern branch called Arsanias, the modern 
name of which is Murad Chai. Kennell, however, makes the Teleboas answer 

to the Arsanias. ^pexofJLevoi irphs rhv op.<pa\6v, being under water up to 

their middle. Butt. (Lexil. p. 208) says that ppex^a-^aL is used of objects 
which are not merely wetted but quite in the water. 

3. irapaa'dyyas irevreKaiBeKa. A distance, in the estimation of Eennell, too 
great for a march through deep snow, and hence he suspects an error in the 

text. The numeral may have crept in from the preceding section. poppas 

contr. from fiopeas, the north wind. ivavrios eirvei, was blowing against 

them^ i. e. in their face. airoKaicoy, parching. *' Quia idem fere vehemen* 

tis frigoris est effectus qui caloris, tropus hie, prsesertim apud poetas, non est 
rarus, ut frigore perdita dicantur ambusta.^^ Weiske. 

4. (r<payid(€(r^ai t$ dve^oD, to sacrifice to the wind^ i. e. to Boreas (see § S). 

-TTtto't S5/ . . . . TTveifjLaTos^ to all now the fury of the winds seemed evidently 

to abate. The neut. adj. with the art. is oftentimes put for the abstract noun. 
rh xa\e7rbv =: '^xaA.eTrt^TTys. C. § 653. a. 

5. ov . . . . 6\pi(oyTas, would not permit those coming late to approach the 
fire. fjLETadi^oTev — irvpovs. Cf. Mt. § 326. Obs. This verb is more com- 
monly followed by the gen. of the thing imparted. Cf. S. § 191. 1; C. 

Ch^p. v.] notes. 35T 

$3424 ; 36Y ; H. § oT^. a. See also fjLere^idoffav LW'fi^ois Zv (i. e. c'/ceiVcct 

H) § 6 infra. ^ , . 

6. ^EK^a 5e', 6z/?^ ichere. eVre cVi', as/ar as. ov 5v; Trap^jy ^erper, 

where indeed they could measure, ol refers to the place ^here the sno^y had 
been melted by the fire. 

7. ^^ovXii^iacrav, fainted through excessive hunger. Fisch. remarks of the 
^ov\L,uia. that '4t afflicts the patient with an insatiable appetite, so that he is 
debilitated, loses his color, faints, and experiences a coldness at the extremi- 
ties." , , , r ^ 

8. S.eVeMTT. hdSuras. Cf. S. § 225. 5. — i^e^^h 5e tl .f^cpayo^^y,^ but as 
soon as they had eaten something. The optat. here denotes mdefinite fre- 
quency. See X. on I. 2. §g 2, '7. 

d.'afjLcpl Kyicpas, about dusk. e'/c ttjs Kc:>iJ.vs--yvya:Kas, women belong- 
ing to the village. The Tillage here spoken of is put by Ainsworth m the 
Khanus district. This will be seen by a reference to the map. The westerly 
direction which the armv took, resulted probably from a desire to avail them- 
selves of the valley through which flowed the river of Khanus. irphs ry 

Kp-hvri, at the fountain. a q ^-i k 

10. UepcTLcrri, like a Persian = in the Persian tongue, b. ^ lo4. D. 
'60-0^ irapaadyyw^ «« "^^^-^^ ^^ « parasang. See N. on I. 8. § 6. 

12. 01 re ^L€<p^apiJ.€yoL—rovs 6(p^aXfj.ovs = iKeluoi oTs (i. e. ^y. S. § 201. o ; 
H. §*598. b) ot 6(p^d\,uol di^cp^api^eyoL ^coi/ ; or ^x^vres rohs 6(p^a\fiohs hecp- 

^apixivovs. Tohs h<p^a\p.ohs is a synecdochical accus. rohs .... «^^^'^^^- 

TToVes, u^hose toes were rotted off. rohs daKr^Xovs is synec^dochical_ The 2 
perf. of a^ocTTiTra) is used intransitively as a pres. Cf. S. § 201. K 2 ; H. ^ 417. 

13. To7s 6^^a\fjLo7s Hmits i^LKo^pwO' the dat. com. See N. on 1. 2. ^ i ; 

6 § ^ 11. 3. § 15. iiTLKo^^pw^ -^^1^ X^ouos, protection against the snow. 

The -en is that of separation. ra^u 5^ ^oScSi/, sc. i^iKo^^pw^- ^'otice the 

chano-e of construction in ro7s hcp^aXf^oh^^u 7ro5^r, the dat. in the first m- 
.tanc°e bemo- employed to avoid the limitation of the noun imKovp-nixa by two 
genitives. — cZ rV yvKra ^^oXz^, if he took off {lit. unloosed) his shoes 
at night. Cf. ^TroSeSe^ueVoi (mfra), with their shoes on, lit, boimd on. 

14. '^rSBas is limited bv roi^rcoy the omitted antecedent of baoi. ot 

ladures, the thongs by which the shoes were fastened to the feet. Kap^a- 

rlyat, brogues. v^oUprccu ^oa>u, (the hides of) newly skinned oxen. ^ 

15. IvdyKas, difficulties, troubles. ^^KaCov reraj/ceVa^ they conjectured 

that it had melted av:ay. The 2 perf. of r^/cc has the intransitive ^ense, / .nej^ 
awaxu I have melted; 2 pluperf., I had melted. S. § 20Y. ^. 2; U. fe 41^ ; 

C. § 266. 1. r^T-hK^i. So Bind, and Pop. read for the vulgar ^t^tt^k^i. 

^v arixiCovcxa = 'nrixtCeu, icas exhaling vapors. 

16. 'irdav rkxvn «cil i^nx^vv. ^V '^'"^V «^*^ ^''^ contrivance = in every way. 

TcXeuTo)^, at^last. H. § VS8. a; C. § 457. a. Svvacr^a:, sc. .cpaaap, 

suggested by the preceding context. 

358 NOTES. [Book IT. 

IT. ro7s KdfjLvovarij those who were tired out. They are called ot aa-^evovv 
res in § 19, their excessive labor and privations rendering them as helpless as 

though they were sick. afxcpl wy (i. e. eKeivcov t) diacpepSfjLevoi, quarrelling 

about the booty (cf. § 12 supra) in their possession. 

1 8« are vyiaivoj/reSy inasmuch as they were welly i. e. not exhausted by the 

sufferings which they had undergone from cold and fatigue. ocroj/ ijdvyavTo 

ixiyio-rovy as loud as possible. riKav (aor. of Vr^jitt) iavrovsy threw thein- 

selveSy is finely descriptive of their precipitate flight over the banks of snow 
into the valley. 

19. cV avTovSy for them, i. e. in order to conduct them to the rest of the 

army. irplu rirrapa a-rddia dicX^eTy^ before they had completed four stadia. 

irp\v has here a prepositional force. C. § 887. N. iyKeKaXvixju^j/oiSj 

wrapped up in their garments. Some incorrectly translate, covered up with 

snow. ayicrracray avrovsy they endeavored to make them rise up. Cf. N. 

on I. 3. § 1. 

21. Trphs rj/jLepaVy towards day. Mt. § 491. e. avao'r^a'ayTas eKiXevcrep 

ayayKd(eiy irpoUyaiy he ordei'ed (them, i. e. the youngest men) to rouse up 
(the sick), and compel them to go forward; lit. having caused (the sick) to 
stand up, to compel, &c. 

22. irejjLTrst rwy ck rrjs Kci>jjL7js CKeipofji^yovs, sends some from the village 
(i. e. some of his men who were quartered in the village) to see. For the con- 
struction oiireixirei rccy, cf. S. § 191. 1 ; H. § 574; C. § 366. I. icoixiC^iv. 

S. § 222. 5 ; H. § 765. 

23. ol Se dWoiy sc. (TTparriyol. dia\ax6yT€s, having divided by lot. 

"More pervagato." Kriig. rovs eavrwy, their own men. 

24. UoXvicpdTrjs. This Athenian captain seems to have been a zealous and 

active friend of Xenophon. elX'fjx^t, 3 pers. sing. plup. of \ayxdyca. 

eirraKaideKa. This number is evidently too small, since we are told, § 35, that 

Xenophon gave a young horse to each of the generals and captains. iyyd- 

TTjy 7]ix4pay yeyafjLrj^eyrjy, having been married nine days. Cf. S. § 186. N. 2 ; 
H. § 550. a; K. § 159. 3. (b). yaixeiy is said of the man contracting mar- 
riage, yaijL€7ar^ai of the woman. ^x^'^^ ^rjpdcrcDy. See N. on II. 6. § 3. 

25. Kardyeioi, subterranea7i. CTo^a, sc. Uxovcai. Cf Mt. § 427. 5. 

at S* c'lffodoi ToTs /JLey viro(vyiois opvKral, passages into (them) were dug 

for the cattle. iwl KXifiaKos, by a ladder. Perkins (Residence in Persia, 

p. 117) says that "the villages now in this region are just like those described 
by Xenophon. They are constructed mostly under ground, i. e. the houses are 
partially sunk below the surface, and the earth is also raised around them, so 
as to completely imbed three sides, the fourth remaining open to afford a place 
for the door." A fine testimony to the fidelity of Xenophon's narrative. 

26. olyos Kpi^Lyos, ^^ barley wine, i. e. beer." Boise. €y7]<ray . . . . i(TOr 

X€iA.6?s, and the barley itself was also in (the vases) even to the brim. Hence 
the contrivance for drinking by means of reeds, the wine being sucked up from 

Chap. V.] NOTES. 359 

the bottom part of the jar, from which the barley had risen to the surface. — — 
ySvara. These joints would have closed up the tube, and rendered the reed 
useless for the purpose here designated. 

27. &KpaT05 ^v, sc. 6 olvos. (rv/jLjia^Si/Tiy to one accustomed to its use. 

28. CT€p^,(Toiro—a.iriaa'iv. For the interchange of mood, see N. on III. 5. 

§ 13. ayT€fjL'ir\'f](ravres, having in return filled. For the construction of 

rcav iiriTTjdelcoVy cf. S. § 200. 3 ; H. 580. a. €(rT tLU iu ^AAy ^^yei ycvccy- 

raif until they should come to another people. There is a constructio preg- 
nans in yivavrai followed by the preposition of rest (S. § 225 ; H. § 618. a). 
tcrre with et/il has the sense as long as, 

29» <l>i\o<ppovovfjL€vo5 = as an instance of his good-will. olvov. " hand 

dubio Kpi^iyoy,^^ Kriig. Others think with good reason, that wi^ie of the 

grape is meant. olvoy .... Karopcapvyixivos, Cf. N. on I. 2. § 21. eV 

<pv\aKyy under guard. So in the next clause iv o(pba\ixoisi under their eye = 
having an eye upon them. 

30. Tovs refers to the Greeks who were quartered in the villages. irplu 

irapa^eTvai. The optat. or subjunct. is usually found with TrptV, when the lead- 
ing clause, as here, is negative. See N. on I, 4. § 13. avTo7s, i. e. Xeno- 

phon and his companions. 

31* ovK .... Tpdirc^av, there was no place where they did not put upon the 
same table. The two negatives in this sentence constitute an emphatic affirma- 
tive. Cf. S. § 230. 2 ; H. § 844. 

32« <l>iXo<ppovoviJ.evos^ in token of friendship. etXKey, he drew him^ i. e. 

he used a kind of friendly compulsion, such as is employed with those who, 

when solicited to drink, manifest a reluctance to do so. evbev is a relative 

adverb referring to Kparrjpa, po<povpra — uxrircp ^ovv, sucking it in like an 

ex. This was done by means of the reed (cf. § 27), although some think that 
when they pledged one another, they applied their mouth to the liquor, as the 
ox does to water, instead of sucking it up through the tubes of cane. 

33* (TKTjvovvTasy in their quarters, here = feasting and banqueting in their 

quarters. rod ^rjpov x^^oO. They were unable to procure flowers and 

green plants at this season of the year, and therefore used hay as a substitute. 
iyeo7s, deaf-mutes, 

31* irepariCoyTos, speaking the Persian language. PatrtXei Sao-jiiJs, a 

tribute for the king. Dat. Com. See N. on I. 2. § 1. ^ly bthy ^(ppa^^y. 

For the prolepsis, see N. on I. 2. § 21. 

35. %y €l\^(f)€i refers to what is detailed, III. 3. § 19. iraXaircpoy. 

For this form of the comparative, cf. Butt. § 65. N. 3. Kriig. and Pop. follow 

the common reading iraXaiSrcpoy. aya^p^ypayri Kara^vcraiy to sacrifice (S. 

§ 222. 5 ; H. § 765) after having recruited him. Uphy chai rov *ll\iov, 

Zeune remarks on Cyr. VIII. 3. § 12, that horses were most frequently offered 
in sacrifice to the Sun. 

360 NOTES. [Book IV. 


!• rhy jxep T^ye/xSpa, the guide. 6.pri ri^affKovros^ now approaching the 

age of puberty. et KaXws rjyTjo'OLTo (sc. 6 Kwjxdpx'ns)^ if the bailiff guided 

them faithf idly. 

2t avT$ ixa\€irdy^7} (aor. pass. S. § 208. K. 1 ; H. § 694. c), became an- 
gry with him. 

3* 'E/c Se TovTovj on account of this. The common reading is airh Se tov- 

Tov. ttTToSpas 4x^'^°9 ^^ ^^^ away. On the meaning of a7ro5i5pacr/cw, see 

N. on I. 4. § 8 ; on 4x^'^^ "^^^^ *^® participle, see JST. on II. 6. § 3. rovro 

refers it to tj tov .... aficXcia. See Mt. § 472. 2. c. 7)pda^7\ re toO Trat- 

ScJs, fell in love with the boy. The verb epctw takes its tenses solely from the 
pass. form. Cf. Butt. § 114. p. 237. For the construction of tov naiUsy cf. 

S, § 193; H. § 576; C. § 376; K. § 158. 6. I. (a).- irKXTOTdTco, as most 

faithful. The pron. with which this adjec. agrees is understood. 

4. ava ireure irapaa-dyyas ttjs rjfjcepas, at the rate (S. § 231 ; H. § 636. c) of 

five parasangs a day. Trapa, i. e. along the bank. Thv ^acriy. Cf. N. 

on I. 4. § 19. This river is now called Arras, and from the rapidity of its 
current, well deserves the epithet "pontem indignatus," applied to it, Yirg. 
^n. YIII. 728. Prof. Maiden (Class. Mus. Vol. III. p. 39) conjectures that 
the name of this river led the Greeks to suppose that it was the same as the 
Phasis of Colchis, and that they followed the course of the stream in the hope 
that it would lead them toward the Euxine, till, seeing that it continued to 
flow eastward, they resolved to try a more direct line. Ainsworth, admitting 
the correction along instead of to the river Phasis, which would reduce the 
number of marches between the Euphrates and the Phasis from fourteen to 
seven, thinks that the Greeks were rendered sensible of their mistake by com- 
ing to a large river flowing into the Arras from the north, at the same time 
that the supposed Phasis took a bend rather to the south of east. They would 
thus be induced, having crossed the Arras, to turn away from it and follow the 
new river northward to its sources. 

6. iiravcaTO iropevS/ievos. Cf. §§ 225. 7; 798. 2 ; H. § 798. 2; C. § 633; 

K. § 175. 1. (e). /cara Kepas = inl KcpaSy in a line, longo agmine. — 

iirl (pdXayyos. Cf. K on 3. § 26. 

10. cdiixaTa audpSjv, a circumlocution for 'dvdpas or CTpaTidiTas. 

11. Tb ixkv .... cTTciSxa, this mountain which is in sight ^ is more than sixty 

stadia in length. Hutch, supplies iKT€iv6fX€vou. aAA' -/) follows a negative 

in the sense of other than, except. Cf. Vig. p. 177; C. § 671. 2. iroXv 

ovv KpeTrTov — fiaWov. This apparently pleonastic use of ^uaAAoj/ is not uncom- 
mon, as may be seen in the numerous citations of passages where it occurs, 
made by Mt. (458). Kriig. explains it, e duplice dicendi forma, KpeiTTov /cAc- 

Chap. VL] NOTES. 361 

ipat, Tt rj ixdx^ff^oLi^ and aya^lu K\i^at ri fjiciWou tj jxdx^c^at, Cf. C. § 460. a. 

Tov ipi^fjLou opovs — ri, some unguarded pai't of the mountain, ipijij.ov, 

deserted, belongs ad sensum to t\. opovs is the part. gen. /cAe^flat, to se- 

cretly get possession of. apirda'aL (p^da'avres, to anticipate (the enemy) in 

seizing it. 

12. opbiov, sc= x^p'^^^- Synecdochical accus. iv^ev koX iv^ev, on this 

side arid that, on both sides. ra irph iroSwj/, what is before him ; literally, 

the things before the feet. rpaxeta, so. b^os^ a rough way. evixeveffTcpa 

is used tropically in the sense of smoother, more even. 

13. air€?^e7j/ rocrovroy (accus. of space), to go away so far from this place. 
So Krug. But Weiske, cited approvingly by Schneid., Born., and Pop., un- 
derstands fiepos a-rparev/jLaros with toctovtop, preferring however the reading 

rocrovTovs. olv in 5' av fioi, belongs to xpvo'^^h ^^^ ^^ repeated after ipr)- 

{jLOTepcfiy in consequence of the interjected clause, ravrrj .... Trpoa-^dWeiv. 

iprjuoTcpcp .... xpW^oLL, that we should find the other part of the mountain 
more deserted. fiivoiev. Repeat Uv from the preceding clause. 

14. 'Arap .... (rvjLL^d?^o/, but why do I discourse about theft f offoi 

refers to vjias, and hence takes the verb in 2 pers. plur. ofioicoj/ depends 

on icrre, as many as belong to the peers. S. § 190; H. § 572. a; K. § 158. 
3. (a). The ofioioi constituted the first class of citizens in Sparta, and were 
opposed to the viro/jLeioyeSy inferiors, who from birth, degeneracy of manners, 
or other causes, had undergone some kind of civil degradation. Cf. Smith's 

Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 237. ^v^vs ifc 'iraidcoy, immediately from children 

— from very boyhood. 

15. KoX ireipacr^e \av^dv£iv, and practise concealment. — ■ — vSfxiixov &pa 

vixlu icrriv, it is accordingly a law tcith you. tov opovs. Cf. S. § 191. 1 ; 

H. § 574 ; K. § 158. 3. (b). iroXKas irX-nyds. As the Spartan youth were 

whipped if caught in the act of stealing, so Xenophon pleasantly warns Chiriso- 
phus of the consequences of being detected by the enemy in seizing upon the 

16. ^€Lvovs — KXiiTT^Lv rk drj/jLocna, skilful in pecidating the public money. 

Kol .... KXiirrovTi, although the peculator incurs great danger ; lit. and 

that too, when there is such great danger to the one who steals. rovs Kpa- 

TLcrrovs. Chirisophus humorously repays Xenophon for the oa-oi ia-re rwy 
6}xoi(av of § 14. For the construction of vfuv, cf. S. § 206. 4 ; H. § 600. 4. 

17. Toivvv, novj then, therefore. Se corresponds with fx4v, hence nal, 

also, connects Xenophon's declaration that he had guides, with his readiness 

{^TOLfxos) to perform the service here spoken of. KXeairuy. This epithet 

was given to them by Xenophon, because they followed the Greeks for the 
sake of plunder (lY. 5. § 12).—^ — eVeSpevcrayrey denotes the means. S. 

§ 225. 3; H. § 789. b. tovtwv is the gen. of the remote (S. § 192. N. 3; 

H. § 582. 3), and '6ti . . . . opos the accus. of the immediate object of ttvp- 

362 NOTES. [Book IV. 

18. €v Ty SjjLoi^, f, e. in a place as elevated as the one they occupy. — 
els rh Kcrovy i.e. into the plain, where they will contend with us on equal 

19. *A\\d, rather. i^eXoixnoi^ voluntarily. Butt. § 123. 6. 

22. aifTovy i. e. in the very spot where they were. ix6fJL€vo]/ rh ijpos, 

that the mountain (i. e. the part of the mountain to which the detachment was 

sent) was taken possession of, iypTjySpea-av, were watching (S. § 211. N. 

6; H. § 712. a). On the authority of Porson, this reading has been substi- 
tuted by all the more recent editors, for iyp-nySprjcrav, found in the MSS. Cf. 

Butt. Irreg. Verbs, p. '75. eKuioy irvpci, iroWa dia vvkt6s, burned many 

fires through the (whole) night, 

23. Karh, r^u odoVy along the wag. ot $e, i. e. Aristonymus and his 

party. Construct KardKa^Svres with t5 opos^ and iTr/iecray with Kara ra 

&Kpa^ referring to the heights occupied by the enemy. 

2i. rh TToXv. See N. on I. 4. § 13. 6}xov = ^yyvs. Karh. rh &Kpa 

here refers to the eminence occupied by Aristonymus and his associates, and 
which they were leaving (§ 23) to attack the barbarians upon the eminence 
which overlooked the main road. Probably these parties met in conflict about 

midway between the two eminences. tovs ttoWovs, i. e. the main bodies 

of the Greeks and barbarians. 

25. ot iK rod ircdiovy those in the plain, Cf. N. on I. 2. § 18. pdoriy 

rax^-> y^ith quick step, gradu pleno, 

28. ol 67r2 ry 65y, i. e. the main body. t^ ^vca (sc. fiepos) refers to /xi- 

pos 5* avTtaVy § 24. ov itoXKoi, The MSS. read, with two or three excep- 
tions, ol voXKoi. But aside from the nature of the contest, which renders it 
improbable that many were slain, the emendation oh voKKoX is justified by the 
adversative clause, yippa Se irdfiTroWa i\'fi(p^rjy which follows. 


1. 'Efc TouTwv, SC. Tcay kwjuwj/, spoken of in 6. § 27. TaSxovs, Ains- 

worth says that traces of the name of Taochi are supposed to be found in the 
Tank or Taok of the Turks, and the Tuchi or Taoutchie of the Georgian dis- 
tricts. Their country corresponds to that occupied in part by the Suwauli or 

Sughauli Tagh. t^ iirir'fideia eVeAtTre, the provisions failed. When the 

things denoted by the collective noun are taken in the gross, the verb is often 

put in the plural. clxov avaK^Koynffixivoi = avaKeKoixiff^xivoi ^crav with the 

middle signification. Mt. § 493 ; C. § 437. 

2. cvvi\ri\v^6T€5 5* ^(Tav aMcrc, in which had assembled. For the con- 
structio pregnans, see K on I. 1. § 3. — irphs .... rJKcayy as soon as lie tamCy 
attacked it, ^ irpd^rri that were le4 to the attack. oit yh.p ^v a^pSois 

Chap. VH.] NOTES. 363 

'TrepLO'Trivaij for it was not possible to surround it in a body. aAA^ iroTUfjiSs. 

The common reading is aWra^os, which on the authority of Leun., has been 
changed by Zeune and some others to airorafioy^ referring to x^pto;/. But 
why should it be said of such a place, ov yap ^v a^pSois TrepicrTrjvaL ? 

3. Els KaXopy opportunely. x^P'-^^ alpcreov, S. § 1'78. 2; H. §494. 

a; K. § 168. 2. 

4. ipcaruvTos rl rh kcoXvov e'lrj efVeAjS-eiV, inquiring what it was which hin^ 
delved them from entering ; lit. what the hindrance to their entering might be. 

For the construction of the infin., see S. § 222. 6 ; H. § '764. b. ovtw Sm- 

Ti3-6Tttf, is thus served. "k^ia S* eSetfe, and at the same time he showed. 

5* ^AAo .... irapLcvatj is there any thing else whatever which can hinder 
our approach ? 6,\\o ri ij ; lit. what else is there than =z is it not true ? Cf. 
K on 11. 5. § 10. 

6. ^aXKofxivovs^ exposed to danger from the stones. rovrov .... ix^yd- 

Xais^ of this (distance) as much as a plethrum (is) thickly covered with large 
pine trees (standing) at intervals^ i. e. in groups, irirvo'i shows in what respect 
dacrv is to be taken. C. § 418. 3. w^* wr, behind which. 

T. Avrh hu — rh Seov etr], this would be the very thing we want. kvaXca- 
covoL follows in the indie, because it denotes the certain result of their prodi- 
gal waste of stores. The protasis, el ^ipwvTai at \i^oi iroTO^oi, is to be men- 
tally supplied. 'A\Aa, 7iow then. ey^ey. See N. on II. 3. § 6 (end). 

fjLLKpov Tij i. e. rh \onrhy TifxiirKebpoy^ § 6. 

8o /fo^* cVa, one by one. eKacros (pv\aTT6jJL€vos. Cf. I^. on I. 8. § 27. 

10. fx-nxO'Varal ri, made use of a kind of stratagem. u<^* ^, under 

which = behind which. euTrerws, easily. irXioy is the grammatical, 

and irXioy .... irerpuy is the logical subject of ayTjXlcrKoyro. 

11 • rhv KaXki^axov & eiroiei = ravra c( 6 KaAAi/xaxos iiroUi, For the pro- 

lepsis, see N. on I. 2. § 21. irapa^pd/xoL refers to Agasias. X<^P" ^^^ 

6 'Ayaa-ias for its subject to w^hich avrhs (alone) refers. Cf. S. § 160. N. 5; 
H. § 680. 

12. iTTiXafi^dyerai avrov rris 'irvos^ lays hold of his shield-rim. S. § 192. 

1 ; H. § 574. b. irdyres yap oZtol k. t. X., for all these were rivals in 

valor. For the gen. after verbs signifying to aim after ^ to strive for, see C. 
§ 373; S. § 193; H. § 577. c. See also N. on II. 1. § 11. Callimachus, 
Agasias, and Aristonymus, are spoken of as rivals, lY. 1. § 27 ; and are proba- 
bly those to whom allusion is made, V. 2. § 11. iplCoyres with one 

another. *ns yap o7ra|, for when once = as soon as. 

13. ojs pirpoyra eauroV, in order to cast himself down, sc. the precipice. 

14. 'O 5', i. e. the barbarian. irdvv oXtyot, very few. 

15. OuToi ^(Tav K. T. X. The order and construction is ovtol ^cav aXKifjL(i>' 

rarot ^y (i. e. rovrcoy oifs) diri?^oy. els X^*P«^> ^^ ^^^^^ quarters. ^c6- 

panas Xiyovs. The linen cuirass was commonly used by the Asiatics (cf. Cyr. 
VI. 4* § 2 ; Plut. Alex.), a defence much inferior to the cuirass of metal worn 

364 NOTES. [Book IY. 

by the Greeks and Romans. irrepvyoiv, ^^ Sunt loricce partes extremes.'''^ 

Kriig. iarpajuL/xiya^ twisted. 

16i fJLaxc('ipop oaou ^vriXfju AaKcaviKriv {= rocrovToyj ocrrj icrrl ^vfjXr] AaKcayi' 

/c^), " a knife about the size of the Spartan small sword^ Uv — iiropevovroy 

would march about, Cf. N. on 'dv^ I. 3. § 19. airoTCfjLj/ovTcs av ras Kecpa- 

Xas ^xoyres iTropcvoyro, they would cut off their heads and carry them away, 
Jelf (§ 429. 3) cites this as an example of the pres. particip. with Uv used for 

the iterative imperf. with &v. oirSre .... ifx^XXov, whenever (they thought) 

the enemy would see them. [xiav xSyxw- The Grecian spear often had at 

the lower end a pointed cap of bronze, which being forced into the ground, 
the weapon was made to stand erect. Cf. Virg. XII. 130. 

•18. "hpTvaffov. Supposed to be the northern branch of the Arras, now 
called Arpa-chai. Ainsworth doubts its identity with this river, and with Col. 
Chesney and Layard thinks that Xenophon applies the name to the river now 
called Juruk-su, and which in later times was called Asparus and Acampsis. 

'Zkv^ivwv. Kiepert thinks that the Scythini may be the same as the 

Hesperitse who dwell in the valley of Dschoroch. 

19. Tvfxvias is considered by Rennell to be the same with the Comasour or 
Coumbas, a large village situated on the northern bank of the Arras, about 35 
miles below its source. 

21. ©-hxn^i Theches^ now called Takiya Tagh, lying between the Juruk-su 
and the Kurash Tagh. 

22. cp'f}^7}(ray, 1 aor. pass, of o'lofjiai. yippa — dao'eicoy ^owy. Cf. yippa 

K^vKUiV ^ocoy dcLO'ea, Y. 4. § 12 ; and more fully Kap/Bdriyai TreiroirjfJLevai c/c ruy 
yeoddpTcoy ^oooy^ 5. § 14. 

23. ol ael iirioyTes^ those for the time being coming up = as fast as they 

came up. cttI tovs aei ^oooyraSy to those who were continually shouting, 

Koi TToXAy .... iyiyyoyTOy and the shouting became greater as the num- 
bers increased. AteT^oi' Tf, something greater than of ordinary occurrence. 

21. Ka:, and so. QdXarra, This was the Pontus Euxinus, now called 

the Black Sea. Perkins (Resid. in Persia, p. 100) says that he was unable to 
obtain a view of the Euxine on any summit he crossed within ten or twelve 
miles from the village of Tekeh, near which it is supposed the Greeks crossed 

the Teches. Trapeyyvtayrcay to those in the rear, that they should hasten 

on. ra viro^vyia T^Xavyero, See N. on rck cTrtr^Seia eTreAtTre, § 1. 

25. wepie^aXXoy aWi^Aous, they began to embrace one another. otov 

is attracted to an omitted antecedent, the verb of the complementary clause 
being omitted == some one^ whosoever it might have been^ suggestitig it. Ren- 
der, some one or other suggesting it. Cf. Butt. § 149. 

26. /caTeVejuve toi yeppa^ in order to prevent their being afterwards of ser- 
vice to the enemy. 

27# airh Koivovf from the common stock. 

Chap. VHI.] NOTES. 365 


2* otov x^'^^'^^'^^'^^^i ^^tremely difficult of access, otov strengthens the 
superlative. S. § 159. 5; H. § 664. — — 6 opiCcoy, sc. irorafiSs. See the pre- 
ceding section. 5i* ov refers to the boundary river. fihu ov — 5e. Mt. 

(§ 608. p. 1078) says that fxeu ov is often found at the end of a proposition 

followed by another with 5e. Ukotttov. They cut down these trees in 

order to make temporary bridges. See § 8 infra. 

3« Tpixtvovs, made of hair. \lxovs .... ippiTrrovp. By standing on 

these stones thrown into the stream, they hoped to be able to reach the Greeks 
with their missiles. 

5t diaXeyov .... €<(nV, converse (with them) and learn who they are. No- 
tice the continued action of the imperf. diaXeyov, and the momentary action 

of the aor. fjid^e. epcor^cravrosy sc. avTov. See N. on I. 6. § 1. ayri- 

rerdxarai. An Ionic ending for the 3 pers. plur. perf., sometimes adopted by 
Attic writers. S. § 132. 2 ; H. § 353. e. 

6* "On ical vfjL^Ts k. t. X. The koI after on gives this turn to the sentence : 
because you also wish to be our enemies by coming thus against our country. 
The words of the quotation are here without change. 

9. Kara (pd\ayya. Cf. K on IT. 6. § 6. 

10. \6xov5 op^iovs. See N. on lY. 2. § 11. ry fjihi/ — rfi 5e, in 

one place — m another. ^vodoyy difficult of ascent. So cvodoy, easy of 


11. 67ri iroWovs, loith many in depth^ i. e. with depth of column. So 
€7ri oXiyojv signifies, with few in depth^ i. e. with an extended line having 
little depth. Cf. N. on I. 2. § 15. Notice the interchange of cases in 

iiil iroWovs and iirl okiywy. Cf. Mt. § 584. 3- (second paragraph). 

ir^pnT^vcovcnv rjfiuy, will surpass us in extent of line. to7s irepir- 

Tots, i. e. the parts of the line outreaching the Greeks. et de tttj, but 

if in some part. 

12. op^iovs .... Kspdrcovy that having drawn up our columns in separate 
companies^ we should occupy with these columns so much space that the extreme 
companies may he beyond the icings of the enemy. diaKiirSuras belongs to 
op^iovs revs kSxovs. Construct to7s \6xoi5 with Karacx^'^V' S. § 206. 1 ; H. 

§ 607; C. § 417; K. § 161. 3. ocrov—y^viff^ai. See N. on 1. § 5. 

ol etrxaToi \Jxot is in apposition with ^^ets, the omitted subject of iaSfjLc^a. 
Cf. N. on III. 1. § 46. 

13. TO dia\€iiroj/y the interval between the companies. ^y^ey Ka\ ^y^ey. 

See N. on 3. § 28. op^ioy irpoa-iSyra, advancing in column. 

14. iTToiovv op^iovs rohs xSxovs, they threw the companies into columns. 

366 NOTES. [Book IV. 

-oZroiy here. S. § 163. N. 2; H. § 678. a. rh fi^ ij^V ^'tvau The 

common reading is rod jj,'}j ^dr) ehai. Botli readings are admissible. Cf. Mt. 

§ 543. Obs, 3. For /jl^ after iixiroUv, see S. § 230. 3 ; H. § 838. tv^a, 

i. e. Greece. co/movs Set Karatpayelv = we ouglit wholly to destroy, Cf. 

Horn. II. lY. 35, cofxhv fie^pd^^ois Tlpiaixov UpLajLLOid re TraTSes. 

18. Kara rh ^ApKobiKov^ hi the Arcadian division. It appears by this that 
the Arcadians occupied the centre, while Chirisophus and Xenophon, with 

their respective divisions, were upon the right and left wing. rb 'Ap/caSi- 

Khv birKiTiK6vy wv ^px^ KAeaycyp, the Arcadian heavy -armed force ^ whom Clea- 
oior led, "A pron, of reference, referring to a collective, may be in the 
plur." H. § 514. c. 

19. ijp^apTO ^eo', SO. ol ireXrao'Tai, &\\os &\\rj* See N. on &Woi 

^Wo^ey, 1. 9. § 13. 

20. ovdej/ .... €^avfxa(raj/ = there was nothing new*or strange. rwu 

KTjplwy .... crrpaTKorwj/, as many of the soldiers as ate of the honey-combs, 
S. § 191. 1 ; H. § 614, e ; K. § 158. 5. (a). Perkins (Residence in Persia, 
p. 97) says, that " one of the most common bushes of the undergrowth, 
is that from whose flowers this honey is extracted. It is a bush resem- 
bling what is called in America, honey -suckle. ^^ ol fxkv oXiyov ihrfio- 

icoTcs, those who had eaten little. ia-^io) has from eSco the 2 perf. with 
reduplication id'fjBoKa. *'Erom edco came regularly ^Ka; the reduplication 
€d7}Ka would not have been a true one ; the second 5, therefore, which other- 
wise must have been lost before the termination, was separated from the k 
by the o ; and as Ka is a pure termination, this was following the true analo- 
gy." Butt. Lexil. No. 21. p. 140. cr^S^pa fie^vova-iv icfKccrav (S. § 211. 

N. 6 ; H. § 712), were like men very drunk. ol 5e iroXv. Supply cStjSo- 

k6t^s €c6K€(rav from the preceding proposition. 

21. &(nrep rpoir7}s yeyej/r]juL€V7]s, as if there had been a defeat, Cf. S. 

§226. a; H. §790. d; K. §152. R. 2; C. § 679./. ^ficpl . , . , hvc- 

(ppSvovv, almost the same hour^ in which they had been seized the previous 
day, they began to recover their senses, afxcpl — ttou, somewhere about ^=. 

22. Tpair^^ovvra, Trapezus^ now called Trebizond, situated about 600 
miles from Constantinople, on the great highway between Europe and Cen- 
tral Asia. Tttis Twv K6Xx<au Kdoiiais is epexegetical of ivrav^a. 

24. 'Zvv'Bi^TTpdTTovTo .... KoXx^Vi they negotiated with (the Greeks) in 
behalf also of the neighboring Colchians, 

25. Inavoi, sufficient in number. ey^-ctTrep, where^ is a relat. adv. re- 
ferring to opci. irah %ti lov^ while yet a boy. 6.Ktav, unintentionally, 

iiriixeX7j^?]uai depends upon clXovro. 

2G. oTTov .... ei?7, to the place lohere he had prepared the course. • 

iy (TKXripo} KoX Zatrel ovrca, in a place thus rough and bushy. The wrestlers 
usually contended on ground that was soft or covered with sand. yiaX\6p 

Ghap. Vm.] NOTES. 367 

ri avid(T€Tai 6 Karair^ffuVy he that falls will suffer somewhat more. To the 
disgrace of being thrown, there would be an additional inducement to avoid 
a fall, from the danger of being hurt thereby. 

27. a-rddioy. The foot-race course at Olympla was just a stadium. Hence 
the word is used to designate not only a measure of length, but a race- 

ground^ foot-race^ &c. ^6\ixov. The ^6\ixo5 is differently stated at 6, 

7, 8, 12, 20, and 24 stadia. Cf. Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 894. 
erepoiy sc. ijyoifvi^oyTo, Kari^Tjcrav = entered the lists. 

368 NOTES. [Book V. 


!• ^dXarrau is rendered definite by the adjunct r^v iu t$ Ev^ducp U6uTep» 

h ev^avTo, See III. 2. § 9. crooT'fjpiay thanksgiving sacrifices, 

K6y(^. See N. on III. 1. § 1. 

2. eA6|€j/ — e<^77. See K on lY. 1. § 20. airelprjKa ijdrj, I have now 

become tired. The causes of his fatigue are denoted in the participles which 
follow. The Koi which accompanies each of these participles, gives emphasis 

to the enumeration. iravffd^^vos — irSvcoj/. Cf. S. §§ 197. 2; 209. 2; H. 

§ 580. 1; 688. 1. iKra^els (1 aor. pass. part, of iicTeivoo)^ stretched out 

= lying at ease. ^ffirep ^Odvcrcrevs. Cf. Odyss. XIII. 116. 

4« 7re^iJ/77T€ jU€ to Anaxibius. He was then at Byzantium, See YII. 
1. § 3. 

5» M 7r\o7a, for ships. See N. on iiri, II. 3. § 8. Kaiphs — iroieiy. 

S. § 222. 3 ; H. § 767 ; C. § 620. b. iv ry jlloi/?}, during our stay = while 

we remain here. *6tov o}V'f]ff6}i^ba. Cf. N. on III. 1. § 20. 

7» irpoyofjiaiSy ^ Regular foraging parties?'' Belf. ^A\ws, heedlessly. 

So Hesych. defines ^XKws • ixaTalws, ws ervx^y. rj/xaSf i. e. the generals. 

8. "'En Toivvv^ now still further. Having gained their assent to his first 
proposition, he goes on to offer an additional item of advice. ydp^ doubt- 
less. Tj^up .... i^i€i/ai. = iKe7vov ts jueAA-ei e^iivai ciireiu rjfuj/. 5e koI 

oTTot^ and also whither he is about to go. idu ris rcou aireiporepcay, if any 

one of the more inexperienced. The object of the comparison is frequently 
implied. icp* ots = tovtwv e^)' ovs. The plural form oilaffiv is refera- 
ble to the collective idea of tis. 

9. 'Ej/yo6?T6 56 Koi Tohe^ considcr this also. toi. iKeivwv, their effects, 

€/c6tVctfy refers to the Colchians whose forces had been routed on the moun- 
tains, and whose well-stocked villages the Greeks had plundered. Cf. IV. 8. 
§ 19, et seq. Kara ixipos^ by turns. b-qp^v^ literally, to hunt^ to cap- 
ture as a hunter his game. But as game is often taken by snares, toils, &c., 
this verb often signifies to take or overcome by stratagem. 

10. wy, i.e. iKeiucav a, avrS^ej/ = from, the people in this region. 

*Hi/ fiey yap cA^^p, for if he comes with ships. Opposed to this is 4au Se 

P-h ayrj^ if he brings none. iu ar^^ovwripois (sc. irXolois)^ in a greater num- 
ber of ships, Tots iy^dde = such as we find or can procure here. 

Chap. U.] NOTES. 369 

11. fiaKpa 7r\o7a, ships of war; literally, long ships ^ in distinction from 
the round merchant ships {(rrpoYyvKa ttXolo)^ which were better adapted to car- 
rying freight than to quick sailing. KaToiyoi/xcv, we should bring into port, 

ra irrjBdXia irapaXvofi^yoty takifig away the rudders in order to prevent 

the sailors from escaping, if they should wish to do so. The vn^dxiov was like 
an oar with a broad blade, and instead of being attached directly to the stern, 
was placed on one side of it. Each ship had commonly two rudders, which, 
if the vessel was small, were held by the same steersman. 

12» vavKov (Tvy^ea^ai, to agree with them for the passage-money. In this 
proposal we see the same regard for the demands of justice which character- 
ized the whole conduct of Xenophon. 

13. 'V ^pa, if then. See N. on II. 4. § 6. Tas o^ovs — oSoiroieTj/, to 

repair the roads. ipTei\aa-^ai is the subject of 5ok6?. dia . . , , airaXr 

Kayrjvai, through fear and a desire to he rid of us, S. §§ 197. 2; 177. 3; 
H. §§ 580. 1 ; 553. a. 

14. aycKpayoy, they cried out. tV acppoffvyrjf their want of considera- 
tion in deciding not to proceed by land. iirexp'^cpia'e ixkv ouSeV, put nothing 

(pertaining to travelling by land) to vote. He prudently waved for the present 

the consideration of that point. ^Kovcasy voluntarily, airaWd^ovTai 

= fut. pass. S. § 209. K 5. b; H. § 694. c. 

15. ireploiKoi/. For a full and satisfactory account of the position in the 
Spartan state, occupied by the irepioiKoiy Periceci^ see Smith's Diet. Gr. and 

Rom. Antiq. p. 739. Ovros .... 4x^'^^i ^^ /^^' /rom collecting (literally, 

neglecting to collect) ships^ he went away. iroXvTrpayfjt.oywu ri = intermed- 
dling with a certain affair in which he had no concern. aire^avey, died = 

was killed. C. § 295. 

16. To7s dh . . , . irapaycoyfiy, they used (i. e. had in readiness for using) the 
ships for transporting the army homeward. 


1. SxTTC airav^fMeplCeiv, so as to return the same day. Api\as. Dan- 
ville says that this region is now called Keldir. ore iKwcirTUKores^ inas- 
much as they had been driven out of 

2. avTOLs refers to the people occupying the region suggested to the mind 
of the reader by 6TT6^ev, 

3. birola .... i/jLirnrpavT^s^ the Drilians setting fire to such places as they 
thought pregnable. ifxTrnrpdin^s, pres. act. part, of ifjLTrlirp'nfii. For the omis- 
sion of /x in 'irlijL'irpTjfjLi, when in composition another jx stands before the first 
syllable of the verb, see S. § 133, sub voce irlfxirK'nixi. 

5. am^€fi\'nfjL4yij, The verb ava^aWw signifies to throw itp^ as earth from 


370 NOTES. [Book V. 

a ditch. Hence the phrase to throw up a ditch = to dig a ditch or trench. 

Cf. Thucyd. IV. 90. § 2. ava^oXris^ mound; literally, a throwing up^ as 

earth, stones^ &c. Upon this bank or mound formed from the earth thrown 

out of the ditch, sharp stakes were driven and other defences erected. 

• ^vKivai ireTTOLTj/uLcj/ai, made of wood, ol Se, i. e. the enemy. 

6i €<|)* evos. The place of descent to the ravine was so narrow, that the 

soldiers were obliged to pass along one by one. %s = 'lya^ in order that^ 

that. H. § 822. 

8. ws . . . . x^P^'^^i ^^^^ i^^ hope of being able to take the place. On ws, 

cf. N. on I. 1. § 10. t(.v gives to the participle potentiality. See N. on I. 

1. § 10. 

9» cLirdyeiu. Repeat robs dia^el^TjKSTas. aTToSeSety^iteyoi ^cau = perf. 

mid. Mt. § 493. Ka\6v^ fortunate^ successful. 

11. ws . . . . aywj/ieTa-^ai. Opportunity was thus given for the daring deeds 
which the rivalry of these captains (cf. TV. 1. § 27 : 'T. § 9) would prompt 
them to perform on such an occasion as this. 

12. dirjyKvXwixeyovs. Cf. N. on lY. 3. § 28. In regard to the construc- 
tion, see N. on XafiSura^ I. 2. § 1. us — aKOPTiC^iy Sc'/Jcoy, since it will be 

necessary to throw the javdins. tovtuv iir ifjL^KTj^rjvaL =: to see that these 

orders were obeyed. 

ISa 01 a^iovj/res .... eTj/at, those who thought themselves not inferior 

to these (i. e. their leaders). ix-qvoeiBiis^ curved like the moon^ crescent- 

shaped^ so that the wings faced each other. 

14. ^(Tav 5e oV, there were some who. S. § 172. K 2 ; H. § 812; C. 
§ 527. 3. 

15. 'aWos &\\oy efA^c, one drew up another. aua^e^'fjKet without as- 
sistance. 7?Ad;/c6f. S. §207. N. 2; H. §447. 1; K. §150.2. d)s 

e5(^/c6i, as they thought. 

17. Ou . . . . yevoixivov^ not a long time intervening = in a short time. 

ol fily .... reTpco/jLet/oSj some having the booty which they tooky and some (not 
many) being even womided perhaps (raxa). rh here = Tivh. 

18. VLKooffi .... cj^ovfjLevot, thoso wlthln (i. e. at ireXrao'Tal koI ol if/ihoL^ 
§ 16), being pushed (by those rushing in from without), drove back (yiKcc<n) the 
enemy who were sallying forth. Dind. reads ol ei(rco^oviJL€voi. This would 
make rovs iKiriirrovTas refer to the Greeks who were retreating from the fort. 

It). i^^KoixicravTOy sc. avrd. Mt. §428. 2; Butt. § 131. 5. iirX t)]v 

^Kpav (pipovaavy leading (a tropical use of (pepco) to the citadel. 

20. ia-nSirovy^ viewed, has reference to the external act, (rKoirov^epois, con- 
sidering, to the corresponding internal or mental action. C. § 560. 1. 

oT6y r eiri. Cf. K on I. 3. § 17. ovrco (i. e. if they took the citadel) is 

opposed to &\\(as. iraj/rdTracriv avaKcaTov, in all respects impregnable. 

21. ac^oSoy, retreat. rovs fxlv CTavpovs, k. t. \. They took away the 

stakes, each in front of himself (/ca^-* avroTus), in order to facilitate the egress of 

Chap. HI.] NOTES. 371 

the army. rohs axp^tovs^ the disabled for fighting. These with the greater 

part of the oirKtrai were sent forward, while a few of the bravest remained be- 
hind to cover the retreat. 

22. iirl ras ol/ctas. The flat roofs of eastern houses furnished great facili- 
ties for doing injury to an enemy in the streets below. 

23. <{)o^epd. An epithet, which might well be applied to a night spent by 
the Greeks in such a place. 

24. oTov 5^. Cf. N. on lY. V. § 25. eV 5€{t$ = M de^id, Cf. VI. 4. 

§ 1. See also Butt. Lexil. No. 49. 

25. T7)s rvxnsy casu quodam, is here opposed to irpSuoia, forethought, pre- 
vious calculation, 

26. (TTo/jLaj the front, efa— rwv jSeAwj/, otct of reach of the enemy's 

weapons. afjL(pl ravra exoteVy might be employed about these things^ i. e. 

the fires which were consuming their dwellings. 

28. Trpai/^s yap ^v Koi arrej/'f}. A hill overhangs Trebizond called Bas 
Tepeh, i. e. Azure Hill, ypevdspe^pav, a false ambuscade, 

29. vpo(r€iroi€iTO .... Xav^dveiv, pretended to be trying to escape the notice 
of the enemy, rovs '7ro\€fxiovs depends on Xaj/^dyetu, S. § 184. N. 2 ; H. 
§ 544. a; K. § 121. 13. 

30. ws ipedpav ovcraj/y as though it loere a real ambuscade, Cf. N. on I. 1. 
§ 2. vireXrjXv^ij/ai, sc. rovs "E?sM]j/as, 

31. a\ia'K€<r^ai, yhp i<pa<Tav r$ dpSiMciy, Portus, with the approbation of 
Schneid. and Poppo, gives to i(pa(xav the sense of Uv ^ovto. But the context 
shows that the idea of speaking^ relating^ is to be retained in the verb. Kriig. 
explains it : ecpacray (on their return to the camp) : TiXicrKSfie^a (t'.v) T<p Bpofx^j 
the protasis et fi^ i^cirea-oix^y e/c Trjs odov bein^ omitted. Cf. S. § 215. 3 ; 
H. § Y62. 

32* iid irSdUf backwards. A military expression. 


1. eh fi€V Tcb vXoia is opposed to at Se ^AAot iirop^iiovrOy SC. we^. The 
arrangement is slightly confused. 

2. Kepacovvra, This has generally been considered the same place as 
Kerason, lying S. W, of Trebizond. But Hamilton finds its site at the rivulet 
of Kirasun Darah-su, about eight miles from Cape Yurus and not quite forty 

from Trebizond. rpiraToi^ on the third day. See N. on crKorouoty II. 2. 

§ 17. 'ZivwTriwv &iroiKov, a Sinopian colony, 

3. iv T0L5 oirKois (sc. irdvT(av fully Written, Cyr. II. 4. § 1), o/" all in arms, 

€/c rwv afjL<f>l robs fivplovs, out of about ten thousand, airdoXoyrOf were 

destroyed. The mid. of some verbs supplies the place of the pass. tt ris 

"is used," says Mt. (§ 617. 1./), " elliptically without a verb for the simple 

372 NOTES. [Book V. 

rlsf &c., only with an expression of doubt." Here the sense is, now and 
then one, 

4« diaXafi^dyovci .... y€j/6fj.€yoy, they divided the money raised from the 

sale of captives. dieXa^ov .... ^eoTs, a7id the generals took each a part, 

to keep for the gods (i. e. Apollo and Diana), (pyxdrr^iv depends upon ^Uxa- 
fiop. S. § 222. 5 ; H. § 765. 

5. ayd^7}/xa, a votive offering. Persons frequently testified their gratitude 
to the gods for some deliverance, by anathemata^ consisting of shields, chap- 
lets, golden chains, candlesticks, &c. ^7}(ravp6v, depository. The ^ricav 

pol at the temple Delphi contained the presents or dedications of the nation or 
tribe, expressed by the adnom. gen. 

6* €t Se Ti ird^oi = if he should die. By a similar euphemism we say, * if 
any thing should befall me ; ' * if I should never return.' 

T. ecpvyey. Laertius says that Xenophon was banished iirl AaKcavi(rfjL$, i. e. 

on account of his alleged adherence to the Lacedaemonian interests. 2/cf A.- 

\ovuTiy Scillus in Elis, where Xenophon composed most of his literary produc- 
tions. ^cojp'fja'oov, in order to see the games. avu\ey, sc. uveiar^ai from 

the preceding clause. 6 ^eSs, i. e. Apollo. 

8. SeAiyouy (contr. from :S€A£y(^ets) is properly an adj., signifying abound^ 

ing in parsley. irdvrwv bir6(Ta iarXv ayp^vSiJi^va. ^rjpia = irdpTtov rwv ^rj- 

pioup oirScra aypcvoprai {are usually hunted). 

9t ^eKarevcop, consecrating a tenth part. clpaTa = iKe7pai & at wpaL 


11. y . . . . TTopevopraif where they go from Zacedcemon to Olympia = on 

the road that leads from, &c. us (about) e'lKocri crddioi is the predicate of 

^a-rt. "Epl = ^pecrri. S. § 234. d; H. § 615. a; C. § 653. e. 'd\a"n 

.... fxea-rd. The Greeks cultivated their sacred groves with much care, al- 
though ornamental horticulture seems not to have received much attention 
from them, probably owing to the small number of flowers with which they 

were acquainted. Cf. Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 489. uxttc 

.... evwxeTo-^ai, so that the beasts of those (persons) going to the festival have 
an ample supply of food. 

12« riiiipwp, cultivated, bearing fruit. depdpwp depends upon icpv- 

re{>^7]. S. § 200. 3 ; H. § 575 ; C. § 357. a. Hca icrrl rpcoKTa &pa7a, 

such as when ripe m.ay be eaten raw, viz. apples, nuts, &c. ws fMiKphs ^e- 

yd\a), as far as a small (temple can be compared) with a great (one). 

13. TON AE EXONTA — KATA0TEIN. S. § 223. 6 ; H. § 784; C. § 625. 


2t Moaro'vpoiKcap, of the Mossyncecia7is ; literally, dwellers in wooden towers 
(fi6ar(rvp, a wooden tower ; oiKiw, to dwell). els avToh, See N. on I. 3. 

Chap. lY.] NOTES. 373 

§ 5. TpS^evov. The proxenus was a person who officially watched over 

the interests of all persons coming from the state connected by hospitality. 
The office was very similar to that of a modern consul or minister-resident. 

Cf. Smith's Diet. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. p. 491. oVt oh di'fja'OLeu (3 pers. 

plur. fut. opt. of diirjfjiijj that they would not permit (the Greeks) to pass 

3* avToTs refers to the Mossynoecians who were hostile to the Greeks. 

01 ifc Tov iireKeiya (i. e. eV iKe7ya, S. § 135. 3), they who dwelt beyond these j 

" those of the country beyond^ Crosby. iKcivovs, i. e. the more remote 

MossyncBcians. el ^ovXoivto. Cf. K on lY. 1. § 8. 

5* ^La(ro)^rivai irphs rhv *EAAa5a, to reach Greece in safety. ovtoi refers 

to the hostile Mossynoecians. 

7. Ei Se 7] acp-fjo'ere, hut if you send us away^ i. e. reject our pro- 

9. "Kyere 5?i, well then. xp'^^^^^^h sc. rjfuu elicited from the pre- 
ceding 7]fiwy. vfjLeTs .... diodov, will you be able to co-operate with us some- 
what in respect to the passage ? 

lOt oTi iKavoX laixh^ we are able. oVt here introduces a direct quota- 
tion. S. § 213. 1 ; H. § ^738. b. ela-^dWeip limits iKayoL e/c rod iirl 

^drepa (i. e. t^ erepo), on the other side. 

11. 'EttI TovTois, upon these conditions. ixovo^vKa.^ canoes. wv ot 

fjikv ^vo—6 5e efy, of whom two — but the other (lit. the one). 

12. w(nrep OL x^P^h ^^ bands of dancers. avTiffroixovvres h.70<^)\ois, 

drawn up in rows facing one another. yippa. — KevKojj/ ^ouv daaeay shields 

made of the hides of white oxen with the hair on. Cf. N. on I. 8. § 9 ; lY. 7. 
§ 22. ey t5} Se|£a, sc. x^^P^* 

13. Traxos .... G'TpwfjLaTodea'iJLoVy aboict the thickness of a linen sacJc^ in 

which bed-clothes are packed. These sacks were often made of leather. 

Kpca^uXov^ a tuft of hair drawn up from all sides of the head, and fast- 
ened in a bow at the top. caydpeis^ double-edged battle-axes. 

14* iy pu.^jLt^, in time. iirifjLaxcaTaTou, very easy to be taken. 

15. rh cLKporaToVj " castellum in celsissimo loco situm.^'' Kriig. 6 TroAe- 

fjLos ^v among the Mossynoecians. ol yap ael tovt* exoyres^ for those who^ 

for the time being ^ were in possession of this. Cf. N. on III. 2. § 31. 

Koiyhu .... irXeoyeKTeLV^ by seizing on what belonged to them in common^ they 
(i. e. the Mossynoecians hostile to the Greeks) had obtained the ascendency. 

16. Teas, as yet^ i. e. up to the time designated by cttcI in the next clause. 

indpajjioyrss TpiirovroLi avTovs^ sallying forth put them to fiight. The 

issue of this engagement was what might have been expected from so ill- 
concerted an attack. 

1T« yo^Kp TLvi^ a certain measure. 

18. {xolTC oyres (TvxvoL The flight of so many Greeks rendered the defeat 
still more disgraceful. 

374 NOTES. [Book V. 

19. rod KaKov, S. § 198. 1 ; H. § 585. h; C. § 351. yeyevrjraL has 

the sigmfication of the pres. Cf. S. § 211. N. 6 ; H. § ^712. 

20. T$ uvTt, in reality. koI rjfxas avdyKH]^ sc. iroXcfiiovs ehai from the 

preceding clause. ravrd, the same things. S. § 160. 5; H. § 538. b. 

ttTTep after ravTa may be rendered as. tittov .... airoX^iy^ovrai^ they 

mil he less disposed to leave our lines, rd^^cas here refers to the army drawn 
up in a regular order of battle. 

21. Koi ore, as when. S. § 236. K 2 ; H. § 856. c. 

22. cTTci iKa?iXi€p'f}(TauTo, when they had offered a sacrifice attended with 

favorable omens. Kara ravTa, in the same order^ i. e. in columns. 

inroXenro/xeyovs K. r. A., but a little behind the front. 

23. aviffrcWov^ attempted to drive back. Cf. N. on I. 8. § 1, 

24. Tovs fxlv ovv K. T. A, Butt. (§ 137. 4) cites this passage to exemplify 
the use of the imperf. alternately with the aor. whenever the fact narrated is 
to be represented as having had some duration, instead of being momentary 
or transient. See also C. § 570. a. 

28. (pvXdTTovcnv is Brunck's emendation, of which Kriiger says, "justo 
andacior est." It is however approved by Porson, Dindorf, and Bornemann. 
The common reading is (pyXdrrovra^ with which it is usual to supply t5 x«- 
piov. The reading suggested by Brunck refers to what Pomp. Mela I. 19. 
says, that the Mossyncecians elect their king, and having closely confined him 
in a wooden tower, punish him for any misconduct by withholding his daily 

food. ouSe 01. Kriig. reads ovoh 6 referring to some inferior ruler, who 

was in the place first taken. 

27. ^7](ravpovs, store-^'ooms^ cells. • v^vT)ixiv($iv^ perf. pass. part, of rew, 

to heap up. Cf. Butt. Irreg. Verbs, p. 180. avv rri KaXdfxr). So we say, 

* grain in the sheaf.' ^(ray Se (eial at vXcicTTaty and the greater part was 


29. Kapva — Tot irXaria {of the broad kind) ovk ^xoma ^uKpv^u ouSe/uloy, 

i. e. chestnuts. Toi5t^ refers to Kapva^ and is put in the singular by a kind 

of attraction with arircp. koI irXeio'Tcp crirep = as iht most usual article of 

food. Kspacr^cisy being mixed^ i. e. diluted with water. 

30. ds rh irpoa-u. See N. on I. 3. § 1. 

31. ava^o6vT(av .... woAews. Credat Judceus Apella. 

32. Tuv evdaifjLoywy = rwy irXovcrKOTarooy. ov iroWov . . • . ^luat^ almost 

equal in thickness and length = nearly as broad as they were long. 

icrriyixivovs avbipnov^ marked (L e. tattooed) with flowers. Such is the usual 
method of interpreting this passage. *'Mihi vera videtur vulgaris interpreta- 
tio." Kriig. For the construction of ay^efiioy^ see S. §§182; 177. 3; H. 
§549; K. § 159. 3. (7). 

33. kraipoLis ah by attraction for iraipais hs. What a revolting picture is 
here furnished of a savage state of society. 

34. airep &v. Supply from the context iroi'/ja'aa]/ ^y^poQiroi, awep = 

Chap. Y.] NOTES. 375 

iK^ivois, oTrep, of which the antecedent limits ^fioia, S. § 202. 1 ; H. § 603. 
2; C. §687. 


2» iroKxf ^v Tredivwrepa than the country through which the Greeks had 

previously passed. ovrj^qyai tz, might derive some advantage = might 

obtain some booty, ovaa^ai is the more usual form. Cf. Butt. Irreg. Yerbs, 
p. 189. 

3* on .... 'TToAejuo;/, that the gods hy no means permitted the war, 

KoTvcypa, Cotyora, Hamilton identifies the site with a place now called Ordu 
or Urdu. In this Col. Chesney concurs. airoUovs refers to iroKiTas im- 
plied in ir6\tv. Cf. N. on II. 1. § 6. 

4* M.€xpi5 it/rav^a^ thus far. iiri^evo'ev^ travelled on foot iu Ba- 

fivXwyi, i. e. in the vicinity of Babylon. fiaxos. Cf. N. on II. 2. § 6. 

eixpt ct^. So we have eart iiri^ lY. 5. § 6 ; juexpfs ets, YI. 4. § 26. 

Xpovov 7rA.f^3-os, space of time. 

5* ayiavas yvfxviKovs. The persons who engaged in these gymnic games, 
were either entirely naked or covered only with the short x'tc^j'. 

7. re before irSXeoos corresponds with koI in koI irepl t7]s x^P^^' ^^^' 

pov, Notice the change of subject from 77 iz6Kls to oi TroKlTai. ^eivhs — 

Kiyeiv. See N. on 11. 6. § 15. 

8t re after iTraiuia-oyras is in correspondence with ^ireira 5e in the next 

member. (rvuTja^o'ofjLeyous, to congratulate you. dia TroAAwj/— cecw- 

(T/jLcyoi, having been preserved through (= from) many, &c. 

10. ^i6, for 5t* 0, wherefore. Butt. § 115. N. 5. 

11. vfjLas—iviovs = vficov iviovs. Mt. § 319 ; C. § 360. 2. 

12. TaOr' odv ovk a^ioOfxey, now we think that these things are unbecatning. 

ovK a^L6cD = avd^ioi/ tl elvai <p7jjjn. Mt. § 608. 1. <pi\ov troicio'^aL est sibi 

alicujus amicitiam conciliare, at (piXov iroieTu est alteri alicujus amicitiam 
conciliare.''^ Zeune. 

13. virip, for, in behalf of ayairoovTes, contented. 

14. a^y uv. Cf. N. on I. 3. § 4. -rXs — rovTcav. See N. on I. 4. § 8. 

15. oTToiwv Tivav rjfjLwv irvxov, what kind of men they found us to be. Cf. 
Mt. § 328. 5. 

16. Construct Uv before ^X^ovres with ex^Atey. tv re — &j/ re, whether 

— or. -ovx ^^p^tt not from wantonness. 

IT. cpo^epovs, fearful to be encountered. 

IS. Twj' iKciycoVy of those things which were theirs, iK^lvoov depends upon 
ruv. Cf. Mt. § 380. Obs. 2. 

19. KoTucyp^ras. It is usual to explain this accus. by quod attinet ad, as it 
respects the Cotyorians, But Matthias (§ 427. Obs. 3) regards such accusa- 

376 NOTES. [Book V. 

tivea as resulting from the interruption of the proposition by a parenthesis, 
after which it is resumed with a different construction. With this explanation, 
Born, in his note on this passage substantially concurs. Cf Mt. § 631. 1. 
The best and most simple solution, however, is to regard Korvoopiras as put in 
the accus. by inverted attraction with its relative oiis, Cf. S. § 1*75. 2 ; H. . 
§809; K. § 182. 6. "I, 

20. *0 Se A676fs, as to what you say, Cf. Mt. § 478. av€a)yoy. S. 

§ 93. 1 ; H. § 312. ra kavrwv SairaycouTes^ being at their own charges, 

21. Oi Be 'dWoi is in apposition with 7}fjL€7sy the omitted subject of tr/cr^yoi/- 
fiey. virai^pioi^ in the open air. See N. on (tkotoloi^ II. 2. § 17. 

22. *A Se 7jir6i\rj(ra5 refers to what is detailed in § 12 supra. <f>l\ou 

TTQi'ha'oii^v. The difficulty suggested by the criticism of Zeune (see N. on § 12 
supra), may be avoided by constructing tj^juv with this clause. So Born, and 

Poppo. Thv Ua.^Kay6va^ i. e. Corylas, who at that time governed Paphla- 

gonia. Cf. YI. 1. § 2. 

24* Tois €lp7}p.€vois, sc. vtt' avTov. Tovs iv^d^e, i. e. the Cotyorians. 

25* cTTiT^Seta, things of mutual interest, rd re d?iKa /cat, especially; 

literally, among other things. Butt. § 150. p. 441. 


1* Tre^^ by land, opposed to Karci, ^dXarrav, c/JLiretpoty acquainted 

with. For the genitive Ua<t>\ayoyiaSj see N. on direipoi avTuv^ III. 2. § 16. 
ItcavoL — irapaax^'tv, able to furnish, Uv belongs to ^hai, 

2. "EXK7)vas oPTas *'E\\7](n. Cf. S. § 239. 4. "EWrjcri depends upon eu- 

vovs. rovTcp refers to t65 . . . . cvix^ovXeveiy, by being friendly to the Greeks 

and giving them the best advice, 

3» oTi ovX' . . . e'/TTot, ''Uhat he said what he did, not because they were 
going to make war upon the Greeks?^ S. § 226. a; H. § 790; K. § 176. 2 ; 

Goodwin, § 110. N. 1. l\6v, while it was in their power, S. § 226. a 

(accus. absolute) ; H. § 792. a. 

4« iroWd fjLOL Kaya^ct yivoiTO, may many good things be to me = may 

I be prospered. avTij yhp .... irap^'ivai, " i. e. tanti momenti res agi- 

tur ut nunc potissimum illud Uphp rj cv/x^oX^ cogitandum esse videa- 
tur." Kriig. 

5. Tjfias .... iropi^eiv, for we shall be under the necessity of furnishing you 

with ships. ^v — o'TeAA.ryo'^e, if you set out. Por citations in proof of this 

sense of the pass. crr4\\oixai, see Carmichael, Gr. "Verbs, p. 264. 

6» Ae/fTea h yiyvtacTKO) = Set fxe \4yeiv iKupa h yLyvdoCKCo. 

7. ^ §, than where. ra Kepara, the horns, i. e. the points or projections 

of the mountain. Kpareiv, to defend, ■ ot irdvTQS (JLV^pwiroi, all the men 

Chap. YL] NOTES. 377 

everywhere ; or, as we say, all the men in the world. On the force of the arti- 
cle before iravr^s, cf. Mt. § 266. 

8t iiTTreiay. The Paphlagonians were distinguished for their skill in horse- 
manship and for their excellent cavalry. On these plains, to which Hecatony- 

mus refers, cavalry could act to great advantage. {xu^ov (ppov^Tj is too 

haughty to obey the summons of the king. 

9» Q^piidi^ovTa, On the banks of this river, now called Thirmah-su, the 

Amazons were located by the poets. oiXKdjs re Kai^ especially. '^Ipiv, 

This river is now called Yishil Irmak- "AXvu, The Halys^ now called 

Kizil Irmak, like the Thermodon and Iris, rises in the mountains of Armenia, 
and after flowing westerly a considerable distance, takes a north-easterly direc- 
tion and empties into the Euxine. ws S* clvtws = wcavrcas de. 6 Uap- 

^ivios. The Greeks derive the name of this river from the fondness of Diana 
to hunt along its banks. 

10» ov xaA-cTT^y, not difficult merely. So Cicero, Arch. Poet. 4. 8, "qui se 
non opinari, sed scire," &c. 

11. Oi dh odu, Cf. N. on I. 8. § 5. 

12« oDVw S' exez, hut it is thus, i. e. the matter stands thus. et filu 

.... cv^dde, if ships are to be furnished sufficient in number, so that not a 

man is left here, €t Se . . . . KaTa\€l\l/e(T^ai (= KaraXcLcb^a-ea-^ai. S. § 209. 

3. b ; H. § 412. b), but if some of us are to be left behind, 

13* iu aySpairodccy x^P^i ^^ ^^^ situation of slaves = we shall be reduced 
to servitude. 

15» iKavovs, skilfid, well-disciplined. ovk. clv aif* oKiyosv xpW^'^^'^i 

not at small expense z= not without great expense. roo'avTTj dvi/afiis, so 

great a force as the one now there, viz., the Greek army. avr$ refers to 

aeyocpwyri, which is separated by intervening clauses from idoKet upon which 
it depends. Tr6\iv KaroiKicravTas, having founded a city. From the ex- 
pression Xa^ovras 'irSXiv, § 30 infra, it would seem that Xenophon had in 
mind the occupation and enlargement of some city then existing, perhaps 

16» avTwu refers to the Greek army, rovs irepioiKovj/Tas to the Greeks living 
in Pontus. 

17. cavTcp is annexed to irepiiroi'fja'aa'^ai f